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17-02-2011, 02:51 PM

.doc   Adjustable Circuit Breaker.doc (Size: 1.21 MB / Downloads: 337)

In a circuit breaker there will be some reference value for which it has to be tripped. But in this ADJUSTABLE CIRCUIT BREAKER we can change the reference value in certain limit this limit depends on the interest of manufacturer.
That is in this project and implimentation we are developing a circuit breaker in which the tripping current can be varied here in this project and implimentation it is fixed between 0.1 A to 1 A.
Circuit Breakers:
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
Operation : All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker.
The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power source.
Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.
The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion due to interrupting the arc. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts are worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts.
When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including:
Standard Current Ratings
International Standard IEC 60898-1 and European Standard EN 60898-1 define the rated current In of a circuit breaker for low voltage distribution applications as the current that the breaker is designed to carry continuously (at an ambient air temperature of 30 °C). The commonly-available preferred values for the rated current are 6 A, 10 A, 13 A, 16 A, 20 A, 25 A, 32 A, 40 A, 50 A, 63 A, 80 A and 100 A (Renard series, slightly modified to include current limit of British BS 1363 sockets). The circuit breaker is labeled with the rated current in amperes, but without the unit symbol "A". Instead, the ampere figure is preceded by a letter "B", "C" or "D" that indicates the instantaneous tripping current, that is the minimum value of current that causes the circuit-breaker to trip without intentional time delay (i.e., in less than 100 ms), expressed in terms of In:
Type Instantaneous tripping current
B above 3 In up to and including 5 In
C above 5 In up to and including 10 In
D above 10 In up to and including 20 In
K above 8 In up to and including 12 In
For the protection of loads that cause frequent short duration (approximately 400 ms to 2 s) current peaks in normal operation.
Z above 2 In up to and including 3 In for periods in the order of tens of seconds.
For the protection of loads such as semiconductor devices or measuring circuits using current transformers.
Types of Circuit Breaker
Front panel of a 1250 A air circuit breaker manufactured by ABB. This low voltage power circuit breaker can be withdrawn from its housing for servicing. Trip characteristics are configurable via DIP switches on the front panel.
Many different classifications of circuit breakers can be made, based on their features such as voltage class, construction type, interrupting type, and structural features.
Low voltage circuit breakers
Low voltage (less than 1000 VAC) types are common in domestic, commercial and industrial application, include:
• MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)—rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Breakers illustrated above are in this category.
• MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker)—rated current up to 2500 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip current may be adjustable in larger ratings.
• Low voltage power circuit breakers can be mounted in multi-tiers in LV switchboards or switchgear cabinets.
The characteristics of LV circuit breakers are given by international standards such as IEC 947. These circuit breakers are often installed in draw-out enclosures that allow removal and interchange without dismantling the switchgear.
Large low-voltage molded case and power circuit breakers may have electrical motor operators, allowing them to be tripped (opened) and closed under remote control. These may form part of an automatic transfer switch system for standby power.
Low-voltage circuit breakers are also made for direct-current (DC) applications, for example DC supplied for subway lines. Special breakers are required for direct current because the arc does not have a natural tendency to go out on each half cycle as for alternating current. A direct current circuit breaker will have blow-out coils which generate a magnetic field that rapidly stretches the arc when interrupting direct current.
Small circuit breakers are either installed directly in equipment, or are arranged in a breaker panel.


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