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06-06-2010, 10:59 PM


Presented By:
K.Seshadri Ramana 2
M.Neelakantappa 3
Assoc.Prof.& Head CSED, S.K.University, Anantapur,AP, India
Asst.Prof. MCA Dept, G.P.R.Engg.College, Kurnool,AP, India
Assoc.Prof.CSEDept, G.P.R.Engg.College, Kurnool,AP, India


Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless
networks consisting of a collection of wireless nodes
with no fixed infrastructure. Nodes in a MANET
participate in forwarding data packets when the two
end-points are not directly within their radio range.
Service discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is an
essential process in order for these networks to be self-
configurable with zero or minimal administrative
overhead. Service discovery can be greatly enhanced in
terms of efficiency (regarding service discoverability
and energy consumption), by piggybacking service
information into routing messages. Thus, service
discovery does not generate additional messages and a
node requesting a service, in addition to discovering
that service, it is simultaneously informed of the route
to the service provider. The extended Zone Routing
Protocol encapsulates service information in its routing
messages. This protocol can be called as E-ZRP. E-
ZRP may be seen as a representative of routing layer
protocols providing service discovery functionality. In
this paper we conduct a sensitivity analysis for service
availability using E-ZRP over various network
conditions. The purpose of this analysis is to measure
the effects of node speed and node density on the
duration of discovered services, when service discovery
is performed in parallel with routing, by a routing layer


Much research has been devoted to Service Discovery
in fixed networks, applied mostly to the Internet. The
emergence of wireless communications and mobile
computing devices has created the need for developing
service discovery protocols and architectures targeted to
mobile environments. Especially, the proliferation of
Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) has introduced
new requirements for service discovery due to the
nature and inherent characteristics of these networks.
MANETs are extremely dynamic due to the mobility of
their nodes, the wireless channel's adverse conditions
and the energy limitations of small, mobile devices.
The great majority of service discovery protocols
developed for MANETs deal with the above issues at the
application layer. The protocols introduced the idea of
extending on demand routing protocols to provide service
discovery support. Application layer service discovery
protocols implementations keep the abstraction layers of
the networking stack intact and thus can be implemented
above any routing protocol. On the contrary, cross layer
service discovery protocols, frequently impose
modifications and/or extensions to the underlying routing
protocol in order to provide their functionality, and hence
are protocol dependent and protocol specific. However,
service discovery can be significantly improved in terms
of reducing communication and battery consumption
overhead, by exploiting routing layer information. The
benefits obtained by such an approach outweigh the
disadvantage of breaking the abstraction layers. The
existing protocols proved that by exploiting service
discovery information provided by the routing layer, the
resulting communication and battery consumption
overheads are significantly reduced. Our approach was to
implement service discovery in the routing layer by
piggybacking the service information into the routing
protocol control messages, thus enabling the devices to
acquire both service and routing information
simultaneously. This way a node requesting a service in
addition to discovering the service, it is also informed of
the route to the service provider at the same time. Smooth
service discovery adaptation to severe network conditions
is now possible since service availability is tightly
coupled with route availability to serving nodes. Hence
when all routes towards a node fail, this is immediately
translated to a loss of service availability for the services
that this node provides.
We extended the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP), which is
a hybrid routing protocol (i.e. proactive for a number of
hops around a node called the node's zone, and reactive
for requests outside this zone), so that it is capable of
encapsulating service information in its messages.
However, a key issue for service discovery protocols for
MANETs, besides energy consumption, is the quality of
the services discovered. With the term quality we refer to
the usability characteristics of a service and not its
inherent characteristics (e.g. precision of the provided
information). The study of the inherent characteristics of
discovered services is beyond the scope of this paper. So,
in order to measure the quality of discovered services we
define a new metric called SAD (Service Availability
Duration), which measures the availability of a
discovered service. SAD is defined as the length of time
that elapses from the moment the service is discovered
until that time when the service is lost, as a result of
mobility or interferences. In the literature, a similar
metric, called Path Duration has been widely used to
measure the impact of mobility on routing protocols for
MANETs. However these studies mainly focus on
reactive routing protocols and do not consider service
discovery. In general a good discovery protocol should be
able to adapt to different network conditions in order to
effectively discover as many long-lived services as
The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of
network density and mobility on the ability to discover
such services. In this paper, we identify the conditions
under which these protocols perform better in terms of
SAD. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
In section II we provide the essential background on
service discovery. In section III we briefly present our
approach of routing layer based service discovery, and in
section IV we provide esults on the impact of mobility
and density on SAD. Finally in section V we provide our
conclusions and discuss our future research directions.


Significant academic and industrial research has led to the
development of a variety of protocols, platforms and
architectures for service discovery. All these approaches
are mainly targeted towards the discovery of services in
fixed infrastructure networks. They are mostly centralized
approaches that assume that reliable communication can
be provided by the underlying network. Most of these
approaches utilize nodes acting as (central) service
directories repositories, where service providers register
the services they offer. Service requestors submit their
queries to these 'special nodes' in order to discover
services and information about the nodes that actually
host these services. It is clear that such assumptions are
not consistent with MANETs' inherent features due to
their volatile nature. This has motivated some recent
approaches in the field. These approaches were developed
for pervasive computing environments. However, only
some approaches take into account battery consumption
and provide related metrics and comparisons, and are
briefly presented in the following paragraphs.
One approach employs a periodic broadcast scheme for
service advertisements. Each node broadcasts the full list
of services that it is aware of in its one-hop vicinity. In
contrast to the aforementioned approaches, it deals with
the problem of energy consumption explic itly, by forcing
weak nodes to go into idle mode during pauses between
broadcasts. However, it is targeted for small networks
SANDMAN (Service and Node Density in Mobile Ad
hoc Network), is another service discovery protocol that
implements power savings. This is done by grouping
nodes with similar mobility patterns into clusters; in each
cluster, one of the nodes (called cluster head) stays awake
permanently and answers discovery requests. The rest of
the nodes periodically wake up to provide the actual
services and also inform the cluster head about their
presence and services. This shows battery savings of 40%
for low numbers of service requests. A key difference of
our approach from those is that we do not expect or allow
the nodes to go into sleep mode, since we target
environments where continuous communication is
necessary. Furthermore, none of the above approaches
comments on the quality of the discovered services. In our
work, we investigate the performance of our protocol in
terms of SAD, under various network conditions. In the
next section we present our approach and justify our
design decisions.


Our motivation for adding routing layer support for
service discovery stems from the fact that any service
discovery protocol implemented above the routing layer
will always require the existence of some kind of routing
protocol for its own use. Hence, two message producing
processes must coexist: the first one communicates
service information among service providers and service
requestors; the second one communicates routing
information among them. Our approach exploits the
capability of acquiring service information along with
routing information (from the same message) by
piggybacking service information into routing messages.
This way, redundant transmissions of service discovery
packets at the application layer are avoided and power is
The idea of providing routing layer support for service
discovery is existing. However,
no experimental
assessment of this proposal is existing until now. As
stated in the introduction we have extended the Zone
Routing Protocol (ZRP), so that it provides service
discovery functionality. This effort uses a hybrid routing
protocol for supporting service discovery. ZRP was
selected because: (a) it is ideal for environments where
local information-either routing or service information-is
of particular interest, as it provides discovery (through the
notion of zones described further on) in a fast and energy
efficient way and (b) it is scalable, as it intelligently
Fig 1: ZRP two-hop zone
propagates information to distant nodes by avoiding
We proceed to describe the ZRP's structure and operation.
ZRP actually consists of three sub protocols, namely:
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP),
through which every node periodically
a "hello" message to denote its presence.
The Intra Zone Routing Protocol (IARP),
Fig 2: ZRP border casting
which is responsible for proactively maintaining
route records for nodes located inside a node's routing
zone (for example records for nodes located up to 2-
hops away). This is depicted in fig.1 where nodes B
to H are inside the routing zone of node A; hence
node A is proactively aware of all the routes to these
nodes through IARP.
The Inter Zone Routing Protocol (IERP),
which is responsible for reactively creating route
records for nodes located outside a node's routing
zone (e.g. records for nodes located further than 2-
hops away).
In ZRP, a node in search of a route towards a node outside
its zone, uni-casts the route request only to nodes located
at the borders of its zone. This method is called border
casting and is depicted in Figure 2. The border nodes
check their IARP tables to find if the requested node is
included in their respective routing zones; if not they also
border-cast the request to their own border-nodes. When
the requested node is found, a reply is uni-casted back to
the node that initiated the request. This way, global
flooding is avoided and distant resources are discovered
in an efficient and scalable manner.


In order to add service discovery capabilities to ZRP we
embedded an extra field in NDP "hello" messages for
storing service IDs. We used the concept of Unique
Universal Identifiers (UUIDs) instead of service
descriptions, keeping packet lengths small for the routing
messages and minimizing the effects on the network (the
bigger the messages the larger the delays and the
possibility of transmission errors). Such an approach
implies that all nodes know a-priori the mappings
between services offered in the MANET and UUIDs. This
is a common assumption and is justified by the fact that
most MANETs are deployed for certain purposes where
there is lack of fixed communication infrastructure (e.g. a
battlefield or a spot of physical disaster). In such
environments, the roles of every participating node are
concrete and can be easily classified in types of services.
For example, in a battlefield one node may offer radar
information to the rest, while another one may offer
critical mission update information. In such environments
the mapping of services to UUIDs is more than sufficient
for service discovery. Semantic matching of rich service
descriptions is of no particular use in these cases, not to
mention that these techniques lead to increased battery
consumption (a scarce and valuable resource in the above
scenarios). Thus, by extending "hello" messages with
service UUIDs, a node is able to denote both its presence
and the services it provides.
ZRP was further modified in order to include service
information in every routing entry of the IARP routing
messages and tables. IARP listens to information gathered
from NDP messages, updates its table and then
periodically broadcasts its table to its neighbors. A node
broadcasting this IARP update packets sets the TTL
(Time To Live) field in these packets equal to its routing
zone diameter, so that they will be dropped at border
nodes. This way each node knows the routes to all the
nodes in its zone and also the services that these nodes
offer; thus adding the service discovery capability to the
proactive part of ZRP.
The extended version of ZRP (henceforth called E-ZRP)
is capable of providing routing layer support for proactive
service discovery. It can be shown through extensive
simulations that our cross-layer implementation
consistently outperforms an application-layer service
discovery scheme based on restricted-area flooding in
terms of battery consumption, both in static and mobile
environments. Our proposed protocol (E-ZRP) leads to
significantly smaller energy consumption (approximately
50% less) and at the same time it manages to discover
almost the same (and in many cases a higher) number of
services. In the following paragraphs we demonstrate the
performance of E-ZRP in terms of SAD under different
network conditions.


A module has been extended in order to provide the E-
ZRP functionality. A basic assumption in our simulations
is that each node hosts a unique service, which can be
provided to other nodes, and runs E-ZRP as its routing
protocol. This was done for simplicity and in order to
facilitate the analysis of the results. At the physical and
probability for a path break is larger when nodes move
faster. When nodes move slower these paths tend to be
more stable and hence services tend to be available for a
longer time.
it The values of average SAD over low medium and high
mobility are presented in figure 3. The lines connecting
the 5 spots in the figure do not correspond to speeds other
than the five defined above, but are drawn for better
viewing. It is evident from this figure that the average
SAD actually decreases when speed increases. However,
it wouldnâ„¢t be fair to compare the performance of the
protocol under service duration only. The amount of
services discovered (including rediscoveries) is also
important, since it is much more preferable for a node to
discover, throughout his life, for example 30 services with
an average SAD of 100 seconds instead of 10 services
with an average SAD of 150 seconds (given that a
transaction with any service in both cases may last for less
than 100 seconds). In figure 4 we show the total amo unt
of services discovered over low, medium and high
mobility. As was expected the high mobility case
(maximum speed = 14m/s) outperforms all the other in the
total amount of services discovered. So, there is a tradeoff
between average SAD and number of discovered services.
In order to evaluate when our protocol performs better,
we should be aware of the average transaction duration
(ATD) between a node and any service. So, for high
ATD, the discovery protocol would perform better in a
low mobility setting. This is explained by the fact that the
additional services discovered in higher mobility settings
would be of no use, because their average SAD would be
inadequate to complete a transaction. The inverse would
be true for low ATD, where a high mobility setting would
be ideal for the discovery protocol.
Figure 4: No. of Services
Vs Speed
data-link layer we used the Fig.1.ZRP two-hop zone
Fig.2.ZRP border casting IEEE 802.11b protocol.
E-ZRP tends to discover more short-lived services in
highly mobile environments (due to node mobility and
service rediscoveries). More long-lived services can be
discovered only in low mobility cases. This is explained
by the fact that when the nodes are highly mobile, paths
are difficult to be maintained and hence far-away services
Speed in m/s
By reducing node density to one half, the service duration
distributions follow the same pattern, but the number of
services in the half-density case is on the average 1/4 of
the services found in the full-density case. This is due to
the fact that re-discoveries of services are more frequent
tend to last for a very short amount of time since the
in a denser environment. Also the fact that routing
messages are marginally increased in size in order to
encapsulate service information, presents very good
scaling properties when increasing density. The length of
routing messages plays a significant role under high-
density cases where congestion is present. Hence if
messages were altered to include complete service
descriptions instead of Unique Universal Identifiers
UUIDs, then an increase in node density would lead to an
increase in loss due to congestion and hence a lower
number of services would be discovered.
One would expect that in the denser environment services
would tend to last longer, since there are more alternative
paths through which a node can reach a service and a
failure of one path doesnâ„¢t necessarily mean that the node
cannot access the given service.
have presented a new cross-layer architecture that
integrates service discovery functionality with an existing
routing protocol. We also examined the implications of
network density and node mobility on the availability of
services discovered with a representative routing layer
based service discovery protocol (namely E-ZRP). In our
current work we extend our approach with an additional
mechanism, which allows nodes to predict service
availability and hence make near optimal service
selections. The mechanism actually uses past service
availability information cached on a node, and computes
an expected SAD for services in the future considering
current network conditions like density and mobility.


[1] Specification of the Bluetooth System,
http://bluetooth. com, December 1999.
Avg. SAD
Total No.
Full density
( 30 Nodes )
111 Sec
Half density
( 15 Nodes )
122 Sec
O. Ratsimor, D. Chakraborty, S. Tolia, D. Kushraj, Allia:
Alliance-based Service Discovery for Ad- Hoc
Environments, in ACM Mobile Commerce Workshop,
Sept 2002.
Of services
Table 1: Avg. SAD Vs Density
The results presented in table 1 show that this is
not true. Actually, when density increases, despite the
existence of multiple paths, the average service duration is
decreased. This is explained by the fact that more nodes
create more contention for accessing the channel and
transmitting service advertisements. Hence, more packet
collisions occur and paths to services are actually broken
more frequently, due to the fact that they couldnâ„¢t be
updated timely. The total number of services discovered,
however is higher in denser environments (table 1). This
means that high density may increase the number of
discovered services but it decreases their quality in terms
[3] D. Chakraborty and A. Joshi, "GSD: A novel group-based
service discovery protocol for MANETS", In IEEE Conf.
on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks, Septâ„¢
[4] S. Helal, N. Desai, V. Verma, and C. Lee, "Konark - A
Service Discovery and Delivery Protocol for Ad-Hoc
Networks", in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Conference on
Wireless Communication Networks (WCNC), March 2003.
[5] G. Schiele, C. Becker and K. Rothermel,Energy -Efficient
Cluster-based Service Discovery for Ubiquitous
Computing,Proc.of the ACM SIGOPS European
Workshop, Sept 2004.
[6] Z.J. Haas, M.R Pearlman, P. Samar, The Zone Routing
Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks,IETF Internet
Draft, draft-ietf- manet-zone-zrp - 04.txt, July 2002.
of availability. Once again, in order to evaluate when our
protocol performs better, we should be aware of the
average transaction duration between a node and any


Most previous research efforts on service discovery do
not investigate and do not report on battery consumption,
neither do they comment on service availability. Also,
existing application layer service discovery architectures
suffer from redundant packet transmissions in their effort
to discover routes towards the services (in the sense that
control messages for information discovery are required at
both the network and application layers). In this paper we
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