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02-04-2010, 03:38 PM



With the advent of the Internet and the plurality and variety of fancy applications it brought with it, the demand for more advanced services on cellular phones increasingly becoming urgent. Unfortunately, so far the introduction of new enabling technologies did not succeed in boosting new services. The adoption of Internet services has shown to be more difficult due to the difference between the Internet and the mobile telecommunication system. The goal of this paper is to examine the characteristics of the mobile system and to clarify the constraints that are imposed on existing mobile services. The paper will also investigate successively the enabling technologies and the improvements they brought. Most importantly, the paper will identify their limitations and capture the fundamental requirements for future mobile service architectures namely openness, separation of service logic and content, multi-domain services, personalization, Personal Area Network (PAN)-based services and collaborative services. The paper also explains the analysis of current mobile service architecture such as voice communication; supplementary services with intelligent network, enabling services on SIM with SIM application tool kit, text services with short message service, internet services with WAP and dynamic applications on mobile phones with J2ME.
Further our paper gives information on challenges of mobile Computing which includes harsh communications, connections, bandwidth and Heterogeneous networks. Under research issues seamless connectivity over multiple Overlays, scalable mobile processing, wireless communications, mobility and portability are discussed.
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12-10-2010, 11:42 AM

This article is presented by:
Professor Randy H. Katz
Computer Science Division
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-1776
© 1996

CS 294-7: Challenges of Mobile

Research Issues in
Mobile Computing

• Wireless Communications
– Quality of connectivity
– Bandwidth limitations
• Mobility
– Location transparency
– Location dependency
• Portability
– Power limitations
– Display, processing, storage limitations
Classes of
Mobile Devices

• Display Only
– InfoPad model: limited portable processing
– Constrained to operation within prepared infrastructure,
like a cordless phone
– Advantages with respect to power consumption, upgrade
path, lightweight, impact of lost/broken/stolen device
• Laptop Computer
– Thinkpad model: significant portable processing,
operates independently of wireless infrastructure
– Disadvantages: power consumption, expensive,
significant loss exposure, typically greater than 5 pounds
• Personal Digital Assistant
– Somewhere between these extremes
Wireless Communications
• Harsh communications environment:
– Lower bandwidth/higher latency:
good enough for videoconferencing?
– Higher error rates
– More frequent disconnection
– Performance depends on density of nearby users but inherent
scalability of cellular/frequency reuse architecture helps
• Connection/Disconnection
– Network failure is common
– Autonomous operation is highly desirable
» Caching is a good idea, e.g., web cache
– Asynchronous/spool-oriented applications, like mail or printing
» Trickle back data when bandwidth is available
– Disconnected file systems: CODA (CMU), Ficus (UCLA)
For more information about this article,please follow the link:

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25-02-2011, 11:44 AM

.doc   MOBILE COMPUTING.doc (Size: 515.5 KB / Downloads: 122)
Mobile Computing : A technology that allows transmission of data, via a computer, without having to be connected to a fixed physical link.
Mobile voice communication is widely established throughout the world and has had a very rapid increase in the number of subscribers to the various cellular networks over the last few years. An extension of this technology is the ability to send and receive data across these cellular networks. This is the principle of mobile computing.
Mobile data communication has become a very important and rapidly evolving technology as it allows users to transmit data from remote locations to other remote or fixed locations. This proves to be the solution to the biggest problem of business people on the move - mobility.
In this article we give an overview of existing cellular networks and describe in detail the CDPD technology which allows data communications across these networks. Finally, we look at the applications of Mobile Computing in the real world.
Mobile telephony took off with the introduction of cellular technology which allowed the efficient utilisation of frequencies enabling the connection of a large number of users. During the 1980's analogue technology was used. Among the most well known systems were the NMT900 and 450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone) and the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service). In the 1990's the digital cellular technology was introduced with GSM (Global System Mobile) being the most widely accepted system around the world. Other such systems are the DCS1800 (Digital Communication System) and the PCS1900 (Personal Communication System).
A cellular network consists of mobile units linked together to switching equipment, which interconnect the different parts of the network and allow access to the fixed Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The technology is hidden from view; it's incorporated in a number of tranceivers called Base Stations (BS). Every BS is located at a strategically selected place and covers a given area or cell - hence the name cellular communications. A number of adjacent cells grouped together form an area and the corresponding BSs communicate through a so called Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). The MSC is the heart of a cellular radio system. It is responsible for routing, or switching, calls from the originator to the destinator. It can be thought of managing the cell, being responsible for set-up, routing control and termination of the call, for management of inter-MSC hand over and supplementary services, and for collecting charging and accounting information. The MSC may be connected to other MSCs on the same network or to the PSTN.
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23-04-2011, 09:31 AM

.pptx   studentPresentation_Park.pptx (Size: 136.61 KB / Downloads: 66)
The Challenges of Mobile Computing
The Future of Computing
It’s not just desktop computers anymore
Steve Jobs recently stated that 2003 would be the ``Year of the Notebook” and added that ``we want to replace even more desktops with notebooks”
Mobile computing is a building block for pervasive computing
``Calm Technology” – Mark Weiser
Third Paradigm – Alan Kay
A little history first…
It’s Been a Long Time Coming
The Dynabook
Conceived by Alan Kay, argued as the originator of the ``laptop” concept
Handheld, wireless connectivity, full multimedia capabilities, support for programming
Circa 1972! Over 30 years ago…
The Dynabook
The Vision is not a Reality… Yet
In a recent interview, Alan Kay remarked that even with the advent of PDA’s, small notebooks, etc., the Dynabook concept is not a reality.
Today’s technology path is not aligned with original spirit of the Dynabook concept
Lacking technology
We will examine the difficulties facing mobile computing due to technology constraints
Mobile Computing != Notebooks
Cellular phones
Tablet PCs
Wearable computers
Tablet PC Demo Video
Acer TravelMate C100 Tablet PC
A New Paradigm
``… tomorrow’s networked mobile computers are part of a greater computing infrastructure”
It will ``… revolutionize the way computers are used”
Safe to say the paradigm shift has already begun
Mobile Computing Properties
Wireless Communication
Network connectivity is essential for mobile computing platforms
Issues relating to dynamic information change
What good is a device that only lasts 5 minutes on battery power?
Wireless Communication
Lower bandwidth, higher error rates, signal path problems
Increased communication latency, retransmissions, and timeout delays
Mobility affords greater range of problems, e.g. moving from one coverage area to another
Two solution approaches:
(1) Prevent disconnections
(2) Cope with disconnections
For mobile computers, allowing disconnections to happen and recovering from them is the better solution
Asynchronous operation (X11)
Caching and reconciliation (Coda FS)
Low Bandwidth
There is a discernible difference in bandwidth between wireless and wired connections
Two techniques to improve bandwidth
(1) Install more wireless cells by overlapping cells on different wavelengths, or
(2) reduce transmission ranges
Other techniques: compression and logging
Available bandwidth is largely user-perceived, so tricks such as scheduling communication (lazy write-back and pre-fetching) to ``improve” bandwidth utilization
Security Risks
Greater security risks than wired communication
Hardware-based: CLIPPER chip
Software-based: Kerberos authentication services
Other Issues
High bandwidth variability
Applications should adapt to mobile devices changing from wired to wireless modes (and vice versa)
Heterogeneous networks
Moving from one service area to another
Wireless Today
IEEE 802.11 wireless standards
a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i
Up to 54Mbps transmission speeds (802.11a and 802.11g), low bandwidth issue addressed with both solutions along with scaled bandwidth
GPRS (2.5G) and UMTS (3G)
Next generation cellular networks connecting cellphone users to the Internet
Security issues
WEP weak key vulnerability – will be addressed in the 802.11i standard, which applies to the a, b, g physical standards
The dynamic nature of mobile computing increases the volatility of information to support the platform
Caching vs. recomputation
Address Migration
Current IP addressing scheme imposes difficulties for dynamically changing addresses
Four different methods
Selective broadcast
Central services
Home bases
Forwarding Pointers


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