Automatic Induction Motor Starter with Programmable Timer
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Computer Science Clay
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Joined: Jan 2009
25-01-2009, 01:26 PM

Man is an ambitious creator. He has conquered the world of science and has reached to this 21ST century. In pre-cuts of perfection. He has cared much for automation and product quality which is directly co related to electronics.
In this fact developing society, electronic has come to stay as the most important branch of Engineering. Electronic devices are being used in almost all the industries for quality control and automation. They have become a fast replacement of present workers army which is engaged in processing and assembling of the factory.
Great strides taken in the industrial applications of electronics during recent years have demonstrated that this versatile tool can be of great importance in increasing production. Efficiency and control. The rapid growth of electronic technology appears as a formidable challenge to the beginners. The purpose of this introduction is the presentation of elementary knowledge of modern electronics.
The branch of engineering which deals with current conduction through a vacuum or gas or semiconductor and study of flow of electrons through these is known as Electronics.

Electronics essentially deals with electronic devices and their applications. As ELECTRONIC DEVICE is that in which electrons flow through a vacuum or gas or semiconductors. Such devices have valuable properties which enable is function and behave as a friend as man today.
Electronics has gained much importance due to its numerous applications in industries. In Industries, electronic circuits and electron devices are used in system on apparatus which quite useful.
Electronic devices are capable of performing lots of different types of function.


An engineer discover new ideas and identifies opportunities in various sectors of national economy. He explores the possibilities of starting adventures infield of agriculture, trade, industry, transport and communication etc.
An engineering project and implimentation is a combination of numerous activities on the part of entrepreneurs, organisers, designers, workers and etc. project and implimentation is a reflection of hard but harmonious labour on the part of above agencies.
The engineer is the key element in any project and implimentation work and it is not possible to attain success for every engineer. An engineer should posses certain qualities and characteristics to achieve success in project and implimentation or task undertaken. The characteristics which contribute to engineers success in his.
Technical competence, better judgement, intelligence, leadership, self confidence, attitude of creativeness, honesty and emotional stability.
The engineering project and implimentation is a perfect co-detail of the practical aspects of humanity and economics. The project and implimentation provokes an engineer to deal problem from a standpoint of view of the society. The engineer ultimate
aim is to do and dedicate himself for the society.
Automatic induction motor starter with programmable timer.
Induction motors are popular due to their low-cost, sturdy construction, fast pick-up , low maintenance expenditure and good efficiency. The DOL ( direct-on-line ) starters and star/delta starters used for starting and running of induction motors provide coarse type of protect ions against voltage fluctuations and single phasing. Induction motors are very sensitive to low voltage and single phasing during which they draw a heavy current and can burn out unless switched of within few seconds of occurrence of such conditions. This makes the requirement of a sensitive protective device absolutely essential to avoid burning of induction motors under such conditions.
The circuit of an automatic starter, incorporating the important features given below, is described here. It is meant to be used in conjunction with a DOL starter.
1. Under-voltage and over-voltage cut-out.
2. Single phasing prevention.
3. Automatic start on resumption of proper conditions.
4. 24-hour programmable off timer (on completion of actual runtime of the motor).
5. Specially suited for remote operation of induction motor.
With the almost universal adoption of a.c. system of distribution of electric energy for light and power, the field of application of a.c motors has widened considerably during recent years. As a result, motor manufacturers have tries, over the last few decades, to perfect various types of a.c. motors suitable for all classes of industrial drives and for both single & three phase a.c. supply. This has given rise to bewildering multiplicity of types whose proper classification often offers considerable difficulty. Different a.c. motors may however, be classified and divided into various groups from the following different points of view:

A) Synchronous motors
i) plain and ii) super-
B) Asynchronous motors
a) Induction motors
i) Squirrel cage {single, double}
ii) Slip-ring (external resistance)
b) Commutator motors

i) Series {single-phase, universal} ii) Compensated {conductively, inductively}
iii) shunt {simple, compensated}
iv) repulsion {straight , compensated}
i) single phase
ii) three phase
i) constant speed
ii) variable speed
iii) adjustable speed
i) open ii) enclosed
iii) semi-enclosed iv) ventilated
v) pipe-ventilated iv) riveted frame eye etc.
As a general rule, conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes place in the rotating part of an electric motor .In demotors, the electrical power is conducted directly to the armature (i.e. rotating part) through brushes and commutator . Hence, in this sense, a dc motor can be called a conduction motor. However , in a c motors, the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction hut by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2-winding transformer receives its power from the primary. That is why such motors are known as induction motors. Infact, an induction motor can be treated as a rotating transformer i.e. one in which primary winding is stationary but the secondary is free to rotate.
Of all the a. c. motors, the polyphase induction motor is the one which is extensively- used for various kinds of industrial drives. It has the following main advantages and also some disadvantages :

Advantages :
1. It has very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction (especially squirrel-cage type).
2. Its cost is low and it is very reliable.
3. It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running condition. No brushes are needed, hence frictional losses are reduced. It starting arrangement is simple especially for squirrel-cage type motor.

1. Its speed cannot be varied without sacrificing some of its efficiency.
2. Just like a. d. c. shunt motor, its speed decreases with increase in load.
3. Its starting torque is somewhat inferior to that of a. d. c. shunt motor.
An induction motor consists essentially of two main parts :
a) a stator and b) a rotor.
a) Stator
The stator of an induction motor is. in principle, the same as that of a synchronous motor or generator . It is made up of a number of stampings which are slotted to receive the windings. The stator carries a 3 phase winding and is fed from a 3phase supply. It is wound for a definite number of poles the exact number of poles being determined by the requirements of speed. Greater the number of poles, lesser the speed and vice versa. The sattor windings, when supplied with 3 phase currents, produce a magnetic flux which is of constant magnitude but which revolves (or rotates) at synchronous speed (given by Ns =- 120f/P). The revolving magnetic flux induces an e.m.f. in the rotor by mutual induction.

b) Rotor
i) Squirrel-cage rotor :? Motors employing this type of rotor are known as squirrel-cage induction motors
ii) Phase ?wound or wound rotor :- Motors employing this type of rotor are variously known as ?phase-wound? motors or ?wound? motors or as ?slip-ring? motors.

As the circuit being described is required to be used with a DOL starter, the internal diagram of the same is given in Fig. 1. The three phases (R. Y, and B) entering the starter are passed via fuses Fl, F2. and F3. The current rating of the fuses would depend on contactor and motor current ratings. The three phases from the DOL starter are extended to the automatic starter circuit of Fig. 2 via points marked R ', Y', and B'. The other points which are to be extended to Fig. 2 are marked C through F. All the points marked identically in Figs I and 2 are to he connected together.
Functions of switches and relays. To understand the circuit operation, it is essential to know the effect of switches S1 through S6 and contacts of relays RLI and RL2 in on and off conditions. These are discussed below.
When switches S1 and S2 are off, only manual operation of the DOL starter, without protections offered by the circuit of Fig. 2, is possible. The C and D points are shorted (via switch S1 in off position) whereas E and F points remain open. in this state, relay contacts have no effect on the DOL starter operation. The motor can be switched on by momentary operation of start switch s6. Please note that red ( R ) phase is always connected to one side of the EM (electromagnetic) coil of contactor. The blue ( B ) phase gets extended to the other side of contactor coil through switch S6 (in depressed state) , normally made contacts of stop switch s5 (red button) and shorted C and D points (via switch S1 in off position). Once the contactor coil is energised, it is latched via its own contact marked '5 ' and closed dry run points D1 and D2 to provide alternate path for B phase to the contactor coil. All three phases (R. Y, and B) are extended to the induction motor via the closed contacts of the contactor, and the motor runs.
When switch SI is on and switch S2 is off, the red ® phase connection to transformer XI through, while yellow (Y) phase is already connected to bottom end of transformer X2. In this state, sensing circuit and B- Y phase detector circuits of Fig. 2 are effective. If all phases are available and voltages are within proper limits, relay RL1 will get energized (as explained later in the text) to close contacts C and D. However, contacts E and F remain open irrespective of the state of relay RL2 (contacts of relayRL2 come in parallel with the contacts of start switch, provided switch S2 is on. Thus in this condition, although safety circuits are functional, auto starting is not feasible. Manual start button S6 has to be pressed for starting the induction motor. This mode of operation is termed here as mode 1.
When switches SI and S2 are both on. then the sensing circuit (for under/over voltages and single phasing) as well as auto start circuits are operational. The effect of switch S1 and relay RL1 has already been explained above. Relay RL2, which remains, on for a short while, along with tenderization of relay RLI, acts in the same way as momentary depression of start switch S6 to provide auto start/restart facility when 3-phase voltages are within limits. This is termed here as mode 2 operation.
Switch S3 is used for automatic switching off of the induction motor after it has operated for a pre-programmed period selected with the help of rotary switch S4. During mode 1 (switch 1 on and switch 2 off) operation when switch 3 is on, the induction motor will be switched off when programmed on-time' is completed or whenever power fails. However, after power resumes (and if all phase voltages are within limits), the motor can be restarted with the help of start switch manually, provided the programmed period is not over. During mode 2 (both switches S1 and S2 on)operation if switch S3 is on, the motor will keep restarting automatically whenever power resumes (or all 3-phase voltages become all right) until the programmed running period is over.
Power supply. The power supply for the schematic circuit of Fig. 2 is derived from R and Y phases, using two mains transformers with primary voltage rating of 230V AC connected in series across it through DPDT slide switch S1. Their secondaries rated at 6V-0-6V AC, 200mA are also connected in series to realise 12V-0-12V output across rectifier diodes Dl and D2, connected as full-wave rectifiers. The output of rectifier, after some smoothing by capacitor C1. is used for the purpose of sampling of under/over voltage conditions. The output across capacitor C1, after passing through diode D3, is further filtered by capacitor C3 before regulation by 9-volt regulator 7809 (ICI). The regulated output of ICI regulator is used for powering the entire circuit. No heat sink is required for regulator 7809.
When two transformers (X1 and X2) are used in this fashion, the AC output voltage should be checked after connecting the secondaries of both transformers in series. If no voltage is present across anodes of diodes Dl and D2 then either primary or secondary connections need be reversed (but not both).

Integrated circuit 4060 is a sixteen pin CMOS integrated circuit. It is a twelve stage Ripple Carry Binary Counter. The counters are advanced one count on the negative transition of each clock pulse. The counters are reset to the zero state by a logical ?I? at the reset input independent of clock.

1. It has wide supply voltage range from Iv. To I 5v.
2. Integrated circuit 4060 had high noise immunity s 0.45 VDO.
3. Its lower power Transistor Logic is Fan out of two driving 741. or one driving 74LS.
4. Maximum speed of operation is 8 MHz. Tip. At = 10 volts.
5. It is used Schmitt trigger clock input.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATING :- 7. Its .supply voltage VDD is -0.5v. to + 18v.
2. Its input voltage VIN is -0.5v. to + 0.5v.
3. It has storage temperature of Ts -65o C to 150o C
4. It has package Dissipation
a) . In Dual-in-line 700 MW.
b) In Small-out-line 500 MW
5. It has head temperature (T,) of 260o C
6. Soldering is within 10 sec. Nods.

Its supply voltage VDD is +3 volts to + 15 volts and input voltage Vin is volts to VBD. Its operating temperature range ( T1) is 10o C to + 85o C.


LM 393 is eight pin linear IC consisting of two opamps. It has two independent processing voltage comparators having offset voltage specification as low as 2 mV designed specifically to operate on single power supply over a wide range. Operation from split power supply current drain is independent of magnitude of power supply voltage. These comparators also have a unique characteristics that the input common-mode voltage includes ground even if operated eight single power supply voltage.
Application areas includes limit comparators. Simple analog to digital converter, pulse, square wave any time delay generator. It has a wide range of Vco. MOS clock timers multivibrators and single voltage digital logic gates. This series was designed to interface directly with TTI and CMOS logic where its law power drain is a distance advantage over other standard comparators.
1. If gives wide supply voltage range. Dual supply varies from 2 VDC to 36 VDC and ? 1.0 VDC to ? 18 VDC.
2. If gives very low supply current drain about 0.4 MA.
3. It is independent of supply voltage.
4. It has low triasing current nearly about 25 mA and input offset current upto ? 5 nA.
5. Maximum offset voltage is about ? 3 mV.
6. It?s input common mode voltage range includes ground.
7. It?s differential input voltage range to power supply voltage.
8. At 4 MA current its output low saturation voltage is 250 mV.
9. It?s output voltage is compatible with TTl, DTL, ECL and CMOS logic system.
1. It is a high precision comparator.
2. If eliminates need power supply.
3. It reduces Vos drift over temperature.
4. It is compatible with all forms of logic.
5. Power drain is suitable for battery operation.


IC-7809 is a three terminal positive regulator, it is self contained having fixed voltage capability upto 1.5 amperes load current and input voltage upto 15ov. It has a unique feature to set the output voltage on chips. The 7809 version is now much improved with load regulation characteristics.
Though designed as fixed voltage regulator the output voltage can he increased through us of simple voltage divider. The low quiescent drain current of device insures good regulation when this method is used. In this we give positive dry battery voltage to input terminal of 4809 and get + 9v. regulated output voltage from o/p terminal of IC.
1. Ifs output voltage is 9 v.
2. The maximum output current is I ampere.
3. Its output impedance Ro is 30 milli ohm.
4. The minimum input voltage required for operation is greater than 3v.
5. It has terminal load protection.

A 555 ? monolithic timing ckt. Is a highly stable controller capable of producing an accurate time delay or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resulting if desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistive and capacitive for a stable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequently and the duty cycle are both accurately controlled. With two external resisters and capacitors. The ckt. May be triggered 7 reset on falling waveform and the output structure can source or sink upto 200 ml. Or drive TTL ckt. Fig.4.5 shows pin-diagram of IC555.
The NE versions are similar except for minimum temperature ratings. The general purpose type NE ? 555 operates reliably only over a range of 0 degree centigrade to 70 degree centigrade.
1. Timings from microseconds to hours
2. Operates in both stable & monostable modes
3. Adjustable duty cycle
4. High current output, can source or sinks zero ma.
5. Output can drive TTL
6. Temperature stability of 0.005/ deg. Centigrade.
7. Normally ON and normally OFF output.
1. Precision Timings
2. Pulse Generation
3. Sequential Timing
4. Time delay generation
5. Pulse width modulation
6. Pulse position modulation
7. Mission pulse detection
1. 7. Supply voltage- + 18 volts
2. 2. Power dissipation - 60 mw
3. Operating Temperature Range - 0 deg. Ceg. To 70 deg. Ceg.
4. NE - 555
5. Storage Temperature Range - 65 deg. Ceg. To 150 deg. Ceg.
6. Lead Temperature- + 300 deg. Ceg. ( Soldering 60 sec. )
The external connections facilities for free tuning and self triggering mode for operation are shown. The three equal register R for the deference level of upper comparator at 2/3 vcc. There reference levels are required to control.

Apart from different ICs and gates we have used many other components such as
a) Capacitor
b) Transistors
c) Resistors
d) Diodes
Lets discuss these components one by one is short.
It is a system of electrical conductors and insulators the principle characteristic of which is capacitance. The simplest form consists of two parallel metal plates separated by layer of air or some other insulating material that is, dielectrode such as ceramic, mica etc. The capacitor ?C? of such a parallel plate capacitor is given by :-
Where E = Permitivity of farad meter
A = Area of the plate
D = Distance of separation between plates
Hence, we can said that capacitor is the property of a system which enables it to store ?Electrical Charge? when a potential difference? exists between the conductors separated by a dielectric. The SI unit of capacitance is farad. Fig. (4.1) shows capacitance.
The types of capacitors are :-
1. Electrolite Capacitors
2. Air Capacitors
3. Paper Capacitors
4. Polystyrene Capacitors
5. Ceramic, mica, glass Capacitors
The operating range of frequencies is different for these different capacitors in general each type of capacitors is based in its own operating range.
It is a semiconductor device capable of amplification in a similar to thermionic values. It consists of two PN semiconductor junction back to back forming either PNP or NPN structure.

A resister is an electrical component which when made part of an electrical ckt is intended to introduce a definite amount of d.c. resistance in very compact form. In many application the amount of ckt.
Current to a predetermined value Resisters are made in many sizes and shapes and in a variety of materials. The wire wound type makes use of a special alloy wire or ribbon as the resistance element and is wound on an insulting form with or without a ceramic covering.
Another type of fine resisters consists of a thin film of metal deposited. On insulating form. Both the carbon and the deposited metal types are low current units and are available in resistance values from several ohms to as high as mega ohm and is having voltage rating from ? watts to 2 watts. As shown in fig. (4.3)
These types of carbon and deposited metal types are connected by means of wire leads called pigtails.
d) DIODES :--
The diodes are generally formed by diffusing a P -type region and an N - type region in the same crystal structure. There are different types of semiconductor diodes.
1. Zener Diodes.
2. Point Contact Diodes.
3. Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
4. Photo Diodes
5. Tunnel Diodes
6. Varacter Diodes
But our ckt. Contains LED i.e. Light emitting diode. So let us take a brief look at these diodes.

Light Emitting Diodes [ LED ]
LEDs are now a day being used in almost all instruments. In last decade upto electronics technology has developed very rapidly and a number of new Opto-electronic product have come in the market of various types, sizes & colours of LEDs have been developed to unit all requirements.
LEDs is infect a diode which emits light when it is reversed biased, it does not conducts and hence does not emit light. When the diode is in forward biased, electrons are moved from N-side conduction band to the P-side valance band. In making this transitions the electrons cross the energy gap 'E.g.' that separates the two bands and hence they radiate energy. In ordinary rectifier diode this energy is given off as heat but in Light emitting diode it radiate as light.
When LEDs are to used in the ckt. Where the operating voltage are much more than the forward voltage v.f. (2F), then first Precaution to be taken is to see that the LED does not exceed the maximum rated forward current ( 35 ma maximum ).
Polarity of LED :
It is shown as in fig. The electrode with small area in an anode and the other with larger area in an anode and other with larger area in cathode. Usually in red LEDs the terminal is shorten than the other. The shorter terminal is called cathode and longer terminal is called anode.

LM78XX Series Voltage Regulators General Description
The LM 78 XX series of three terminal regulator is available with several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problem associated with single point regulation. The voltage available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid state electronic equipment. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtained adjustable voltages and current.
The ?LM78XX? series is available in an aluminium TO-3 package which will allow over 1.0 A load current if adequate heat sinking is provided. Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal power dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.
Considerable effort was expanded fop make the LX78XX series of regulators easy to use and minimise the number of external components. It is not necessary to bypass the output, although this does improve transient response. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply.

The name ?relay? is given too board class electromechanical switches in which contacts are opened and/or closed by various in the conditions of one electric circuit and thereby affect the operation of other devices in the same or other electric ( usually control or signalling) circuits. The term "relay " does not over devices, such as magnetic starters, contractors, and the like, intended to switch power circuits.
Relays are very common components of automatic Control systems. There may be a total of several hundred various relays in some of them.
The way a relay acts is represented by its static characteristic which relates its output y to its input x. This is a stepped relationship. The output y jumps from y1 to y2 only after the input x has changed to x2 ( the subscript ?0? stand for ?operate? ). Any further increase in x will not affect the value of y. As the value of x falls stands for ?release?, the value of y again decreases stepwise.
The principal parameters of relays follows :
a) The operate value of a relay is the minimum value of a physical quantity that will allow the operated load or retractile force of the relay to un operate, or release, it. Thus ?release? is the opposite of ?operate?.
b) The release value of a relay is the maximum value of a physical quantity that will allow the operated load or retractile force of the relay to unoperate, or release, it. Thus ?release? is the opposite of ?operate?.
c) The power consumption of a relay is the amount of power taken by the relay in a given duty.
d) The operate time is the interval required for a relay to start its contents and to complete its function after a control signal has been
applied to its coil.
e) The waiting time in operate is the time required for the pull of the electromagnet to become equal to the back tension, so that any further increase in the pull will cause the relay to pick up.
f) The motion time in operate is the time that elapses, after the armature just starts off, until the relay completes its intended function.
The relays are utilised in automatic control system as transducers for an intermittent (desecrate ) control of actuating mechanisms by means of low-power electric signals.
The form of the relay is in a large measure determined by the form of the parameter it checks ( temperature, pressure rate of
rotation) and the type of actuating mechanism (pneumatic, hydraulic, electric) which the relay controls. Accordingly, all relays are classified as electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, electropneumatic, etc.
All relays are classified as :
i. Electromagnetic.
ii. Moving-coil.
iii. Inductive.
iv. Electronic

According to power of control signal, electric relay sub-divided into :
i) Low power ( less than 1 W )
ii) Medium-power (from l to W )
iii) Hifh-power ( 10 W )
Finally according to pick-up time into quick :
i) Quick-response.
ii) Normal
iii) Delay.
iv) Time relays.
Now we will discuss the various types of relays in details.
The principle of operation of a relay consists in the fact that when the control current is fed to the -winding of the electric magnet its core gets magnetised and attracts the armature. The movement of the armature closes ( or opens ) the contract of the controllable electric circuit.
The relays used for signal multiplication and separation of electric circuits operating in a common scheme, or as amplifier s of relay action. These relays can be utilised for direct current of any polarity and for alternating current.
Electromagnetic relays are designed with a hinged or pull in armature.
A transformer is a static ( or stationary ) piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage ion a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current. The physical basis of a transformer is mutual induction between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. In its simplest form, it consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated but magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance as shown in fig.
The two coils posses high mutual inductance. If one coil is connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is set up in the-laminated core, most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces mutually induced e.m.f. (according to faraday?s laws of Electro-Magnetic Induction e = Mdl/dt. ) if the second coil circuit is closed, a current flows in it and so electric energy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil. The first coil. in which electric energy is fed from the a. c. supply mains, is called primary winding and the other from which energy is drawn out, is called secondary winding. In brief, a transformer is a device that
i) Transfers electric power from one circuit other.
ii) It does so without a change of frequency,
iii) If accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction and
iv) Where the two electric circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each other.
The simple elements of a transformer consist of two coils having mutual inductance and a laminated steel core. The two coils are insulated from each other and the steel core. Other necessary parts are : some suitable container for the assembled core and windings, a suitable medium for insulating the core its windings from its container : suitable bushings ( either of porcelain, oil-filled or capacitor - type ) for insulating and bringing out the terminals of windings from the tank.
In all types of transformers, the core is constructed of transformer sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a continuous magnetic path with the minimum of air gap included. The steel used is of high silicon content, some times heat treated to produce a high permeability and low hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux. Densities. The eddy current loss is minimised by laminating the core, the laminations being insulated from each other by a light coat of core - plate varnish or by an oxide layer on the surface. The thickness of laminations varies from 0.35 mm for a frequency of 50 Hz to 0.5 mm for a frequency of 25 Hz. The core laminations are joined as shown in fig.
Constructionally, the transformers are of two general types. Distinguished from each other merely by the manner in which the primary and the secondary coils are placed around the laminated steel core. The two types are known as
1. Core ? Type and
2. Shell ? type


An etched or printed circuit consists of a thin layer of copper foil. The final is shaped by etching the copper in a chemical. The copper foil acts as a wire, or conductor in the ckt. Components parts like resistors, transistors and capacitors are soldered to the conductive foil to complete the electrical path and circuit.
Production of PCBs.
The transfer of the conductor pattern -which on the film master on the copper clad laminate is done by two methods. They are
1. Photo Printing
2. Screen printing
But in our circuit we have used screen printing method so we study only about this.

PCB production by photographic printing method is expensive though accurate. The screen process uses a resist ink applied throughout a stencil or mask to the surface of the blank circuit board. The stencil is produced and attached to the fine mesh, metal, polyester, nylon or silk screen. The resist ink is kept forced through openings in the stencil on to the surface of the blank board. This process produces a positive of the cleb on the copper foil. When dry, the board is ready for etching. In our project and implimentation instead of stencil we used positive of artwork.

Etching Process
The etching solution is prepared in non metallic plate. For preparing etching solution take one part of ferrite chlorides in power form with two parts of water heat the solution upto 40o C to 50o C till the vapour just starts forming, add a small quantity of HCL for fast etching action the quantity of solution required should be just enough to immerse the PCB. Give some base to the PCB so that it does not touches the bottom of the container. Always keep the printed circuit side on the upper side. For fast action of etching stir the solution without disturbing PCB. By this process the copper other than the areas which are covered by point is etched away. Continue the process for 45 min. By holding the board in light it can be seen that, whether the board is completely etched or not ?
After few boards have been etched the colour of the solution changes from yellow to green. Wash the board under running water and remove the paint. After etching give a coat of varnish to the PCB so that it remain shining.
The careful assembly of the PCB is as relevant for the final equipment reliability as the circuit design or PCB design and fabrication. Assembly technique can vary widely from case to case.
i) Mounting of resisters, capacitors and diodes
The bending of the axial component lead is done in a manner to guarantee an optimum retention of the component on the PCB while a minimum trace is introduced on the solder joint. During bending the component lead no damage to the component should occur. The bend lead should fist into the holes perpendicular to the board so that any trace on the component lead junction is minimised.
Component are generally mounted on only one side of the PCB. In double sided PCBs, the component side is usually opposite to the pager conductor pattern side Unless otherwise detached by special design requirement.
The uniformity in orientation of polarised components like diodes, resisters. IC etc. is determined during the design of PCB.
ii) Mounting if ICs :
It is never expected to put the ICs directly on the PCB and then soldered. The IC sockets are available in the market. These sockets are available in the market. These sockets are first mounted and leads of the sockets are soldered. After completion the IC is transferred in the socket.
After the component mounting and soldering the extra part of the lead coming out, must be cut with a cutter. It is recommended that before soldering the lead the extra portion of the lead must be cut and then soldered. The lead cutting after soldering is still common in the smaller industries -where hand soldering is used.
By keeping all above information in mind we fabricate total unit after testing of each component and after preparing power supply for unit. The circuit works successfully and we get results which are given in chapter ?Conclusion & Results?
Under/over voltage cut-out. This section comprises an 8-pin dual comparator LM393N (IC3) in DIL (dual-in-line) package. The output of the two comparators (at pins 1 and 7) has been combined in a wired-OR fashion. This output is high as long as sampled voltages being monitored are within precept limits. When sampled voltages are out of limits, the wired-OR output goes low.
Here IC2(a) is used as over-voltage detector, while IC2(b ) is used as under-voltage detector. The 4.2V developed across Zener D4 is used as reference voltage for both the comparators. The potmeter VR1 is so adjusted that when the phase-to-phase (R-Y) input voltage across primary of transformer (X1 and X2 combined) is less than a specific desired level (sav 350V RMS), the voltage at its contact goes less than 4.2 volts. Thus, the output of comparator IC2( b ) and also the wired-OR output goes low, irrespective of output of'comparatorIC2 (a). Similarly, potmeter VR2 is so adjusted that when the voltage between R-Y phases exceeds certain desired value (say 480V AC RMS), the voltage at its wiper contact goes higher than 4.2 volts, and the output of comparator IC2( a ) goes low. Thus, we observe that whenever the R-Y phase-to-phase voltages are beyond acceptable limits, the output of comparator goes low to switch off the motor after a delay of four seconds, as explained in the following section.
On/off time delay. The popular NESS 5 timer is so configured as to provide an on-time delay of 12 seconds after all conditions are suitable (i.e. all 3 phases are present and the phase-to-phase voltages are also within limits), if all conditions are all right (at the time of start-with slide switch S1 in on position), capacitor C4 will he charged via resistors R2 and R4 .which would take about 12 seconds to make pin 2 of 555 high, so that its output (at pin 3) goes low to cut off transistor T3. As a result, base of transistor T4 gets forward biased via resistor R9 (andR13 ) to energise relay RL1 to short points C and D (refer Figs 1 and 2) through its contacts, and energise contactor in the DOL starter of Fig. 1 via the start switch ( in pressed state) or due to energisation of relay RL.2 for short duration with switch S2 on (explanation covered under ?Auto start unit? subheading ). Thus motor starts after an on-time delay of 12 seconds.
When compactor IC2 senses under-voltage or over-
voltage condition, its output goes low and capacitor C'4 discharges via resistance R4. This will take about jour seconds before it causes pm 2 of IC3 logo low or its output to go high, which in turn causes de-energisation of relay RLI to eventually switch off the motor. This is the off-time delay which allows the motor not to s-witch off if the voltage returns to normal state within this 4-second period. If the voltage does not return to normal state within this period then only the motor is s-witched off. This avoids unnecessary switching off of the motor during momentary voltage fluctuations.
Single-phase cut-out. When a single phase failure occurs, the motor will continue to run on remaining two phases, drawing heavy load current. This would result in overheating of windings and its eventual burning in a short time if it is not disconnected. The single-phase cut-out circuit employed here is very simple and it has the capability to sense all three phases , including low voltage condition of phase B. Sensing of under-voltage and over-voltage condition of R and Y phases is already taking place, as described earlier.
Phase failure of R and/or V phase (s) results in no supply to the circuit and relays RBI and RL2 will he in de-energised state and the motor is, therefore. Switched off. In Y-B single phase detector part of the circuit, the diode D12 in Y phase path rectifies the voltage before potential divider network, comprising resistors R16 and R17, reduces the voltage with respect to phase B. Capacitor C7 smooth the voltage across resistor R17. If this voltage is greater than 27V, zener D11 as well as the diode inside opto-coupler IC4 will conduct. As a result, base of transistor T2 is pulled to ground and it is cut off. This causes the compactor output to he applied to pin 2 of timer NE555 without any change (modification). But in case the B-phase voltage is very low, or if it is missing altogether, transistor T2 will he biased to saturation condition, discharging capacitor C4 via resistor R5. As a result, pin 2 of timer 555 would go low immediately and eventually switches off relay RLI to cut off the con factor in DOL starter as well as the motor.
Auto start unit. The necessity auto start unit has, if late, increased due to frequent power interruptions, including single phasing. Many auto start units are available in the market. The auto start circuit comprises the circuitry around relays RL1 and RL2 (and their contacts), slide switches SI and S2, and the DOL, starter.

During normal conditions, the out-put of timer NE555 will initially go high for 12 seconds on resumption of power or when normal state is reached. The capacitor C.6 will he charged through resistor R11. However, the base of transistor T5 will he held to ground potential by diode D6, which is forward biased due to the condition of transistor T3. As a result, relay RL2 will he in off state due to non-conduction of transistor T5. When NE555 IC changes its out-put state from high to low after 12 seconds, diode D6 will he reverse-biased due lo the positive voltage at anode of diode D6. Capacitor C6 will get discharged via resistor R11 and transistor T5 will come to conduction stale due to the positive voltage at its base. As a result, relay RL2 will get energised. The discharge action of capacitor C6 continues for about two seconds (which is sufficient to bring the electromagnetic relay of DOL starter to on position). Once the starter EM relay energises, it is latched as explained under ?Functions of relays and switches? subheading. After two seconds, the base of transistor T5 will fall to ground potential and relay RL2 will he switched off. However, relay RLI will continue to he on and hold the motor in on stale.
Timer, The timer is built around 14-stage CMOS counter CD 4060 which has an on-chip oscillator. The timing component, comprising resistor R24 and capacitor C8, is selected lo gel an approximate off-time delay of 20 minutes at Q7, 45 minutes at Q8, 1.5 hours at Q9, 3hours at Q1O, 6 hours at Q11, 12 hours at Q12 , and 24 hours at Q13 out-put. The timer is not affected by power cuts as it is provided with a backup, using a 9V, PP3 battery. The timer function comes into play when switch S3 is flipped to on position.
When power fails, transistor T6 will cut off due to absence of any forward bias voltage at its base. This forward biases diodeD14, which makes pin II of the counter high and the counter suspends further counting. When power resumes, the counter proceeds further and the time count is thus not lost. The same thing occurs when an unhealthy condition of line is detected. Pin 3 of timer 555 goes high and diode D13 causes suspension of counting. When the final count is reached, the corresponding output pin of IC5 goes high. The IC5 output is coupled to pin 11 via diode D12 to suspend the counting. At the same time this high output is also connected to the base of transistor T3, which starts conducting and takes the base of transistor T4 to cut-off. As a result relay RL1 de-energises to switch off the motor.
To set the counter timing, first set the value of time by rotary switch S4 and then flip switch S3 on to start the timer. To reset the timer push switch S3 to off' and then switch it on again.

LED indicators. LED1, when on indicates that switch S1is on and R-Y phase supplies and 9V output from the regulator ICI are available. LED2, when on, indicates that relay RL1 has energised. LED3 is on when switch S3 is on and 9V supply from IC1 for timer is available.
An actual-size, single-sided PCR for the circuit of Fig. 2 is shown in Fig. 3 . The component layout/or the PCB is given in Fig 4. All switches, relays, and transformers are to he mounted externally. As the B-Y phase detector circuit contains high voltages, it is recommended to cut out the phase detector part up lo opto-coupler from the PCB and install the same externally. Only the output leads from the opto-coupler may be soldered on to the- points provided on the PCB.

Semiconductors :
IC 1 - 7809 fixed regulator + 5 volts
IC 2 - I.M393 Voltage compactor
IC 3 - NE555 timer
IC 4 - CD4060 14-stage ripple counter oscillator
IC 5 - MC2TE opto-coupler
T2,T3 - BC 547 npn transistor
T4,T5,T6 - 2N2222 switching transistor
D 1-D3,D5-D10,
D12-D16 - 1N4007 rectifier diode
D4 - 4.2V, 0.5W zener
D11 - 27 V, 0.5 W zener
LED1-1.ED3 - Coloured LED

Resistors : all 1 4W, + 5% metal carbon film, unless stated otherwise
R 1, R5, R8-R10, R12
R15, R18, R21 - 1 ?kilo-ohm
R2, R22 - 22-kilo-ohm
R3, R7, R19,
R20, R25 - 10-kilo-ohm
R4 - 47-kilo-ohm
R6 - 220-kilo-ohm
R11, R 14 - 4.7-kilo-ohm
R15 - 470-kilo-ohm
R16, R17 - 47-kilo-ohm 1 W
R22 - 22 ?kilo-ohm
R23 - 1-mega-ohm
R24 - 100 ?kilo-ohm
R26 - 22-kilo-ohm 1W
VR1, VR2 - 4.7-kilo-ohm potmeter

Capacitors :
C1,C8 - uF, 25V electrolytic
C2 - 1000uF, 25V electrolytic
C3 - 470uF, 16V electrolytic
C4 - 100uF, 16V electrolytic
C5 - 0.0uF ceramic disc
C6 - 220uF, 16V electrolytic
C7 - 4.7uF ceramic disc
C9 - 0.1uF ceramic disc
C10 - 4.7uF, 25V electrolytic

R1,1,RL.2 - 0V,150ohm SPSP relay
S1,S2,S3 - Slide switches DPDT
X1,X2 - 250V primary to 6V-0-6V,
200 mA see transformer
- Battery PP9V
S4 - Rotary switch single-pole
- DOL starter
Bergstrip connectors-male/female


i) Electrical Engineering : by B. L. THAREJA

ii) Electronics For You.(Dec.99)

iii) Data Hand Book.

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Shaded Pole(Very Small Motors)
a) Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Motor ----- Fan Motor
b) Capacitor Start Inductor Run Motor ----- Fractional H.P. motor for Pump sets.

2(b) Capacitor Start Induction Motor:

Greasing the bearings.
Alignment with the pump, blower, etc.
Vibrator check.
Motor body temperature.

Measure the insulators resistance of the motor winding.(To be at least above 10 mega ohms)
Terminal block and termination of windings
Double earthing of motor body.


*) The AC voltage or current in a non linear electrical load will have odd and even harmonics. The odd harmonics especially 3rd and 5th , will result in unwanted losses called harmonic losses.
*) The 3rd harmonics will have its frequency 3 times its fundamental frequency. Suppose the fundamental frequency is 50 cycles per second, its 3rd harmonic will have 150 cycles per second.
*) In order to reduce the harmonic losses, it is required to have filter circuits comprising of inductance and capacitance(LC filters) in the non linear loads such as UPS, VFD.
*) It is better that the total harmonic distortion of voltage is maintained 10% or less and the THD(Total Harmonic Distortion) of current 5% or less.

The motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. This motor works as electrical induction. This motor has a rotor and stator. The stator has a 3 phase winding. The rotor can be of cage type or slip ring type.

The cage rotor has solid aluminum or copper bars inserted in the rotor slots where as the slip ring rotor has a 3 phase winding terminated on to 3 slip rings.
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to get information about the topic realy of induction motor protection at low voltages full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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06-11-2012, 03:25 PM

hey i just want its ckt diagram plz help me.............
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