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seminar surveyer
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Joined: Sep 2010
23-12-2010, 04:41 PM


.ppt   INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROJCT REPORTON MMI.ppt (Size: 573 KB / Downloads: 123)

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defense as the fountainhead to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment.
BEL, with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirement of state-of-art professional electronic equipment for Defense, broadcasting, civil Defense and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry.
Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-product, multi-unit, and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU.
The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment.
Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France, the company's equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid, solid state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit technology.

BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970s.

Location of BEL Units in INDIA


MMI Man Machine Interface


CMS – 17 & CMS – SNF
CMS (Command & Control)
Collate, Interpret and coordinate information from ship’s sensors and external sources.

Used in
Surface Warfare
Air defense
Anti – submarine (ASW)
Aircraft Helicopter Control
Electronic Warfare (EW)
Data Link

Market / Customer details of CMS
Indian Navy
Order received for CMS 17 , ATM switches and NMS
Order received for CMS reference system
LOI received for CMS - SNF including ATM switches , NIUS and NHMS

Scope of CMS
Development of nodes for CMS 17 and CMS – SNF
Supply of ATM Switches, NMS. NHMS, NIUS and simulators for BEL equipments fitted on board INS - RANVIR by BEL, Bangalore
System software development jointly BEL – GAD and CRL – Delhi
Complete integration responsibility with AISDN for CMS – 17 and ship’s sensors and weapons for CMS – SNF with BEL – GAD.
Functions of CMS

Acquires data from ship’s sensors
Integrates different type of platforms
Process, store, integrate , correlate and display the tactical data in real time
Gather data from other aircrafts operating in the fleet through data link to collate, process, integrate and to present a comprehensive tactical picture of the area of operation
Identification, classification threat assessment of targets and automatically advise the command on the engagements
Advise the command on course of action when invoked activated by events occurring in the equipment with which the CMS is integrated
Decision support system for command
Provides target designation to the interface fire control system for sub – surface , surface and air targets
Monitors the execution of weapon firing , communication and status after firing
Off – line map preparation facility for loading of charts

Functional Requirement and Interface Specifications
Remote Display
ATM Switch
Interface Buses
Computer Complex (CC)
Central Computer
Processing of track and other data
Central database
Dual Redundant configuration (fault tolerant)
External System Interface (ESI)
Provides digital interface to external sensors and weapons on ship through NIUS
Validates incoming data
Central Database of weapons connected
Dual redundant configuration (fault tolerant)
Dual Multifunction Console (DMFC
Provides a high resolution graphics and radar video presentation
Consists of two high resolution display screens for Graphical and TOTE Presentation
Provides Man – Machine Interface for operator input through keyboard, tracker ball and Touch Input Device (TID)
Multi Function Horizontal Console (MFHC)
Provides a high resolution graphics and radar video presentation on a large horizontal screen
Provides multiple operators (three) with common display picture for taking joint strategic decisions and chalking out action plans
Additional 15” display is provided for each of the operators to display the primary and secondary display picture
Independent MMI for all three operators

ATM Switch
Provides backbone for data communication
Most nodes of CMS on StM – I Interface(155 Mbps)
EI Interface (4 Mbps) only on RDDU and SCP in CMS – 17
Based on technology on CDOT through BEL – Bg
Dual Redundant Configuration
Network Interface Unit (NIU)
Facilitate the data exchange among various equipments on – board ship in required format
Converts data received from the connected sources system to STM – I stream for sending it over the ATM Switch and vice – versa
System Control Panel (SCP)
Provides a central place for health monitoring and diagnosis of the CMS segments.
Generates and updates tactical scenarios based on operator inputs
Used as a training , testing and maintenance tool
Radar Data Distribution Unit (RDDU)
Provides raw radar data to the DMFCs and MFHCs
Provides the control of various radar parameters such as pulse width , PRF , antenna RPM etc. to DMFC Operator
Video Extractor and Tracker (VEXT)
Receive radar data of the RAWL 02 MK2
Performs, plots extraction and auto initiation of air targets
Tracking of targets
Test plan for MMIC
MMIC is a part of DMFC used in Combat Management System. MMIC which stands for man machine interface card is an important tool for establishing effective communication between different parts of the system on - board ship and also various controls.
Basic Aim of The Project
To develop a test software for the testing of the MMIC card of the CMS – 17 using assembly language programming of 87C51 microcontroller and “C” programming.

Approach to test the MMIC
Using Assembly Language Programming
Test program for effective chip select for suitable LED indication
To establish communication between ADC and PPI for obtaining bearing and gain
To test the serial port communication

Using C Programming
To send the data to serial port “COMPORT” for effective LED indication and check for loop back the data using serial port. Also create features for further additions in future.
seminar surveyer
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14-01-2011, 12:54 PM

.docx   training Project Transmitter (CAR).docx (Size: 167.5 KB / Downloads: 194)




Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL, with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirement of state-of-art professional electronic equipment for Defence, broadcasting, civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-product, multi-unit, and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU.
started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France, the company's equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid, solid state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit technology. In the component arena also, the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to the manufacture of Integrated circuits. To keep in pace with the component and equipment technology, its manufacturing and product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. The design groups have CADDs facility, the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility, and Quality Control (QC) checks are preformed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines, Automatic testing machines, environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions.
Today BEL's infrastructure is spread over nine locations with 29 production divisions having ISO-9001/9002 accreditation. Product mix of the company is spread over the entire Electro-magnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like Defence Communication, Radar's, Optical & Opto-electronics, Telecommunications, Sound and Vision Broadcasting, Electronic Components, etc.


The two most basic functions of radar are inherent in the word, whose letters stand for RAdio Detection And Ranging. Measurement of target angles has been included as a basic function of most radar, and Doppler velocity is often measured directly as a fourth basic quantity. Discrimination of the desired target from background noise and clutter is a prerequisite to detection and measurement, and resolution of surface features is essential to mapping or imaging radar. The block diagram of typical pulsed radar is shown in Figure. The equipment has been divided arbitrarily into seven subsystems, corresponding to the usual design specialties within the radar engineering field. The radar operation in more complex systems is controlled by a computer with specific actions initiated by a synchronizer, which in turn controls the time sequence of transmissions, receiver gates and gain settings, signal processing, and display. When called for by the synchronizer, the modulator applies a pulse of high voltage to the radio frequency (RF) amplifier, simultaneously with an RF drive signal from the exciter. The resulting high-power RF pulse is passed through transmission line or waveguide to the duplexer, which connects it to the antenna for radiation into space. The antenna shown is of the reflector type, steered mechanically by a servo-driven pedestal. A stationary array may also be used, with electrical steering of the radiated beam. After reflection from a target, the echo signal reenters the antenna, which is connected to the receiver preamplifier or mixer by the duplexer.

Evolution of Radar Signal Processing

The term radar signal processing encompasses the choice of transmit waveforms for various radars, detection theory, performance evaluation, and the circuitry between the antenna and the displays or data processing computers. The relationship of signal processing to radar design is analogous to modulation theory in communication systems. Both fields continually emphasize communicating a maximum of information in a specified bandwidth and minimizing the effects of interference. The somewhat slow evolution of signal processing as a subject can be related to the time lags between the telegraph, voice communication, and color television. Although Theory with Applications to Radar in 1953 laid the basic ground rules; the term radar signal processing was not used until the late 1950s. During World War I1 there were numerous studies on how to design radar receivers in order to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio for pulse and continuous wave (CW) transmissions. These transmitted signals were basically simple, and most of the effort was to relate performance to the limitations of the components available at the time. For about 10 years after 1945, most of the effort was on larger-power transmitters and antennas and receiver-mixers with lower noise figures. When the practical peak transmitted power was well into the megawatts, the merit of further increases became questionable, from the financial aspect if not from technical limitations. The pulse length of these high powered radars was being constantly increased because of the ever present desire for longer detection and tracking ranges. The coarseness of the resulting range measurement led to the requirement for what is now commonly referred to as pulse compression. The development of the power amplifier chain (klystron amplifiers, etc.) gave the radar designer the opportunity to transmit complex waveforms at microwave frequencies. This led to the development of the “chirp” system and to some similar efforts in coding of the transmissions by phase reversal, whereby better resolution and measurements of range could be obtained without significant change in the detection range of the radar.

At about the same time, diode mixers gave way to the parametric amplifier and in some cases the traveling wave tube. The promise of vastly increased sensitivity seemed to open the way for truly long range systems. Unfortunately, the displays of these sensitive, high powered radars became cluttered by rain, land objects, sea reflections, clouds, birds, etc. The increased sensitivity also made it possible for an enemy to jam the radars with low-power wideband noise or pulses at approximately the transmit frequency. These problems led to experiments and theoretical studies on radar reflections from various environmental reflectors. It was soon realized that the reflectivity of natural objects varied by a factor of over 10 to power 8 with frequency, incidence angle, polarization, etc. This made any single set of measurements of little general value. At the same time that moving target indicator (MTI) systems were being expanded to include multiple cancellation techniques, pulse Doppler systems appeared to take advantage of the resolution of pulse radars.



The designed Radar would be a stand-alone all weather 3D surveillance radar. The radar operates in S-band and is capable of Track-While-Scan [TWS] of airborne targets up to 130 Kms, subject to line-of-sight clearance and radar horizon. The radar employs Multibeam coverage in the receive mode to provide for necessary discrimination in elevation data. It employs 8 beams to achieve elevation coverage of prescribed margin and a height ceiling of prescribed margin. The antenna is mechanically rotated in azimuth to provide 360 coverage. To get an optimum detection performance against various class of targets, different Antenna Rotation Rate [ARR] RPM modes are implemented and these can be selected by the operator.

The unique feature of the radar is, its operation is fully automated and controlled from a Radar Console with sufficient menus, keys and Hot keys. The designed Radar is an offshoot of the fully and successfully developed and demonstrated radar called as 3D Central Acquisition Radar (3D-CAR).

3D-CAR is designed to play the role of medium range surveillance radar mounted on a mobile platform. The radar carries out detection, tracking and interception of targets with an RCS of 2m2 upto 130 Kms in range.
The antenna can be manually positioned at different look angles in steps. In the receive mode the eight beams cater for a height coverage of required margin. The IFF antenna is placed atop the main antenna and it integrates the IFF for including of IFF data with the Primary Radar Data.

The RDP (Radar Data Processor) is implemented on a SBC and is fully software-based system with adequate memory and external interfaces to handle upto 150 target tracks. Robust algorithms for filtering are used to lock on to maneuvering target upto 6g without loss of tracking.

LAN interfaces are used to communicate with external systems. High-speed data transfer of target parameters can be done. This helps in data remoting upto a distance of 500 mtrs that can be extended with suitable repeaters. Facility for manual track indication for low speed targets and targets in heavy clutter zones are available to the console operator.

The color display has features for monitoring of radar performance, the radar output selection for radar modes of operation. Interfaces to radar control signals are built-in. The Radar generates different videos viz., Analog and Digital videos at the Receiver and Signal Processor. These are interfaced to the display over dedicated lines and displayed In addition to providing real time data on screen for viewing, the consoles will provide facility for training controllers/operators/ technical crew. The system is capable of creating targets and assigns values for range, azimuth, height and speed as defined by operator. It will enable the operator to control the motion of these targets for gaining/ loosing height, turning left/right, cruising, and rolling out. The software running on console will provide an online handy aid, for target interception. The training part of the software will be active as an offline facility or with tracked targets in real time. The offline mode will be capable of using recorded data.


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