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seminar surveyer
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16-10-2010, 03:49 PM

Prepared by:
Maheswara Rao.E
Bala Balaji.K

“No technology is superior if it tends to overrule human faculty. In fact, it should be other way around”
Imagine that you are somewhere else and you have to control a machine which is in a remote area, where human can’t withstand for a long time. In such a condition we can move to this BRAIN -MACHINE INTERFACE. It is similar to robotics but it is not exactly a robot. In the robot the interface has a sensor with controller but here the interface with human and machine. In the present wheel chair movements are done according to the patient by controlling the joystick with only up, reverse, left and right movements are possible. But if the patient is a paralyzed person, then it is a critical for the patient to take movements. Such a condition can be recovered by this approach. The main objective of this paper is to interface the human and machine, by doing this several objects can be controlled. This paper enumerates how Human and Machine can be interfaced and researches undergone on recovery of paralyzed person in their mind.

The core of this paper is that to operate machines from a remote area . In the given BMI DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS the brain is connected to client interface node through a neural interface nodes . The client interface node connected to a BMI SERVER which controls remote ROBOTS through a host control.
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Posts: 10,003
Joined: Apr 2012
03-07-2012, 03:46 PM

Brain-Machine Interface

A brain-machine interface is an interface in which a brain
accepts and controls a mechanical device as a natural part
of its body. The purpose of the brain-machine interface is
to provide a method for people with damaged sensory and
motor functions to use their brain to control artificial devices
and restore lost ability via the devices. Studies are going
on because scientists feel that they must first understand
how the brain encodes and manipulates vast amounts of
complex information.
One of the main research project and implimentations that is underway is
being conducted at the Brown University Laboratory and led
by Dr. John P. Donoghue, a professor of neuroscience who
leads the brain science program at Brown. This project and implimentation is a
research effort for Brain Interface Machines to study the
brain as it coordinates motions and to be able to write a
program that is able to translate the thoughts into specific
movements. The research in this lab is directed at
understanding the form of higher-level information coding in
the cerebral neocortex. The neocortex is the structure in the
brain, a gray covering on the cerebrum, that differentiates
mammals from other vertebrates and it is assumed that the
neocortex is responsible for the evolution of intelligence.
More specifically, they examine how the cortex represents
information used to guide our actions John Donoghue and
his company that he founded with some colleagues,
Cyberkinetics has been conduction the monkey studies to
pave the way for human tests. To date most studies of the
cortex involve examination of one cell at a time in order to
deduce the actions of that specific area of cortex.
In a lab at Brown University there are rhesus macaque
monkeys that sit in a chair, facing a computer screen
gripping the handle of a joystick and watching a computer
screen that has a green dot on it and with the joystick they
try to chase that dot with a red dot. Soon the monkeys with
the aid of a computer and programs are able to chase the
dot and drive the cursor with the thought signals sent from
their brain.
The experiment, which was conducted on three monkeys,
is set up by implanting a four-millimeter square array of 100
electrodes in the area of the brain that issues commands to
the monkeys arm, the motor cortex, which is located just
beneath the skull and about half way between the ear and
the top of the skull. After this has been inserted wires are
connected to the computer from the electrodes. These
wires feed the electrical signals generated by the neurons
firing near each electrode into the machine.
As the plugged in monkeys practice the video game, the
array flashes pick up the brain activity as EKG like graphs
that are audible and sound like popping rice crispies.
Pattern recognition software that used by the team that
paired the spiky patterns – it fishes out the spikes which
each represent a single firing of a single neuron the
neurons made as they fired the related trajectories of the
monkey’s arms as they moved. Using about three minutes
of data the computer can build a model capable of
extrapolating the monkey’s arm movements from the brain
signal and using that brain signal it can be translated into
joystick output so that when the monkey thought about
making a move the cursor made that move as the computer
used the brain signal to drive the cursor, which can be
translated into using the brain signal to drive a robotic arm.
When the game was switched from the monkey having a
joystick to it not having one and it only using only brain
control the monkey took slightly longer to hit the red dot.
The result of this and other studies shows that the brain is
very adaptable at adjusting to moving an artificial arm or
cursor instead of a real one. This is a step in the direction
of developing prostheses for humans. Only one of the
neural prostheses pioneers has tested the interface
machines on humans. Dr. Philip Kennedy has developed a
procedure to give voice to stroke and other paralyzed
victims. This program allows for a patient J.R to
communicate through a computer.
The future of the outcome of such research is that this
can improve the ability for paralyzed people to control
prosthetic limbs and thus leading to more life-like prosthesis
and further advancement in restoring movement and control
to those who have lost it to either paralysis or amputation.

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