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31-01-2009, 12:34 AM

Fast Internet access is growing from a convenience into a necessity in all aspects of our daily lives. Unfortunately, this has been held back by the high expenses of wiring infrastructure essential to deliver such high-speed internet access especially to private homes, small offices and rural areas, where the installation of any kind of new wires tilts the scales of the economic feasibility to a non-profitable state. This problem is known as the ?last mile problem? which has been an active area of research throughout research community.

But if broadband could be served through power lines, there would be no need to build a new infrastructure. Anywhere there is electricity there could be broadband. Broadband over Power Line (BPL) is a technology which allows transmission of data over the same lines used to transmit electrical power. Through signal modulation of existing power, electrical utilities can transmit low frequency signals at 50 Hz to 60 Hz (normal alternating current [AC] power) and higher frequency signals (data) above 1 MHz without any mutual interference. Power line communications uses the radio frequency (RF) signal sent over medium and low voltage AC power lines to allow end users to connect to the Internet. The RF signal is modulated with digital information that is converted by a modem in the home or small business into Ethernet-compatible data.

Historically, power utilities have used alternating current (AC) power line distribution facilities to carry information by coupling radio frequency (RF) energy to AC electrical wiring in houses or buildings. In the past, these devices have operated on frequencies below 2 MHz with limited communications capabilities. Due to power line characteristics it has been difficult to achieve dependable high-speed communications. However, technological advancements have resulted in the development of new systems which have overcome these technical obstacles. Trials have demonstrated that high-speed communication voice and data services can be achieved using the existing medium-voltage (MV) and low-voltage (LV) power distribution grid.
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30-01-2010, 04:58 PM

hi i am finding its intresting... pls send me full report on BPL to
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31-01-2010, 01:33 PM

.ppt   Broadband-Over-Power-Lines.ppt (Size: 1.39 MB / Downloads: 1,554)

Broadband over power lines (BPL), also known as power-line Internet or powerband, Broadband over Power Lines, or BPL, refers to the transmission (sending and receiving) of digital data through existing power cables and electricity distribution infrastructures. PLC technology to provide broadband Internet access through ordinary power lines. A computer (or any other device) would need only to plug a BPL "modem" into any outlet in an equipped building to have high-speed Internet access. International Broadband Electric Communications or IBEC and other companies currently offer BPL service to several electric cooperatives. The key to broadband over power lines (Broadband over Power Lines) technology lies in a long established scientific fact: radio frequency (RF) energy can be bundled on the same line that carries electrical current. Since RF and electricity vibrate on different frequencies, there's not going to be any interference between the two. As such, data packets transmitted over RF frequencies are not overwhelmed or lost because of electrical current., Deployment of BPL has illustrated a number of inherent challenges. The primary one is that power lines are inherently a very noisy environment. Every time a device turns on or off, it introduces a pop or click into the line. Energy-saving devices often introduce noisy harmonics into the line. The system must be designed to deal with these natural signaling disruptions and work around them. For these reasons BPL can be thought of as a halfway between wireless transmission (where likewise there is little control of the medium through which signals propagate) and wired transmission (but not requiring any new cables). BPL may offer benefits over regular cable or DSL connections: the extensive infrastructure already available appears to allow people in remote locations to access the Internet with relatively little equipment investment by the utility. Also, such ubiquitous availability would make it much easier for other electronics, such as televisions or sound systems, to hook up. Cost of running wires such as ethernet in many buildings can be prohibitive; Relying on wireless has a number of predictable problems including security, limited maximum throughput and inability to power devices efficiently. Broadband over power lines has developed faster in Europe than in the United States due to a historical difference in power system design philosophies. Power distribution uses step-down transformers to reduce the voltage for use by customers. But BPL signals cannot readily pass through transformers, as their high inductance makes them act as low-pass filters, blocking high-frequency signals. So, repeaters must be attached to the transformers. In the U.S., it is common for a small transformer hung from a utility pole to service a single house or a small number of houses. In Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses. For delivering power to customers, this difference in design makes little difference for power distribution. But for delivering BPL over the power grid in a typical U.S. city requires an order of magnitude more repeaters than in a comparable European city. On the other hand, since bandwidth to the transformer is limited, this can increase the speed at which each household can connect, due to fewer people sharing the same line. One possible solution is to use BPL as the backhaul for wireless communications, for instance by hanging Wi-Fi access points or cellphone base stations on utility poles, thus allowing end-users within a certain range to connect with equipment they already have.

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30-03-2010, 08:16 PM

plz send me the full report on broad over power lines
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31-03-2010, 06:36 PM

thanks a lot you made my work i would give my seminar and presentation on this topic.
i hope you would add many more topics like this....
bye friend
rakesh parihar
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26-04-2010, 08:07 AM

pls send me full report
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26-04-2010, 09:14 AM

please read and

for getting more information of BROADBAND OVER POWER LINE (BPL) technology
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08-05-2010, 01:15 PM

hiiiiiiiiiiiii sir, i want a full report on broadband over powerline, how it works ,how a data is available to this powerline and how we extract a data from it, and also ppt on it
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24-05-2010, 11:37 AM

pls send me full report on broadband over powerline at
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27-05-2010, 08:22 PM

Broadband over Power Lines
The recent advances in signal processing technology have enabled the advent of modem chips that are able to overcome the transmission difficulties associated with sending communications signals over electrical power lines. Access BPL and In-Home BPL are the two variants of the Broadband over power lines technology. Access BPL is comprised of:
-injectors (used to inject High Frequency (HF) signals onto medium or low voltage power lines)
-extractors (used to retrieve these signals)
-repeaters (used to regenerate signals to prevent attenuation losses)

The In-Home BPL modems utilize the existing house wiring to provision a Local Area Network (LAN). BPL can provide internet access through the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol(TCP/IP) and can support voice, data, and video services. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)i devices, dynamic provisioning, and other forms of modernized electrical power networks can be utilized by it.

BPL Overview:
The development of sophisticated modulation, encoding, and error correction schemes along with much faster DSP techniques as made possible the low-power designs for carrier current devices. spread spectrum or multiple carrier techniques can be made use of. turbo code tecniques such as the concatenated Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction, convolutional coding employing the Viterbi algorithm etc can also be put to use.

Power Line Infrastructure:
the in-place electrical power grid is made use of by BPL. The electric utilities have been using various gauge aluminum-conductors, steel-reinforced cables for electric power distribution. Electric power line cables have been optimized for an average transmission of power of 50-60 hertz (Hz) and a maximum in the range of 400 Hz.

Power Line Characteristics
The major challenges posed by the electrical lines are:
-large attenuation
-electrically contaminated
-lines are made of variety of materials and cross sections are joined almost at random
-characteristic impedances varies widely

HF signals can be injected onto a power line by using an appropriately designed high pass filter. Received signal power will be maximized when the impedance of the transmitter, power line and the receiver are matched.

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07-06-2010, 01:04 PM

.doc   PLC-Power Line Communications.doc (Size: 52 KB / Downloads: 152)

Power Line Communications

Presented By:
S.Siddarth “ IIIrd Year CSE B.Santosh “ IIIrd Year IT
Guru Nanak Engineering College


Broadband power line (BPL) is the term coined by the FCC for new modems (BPL modems) used to deliver IP-based broadband services on electric power lines. On April 23, 2003, the FCC adopted a Notice of Inquiry (NOI), expressing enthusiasm about the potential of the BPL technology to enable electric power lines to function as a third wire into the home, and create competition with the copper telephone line and cable television coaxial cable line. The FCC said that BPL service can be offered now using BPL modems that comply with existing FCC Rules. However, the FCC also asked whether changes to its rules are needed, either to remove unnecessary barriers to BPL service or to protect other devices from interference from BPL modems. BPL modems use silicon chips designed to send signals over electric power lines, much like cable and DSL modems use silicon chips designed to send signals over cable and telephone lines. Advances in processing power enable new BPL modem chips to overcome difficulties in sending communications signals over the electric power lines that could not be overcome with less computing power. BPL modem speed, like cable and DSL modem speeds, is changing rapidly with each advance in new technology, so it would be difficult to make any generalization here that would be accurate or timely. The FCC NOI discusses two types of BPL, In-house BPL and Access BPL.

In-house BPL is a home networking technology that uses the transmission standards developed by the Home Plug Alliance. Products for in-home networking using the electric outlets in your home (or office) are available in stores now. In-house BPL products can comply relatively easily with the radiated emissions limits in Part 15 of the FCC's Rules, because the products connect directly with the low voltage electric lines inside your home or office. In-home networking, while exciting and innovative, is not a major policy concern for the FCC. What the FCC is really wrestling with is how to get broadband Internet access over "the last mile" to the home.
Access BPL is a new technology to carry broadband Internet traffic over medium voltage power lines. BPL modems that electric utilities and their service partners can install on the electric distribution network also are available now. Medium voltage power lines are the electric lines that you see at the top of electric utility poles beside the roadways in areas that do not have underground electric service. Typically there are three electric lines (called phases A, B and C), each carrying several thousand volts. One phase is usually enough to power the houses on a residential street, two or even three phases can be joined together to power the big electric motors in an industrial or commercial area. (You also may see a fourth wire that is the ground wire.)
Inductive couplers are used to connect BPL modems to the medium voltage power lines. An inductive coupler transfers the communications signal onto the power line by wrapping around the line, without directly connecting to the line. A major challenge is how to deliver the signal from the medium voltage line to the low voltage line that enters your house, because the transformer that lowers the electric power from several thousands volts down to 220/110 is a potential road block to the broadband signal. Several methods are now available that successfully solve this problem.
Interference issues between unlicensed devices, including BPL modems, and other electronic devices are governed by Part 15 of the FCC's Rules. All electronic devices sold in the U.S. have to meet FCC radio frequency (RF) emissions limits. When BPL modems are installed on underground electric lines, the communications signal is shielded by the conduit and the earth and as a result is unlikely to cause interference to other communications services. The FCC is more concerned about the interference potential of BPL signals transmitted on exposed, overhead medium voltage power lines.
Public comment responding to the NOI on BPL is invited by the FCC, both from the proponents of the new BPL service, i.e., electric utilities and BPL vendors, as well as those who might be impacted by the BPL signals. For example, on most electric utility poles you will notice that below the four electric utility lines there is a lower segment of the pole where telephone and cable television wires are attached (referred to as the communications space). One of the questions the FCC asks is whether radiated signals from access BPL systems on the electric power lines would interfere with signals on the cable and telephone lines, and vice versa. We can expect a lively debate in the comments filed in response to the NOI on this issue, since the parties involved are competing for the same customers.
A more intelligent electric power grid. Speaking of competitors, why should we care about any of this when 3G wireless cellular telephone networks, wireless in-home networking and Wi-Fi hotspots claim to have the answer to delivering broadband to everyone? Electric utilities are not just looking at BPL as a way of entering the communications business. In fact, they may want to leave that part of BPL to a partner, perhaps an ISP, a CLEC or a long distance company looking for an alternative last mile path to their customers. Electric utilities are interested in BPL because it can give them an intelligent electric distribution grid. This could result in lower electric power costs, less pollution and greater reliability and security.
A better connected appliance. What's interesting about BPL is that every electric device is connected to the electric distribution network. Potentially then, BPL could let chips in every electric device talk to each other. Could we put a Wi-Fi, Blue Tooth or other wireless chip in every appliance? Yes - but BPL may be a better solution. Those who had PC's before the Internet exploded remember the difference in functionality between a standalone PC and a networked PC. Networking every electric device together over the power lines might result in a similar growth in productivity and convenience for your home and office.
Power line communications (PLC), the transmission of high-speed data across the electric power network, has achieved several important milestones since we covered the United Power Line Council (UPLC) annual meeting last year (see WAVE issue 0237). Some of these milestones are positive, such as the first approval of PLC affiliate transaction rules by a state PUC (public utility commission), and some are potentially negative, such as the announcement of an FCC Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) proceeding to investigate PLC interference. On the whole the industry seems to be progressing quickly, with at least two vendors expecting to begin commercial roll-out within six months. But questions still swirl around the business case for wide-scale industry success.
This conference was notable as the first PLC event we have attended that did not kick off with a general tutorial. The organizers assumed that attendees understood the basic technology, and jumped right into updates from the vendors. Also notable was the inclusion of two operational support systems (OSS) vendors in the presentations. These companies provide suites of back-end services such as marketing, provisioning, customer service, and network management. Here was a clear indication that the industry is beginning to seriously consider the implications of rolling out an entirely new network and set of offerings. Because PLC uses existing wires, capital expenses are expected to be low, with operational costs driving expenditures. Controlling those operation costs with good OSS will be the key to a successful roll-out.
During the closing discussion session, Michael Noll, Director of Technology Research at CITI, asked for benchmarks--when should we check back with PLC, to see how it is doing? The panel members agreed on the following benchmarks for the industry:
18 months -- Widespread commercial deployment has begun, to significant numbers of people.
36 months -- PLC acquires its 1 millionth home.

Some of the most important recent PLC developments have been in the regulatory sphere. For the most part PLC has had a low public profile, and with little to no commercial activity yet most regulatory agencies are content to let it develop freely. But now, the FCC is beginning to look closely, as are some states.
At the federal level, the FCC has stated that PLC is a top priority for the OET in 2003, and they continue to be excited about the potential to provide facilities-based competition for the consumer broadband market. The biggest news from the FCC is the OET announcement that they will begin a proceeding this year to investigate any potential for interference by a PLC deployment. This caused enough of a stir that the two major PLC industry groups, the UPLC and Power Line Communications Association (PLCA), jointly filed a report with the FCC before the proceeding was formally announced. They ask the OET to proceed with as much speed as possible, since such an open regulatory issue will likely create uncertainty that could hamper industry growth. Utilities, risk-averse by nature, are unlikely to commit to a large deployment until regulations are stable.
At issue is unintentional radiation created by the PLC signal as it travels over power lines. PLC vendors have been vigilant about FCC Part 15 certification of all their equipment. As an industry, PLC has held that existing Part 15 standards are sufficient to regulate any interference that may be caused. But Alan Scrime, Chief of the Policy and Rules Division at OET, posed this question:
If you are doing everything right, and existing regulations are sufficient, why am I up here asking you questions?
Brett Kilbourne, Director of Regulatory Services for UPLC, had the answer:
Because there are incumbent users [of that spectrum] that you have a duty to protect.
In the PLC band of spectrum, there are established broadcast uses, including amateur radio and military applications such as radar, with which unregulated wire line services such as PLC may not interfere. And while Part 15 explicitly sets limits for point sources of radiation such as pieces of equipment, it does not address interference caused by a network of overhead or underground wires.
Speaking with Alan Scrime after the presentation, he made it clear that the FCC does not know of any PLC interference problems, has no wish to obstruct the growth of the industry. Yet, there is no denying that the heterogeneity of the power network makes it possible that some lines will unintentionally radiate the PLC signal, the cumulative effect of which is unknown. The FCC has no established procedure for measuring this radiation, and no limits to protect incumbent spectrum users. For months, said Alan, PLC vendors and organizations have promised to set up testing sites and report measurements. It has not happened, and with the industry progressing toward commercial deployment the FCC felt compelled to act. The proceeding is expected to begin this month, but has not yet been announced.
At the state level, a regulatory issue that continues to create uncertainty reached a milestone when the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission (PUC) approved the affiliate transaction rules proposed by Pennsylvania Power and Light (PPL) and their subsidiary PPL Telecom. This was the first PLC proposal to be approved by a PUC. Since most electric utilities are regulated monopolies, there are state regulations governing their relationships with affiliate or subsidiary companies. State PUCs must rule on proposed agreements to ensure that the affiliate compensates the utility for the use of its assets--and that the utility passes any savings to consumers through its rates. While the regulations and disposition of the PUC will vary widely from state to state, this initial positive result will likely have a stabilizing effect as a kind of precedent.
Technology and Trials Updates

These sessions began with a revealing survey of the audience as to what type of company each person represented. The majority were from companies already involved in the PLC industry in some way, as a vendor or consultant. Small handfuls were from the press, government agencies, cable and telecom companies, and the smallest number, two, were there representing utilities interested in PLC. Perhaps the academic setting of the conference had something to do with it, but there did not seem to be a strong indicator of utility interest.

Previously focused solely on providing backhaul over MV (medium voltage) power lines, Amperion now has developed and is trialing a Wi-Fi based consumer home solution. The data signal is injected into the MV power line from fiber, then passed from the MV to the LV (low voltage) lines via Wi Fi signaling. This satisfies the safety requirement of American Electric Power (AEP), one of Amperion's customers, that there be no wires connecting the MV to the LV lines around the transformer. This avoids any fault path between the high voltage of the MV regime, and low voltage of the LV regime.
Since, according to Amperion, 95% of people in the US live within 100s of meters of a transformer, they feel that they can use Wi Fi, rather than power lines, to get the signal into the home. In this way the CPE can be any Wi-Fi certified receiver.
Amperion currently is running trials with AEP in Dublin, OH, PPL in Allentown, PA, and a third utility whose name they haven't released yet. Results include MV data rates of 15-24 Mb/s, power line signal propagation good for around 2000 feet before a repeater is necessary, and 3-4 Mb/s per end user (Wi Fi throughput). They claim little latency, even with multiple receivers on the power line.
Install times are between 20 minutes and an hour for the power line equipment. However during the talk Jeff Tolnar, VP Marketing and Business Development for Amperion, mentioned that in the process of installs they had found anomalies in line performance, often requiring some troubleshooting. As the trials develop they are trying to develop the ability to pre-characterize lines. Jeff stated that so far their cost per house passed is between $50 and $150. is in trials in the US with the utilities Ameren, PPL, in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and APPA, in Manassas, Virginia. stated that during the last year they have expanded the size of the trials, signed an evaluation agreement with Southern Company, and released their second generation equipment. has been very active outside the US as well, reporting activities in more than 40 countries, some with small commercial deployments. In Germany, their Manheim commercial offering with utility MVV now has 2000 homes, with 22,000 predicted by 2005. They expect to have infrastructure in place for 120,000 homes by end of this year. is also active in several South American countries, as well as India and Indonesia.
The Manassas trial has been active since May 2002, passes over 50 homes, and involves 15 users in homes and businesses. Data rates for users are 300 to 500 kb/sec at 2500 feet of power line. The Allentown trial with PPL passes over 1300 homes and currently involves around 300 homes. They estimated that the cost per house passed is around $160. has also found inconsistencies and attenuation in the power network, but stated that they are able to deal with them simply by adding repeaters. stated that a US customer (most likely PPL) will begin offering commercial PLC service by the second half of this year.
Current Technologies

Joe Cufari, VP of Business Development for Current Communication Services, presented. Current actually has two companies--Current Technologies, which produces the PLC equipment, and Current Services, which creates joint ventures with utilities, and acts as a service provider to the consumers. In this way they hope to cover the range of potential utility customers. They anticipate that some will simply to purchase technology and act as their own service provider, while others will want a turn-key operation that is managed for them. Current also believes that acting as a service provider will make it easier to introduce utility services such as remote management, automated load balancing, and outage detection.
Current has two active trials in the US, with PEPCO in Maryland, and Cinergy in Ohio. Each trial passes more the 500 homes, with around 100 homes total signed up. The bandwidth to each home is between 2 - 4 Mb/sec symmetric. Since July have tested their technology, back office, repair, and support service and feels they are ready to go commercial.
Current has several "hooks" in its systems, looking to the future. First, Joe stated that Current builds its networks to carry voice, by limiting latency to less than 50 msec. Secondly, they will be able to tier service, perhaps at 256 kb/sec, 512 kb/sec, or 1 Mb/sec. Joe predicted cost parameters of $25.95 for 256kb/sec service, and $39.95 for 1.5 Mb/sec service, but they have not started charging yet. Joe stated that the economics work with 1.1 customers per transformer at first, 0.7 customers per transformer as capital costs decline over time.
PPL Telecom

This company provided a utility telecommunications subsidiary point of view. Like most utility telecom subsidiaries, PPL Telecom was built to leverage the extensive investment in fiber that PPL made along their main power networks. PPL Telecom offers fiber-based service to businesses. They believe PLC may be a way for them to leverage the fiber into the consumer market.
PPL Telecom uses both and Amperion technologies in trials currently. They are now past 1300 homes with, and several hundred with Amperion. Charles Boddy, Manager of Marketing, stated that implementation of Amperion's Wi-Fi solution has required significant troubleshooting. "Service means in the house, not in the yard."
PPL Telecom aims to provide total service--ISP as well as connectivity. During recent trials, they have focused on engaging their support systems more than testing the technology any further. They feel that these systems are more important than the technology for success, including customer care systems such as customer service, billing, support centers and systems, and fulfillment for equipment orders.
Based on their early trials, the Pennsylvania PUC has accepted their affiliate agreement and they will able to begin paying trials. They will most likely go with, starting later this year. PPL serves 1.3 million customers with electric power, but technical and economic issues will likely limit any PLC deployment to 700,00 to 800,000 of those.
Charles put it best:
Success is about availability, reliability, customer service, and trust. It's not always about technology.
The Business Case for PLC

As at the last CITI conference, several industry consultants presented analyses of the business case for PLC. Dr. Rahul Tongia of Carnegie Mellon University, and David Shpigler, President of the Shpigler Group, both presented analyses of the expected prices and penetration rates of PLC, in the larger context of the consumer broadband market. How much churn could PLC providers expect? What amount of market share or local penetration will be considered successful? While the numbers were fluid, and caused some heated exchanges, several important points came out of the discussions:
Rahul pointed out that PLC may be suffering from what he called the Parmenides Fallacy--comparing the expected future of PLC service to today's offerings of cable and DSL. But, he pointed that this was dangerous, since both cable and DSL are improving even as PLC is developing. Cable and DSL are likely to have higher performance for lower prices in the future.
David stated that until recently, the PLC industry was being driven by the vendors. Currently he sees that it is starting to change, with some utilities and service providers beginning to actively drive the development of the PLC industry. This is essential, since it will be these two constituencies that will drive consumer deployment and adoption.
Both David Shpigler and Charles Boddy of PPL Telecom emphasized the point that in PLC, operating expenses, not capital expenses, will represent the greatest costs. Recurring fixed costs include utility affiliate payments, upstream network costs, customer care systems, and marketing, all of which must be managed closely to achieve profitability.
The importance of strong management of operating expenses was emphasized by George Grabowich, VP of Business Development at Passport Corporation, and Antonia Townsend, VP of Marketing and Corporate Development at Fine Point Technologies. These are two companies that provide OSS systems to networks, and are looking to get involved with the PLC industry. Both offer a suite of services to utilities or their affiliate PLC service providers, to help manage the ongoing costs involved with rolling out and then managing a telecom network.
So what is the business case for PLC? As articulated during the roundtable discussion that closed the conference, both vendors and at least one utility subsidiary (PPL Telecom) believe that there are significant opportunities for PLC:
In areas that are not currently served, or are underserved by cable and DSL;
In 3rd and 4th tier markets where there may only be one option for broadband;
With people who are unhappy with their current Internet service, dial up or broadband; and
With people who are unhappy with the cost of other broadband services.
Most felt that it was very possible for PLC to co-exist with cable and DSL, and still succeed. As Charles Boddy stated:
I don't have to do it better than the incumbents; I just have to do it profitably.

Oleg Logvinov, President and COO of Enikia, titled his presentation "Lack of Standards Will Kill This Market." He believes that for PLC to succeed on a large scale, a standard for the interoperability of access equipment must be achieved. This will:
Eliminate uncertainty for utilities, by guaranteeing that they will not get stuck with one proprietary vendor;
Drive competition; and
Help keep operating expenses low.
Currently the only PLC standard is HomePlug, which was designed for in-home use only. Most the vendors are moving toward compatibility with HomePlug on their LV solution, and Current Technologies actually uses HomePlug for the whole LV side of their technology. In a talk after the conference, Oleg emphasized to us that sometimes specialization is good, and that in his opinion the demarcation point should still be the door of the house. HomePlug can provide for in-home interoperability for home networking, and the industry should develop a separate interoperability standard for access equipment. His model was the DOCSIS or Wi Fi programs, including full interoperability testing and certification.
HomePlug is not sitting still either, and the HomePlug Alliance is currently working on the next standard, to be called HomePlug AV. This is another in-home standard, intended to allow consumers to use the power lines in their house to pass audio/visual content around. Their goal is bandwidth greater than 20Mb/sec, with QoS sufficient to pass video or voice without latency or jitter.
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08-06-2010, 03:34 PM

.docx   Broadband Over Power Line.docx (Size: 722.37 KB / Downloads: 182)


Broadband Over Power Line


Broadband over Power Line (BPL) is a
technology that allows Internet data to be transmitted over utility power lines.

In order to make use of BPL, subscribers use neither a phone, cable nor a satellite connection.

Instead, a subscriber installs a modem that plugs into an ordinary wall outlet and pays a subscription fee similar to those paid for other types of Internet service
They travel along the wires and pass through the utility transformers to subscribers' homes and businesses. Little, if any, modification is necessary to the utility grid to allow transmission of BPL
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is currently working on a set of rules according to which BPL may be implemented in the United States. Power line communications uses the RF signal sent over medium and low voltage AC power lines to allow end users to connect to the Internet.
The RF signal is modulated with digital information that is converted by an interface in the home or small business into Ethernet compatible data

Block diagram of BPL

Closeview of household

BPL Modem Connection

The Power Grid

To gain a good understanding of how PLC Works an excellent understanding of the Power Grid is required.
Unlike telephony and it's associated technologies there is no set standard for providing power
Power is generated at Power stations and distributed around a medium to large geographical area via HV lines or High Voltage lines
At the customer's house or premises a transformer is used to drop the voltage down to safer more manageable voltages for use in the home or business.
This power is usually transported over LV or Low Voltage lines. These Low Voltage Lines include the lines that traverse a customer's home or business

PLC Encoding

PLC is based on the idea that any copper medium will transport any electrical signal for a certain distance.

Basically a radio signal is modulated with the data we wish to send.

This radio signal is then sent down the copper medium (our power lines) in a band of frequencies not used by for the purposes of supplying electricity and managing electricity
PLC backbones

PLC Into the Home

There are two means of getting the broadband into the home from the electrical pole.

One method is to use a wireless device located on the power line to broadcast a radio signal containing the data with a receiver located in the home.

This method allows "In Home" PLC to be used to network machines such as printers PCs and other PLC enabled devices.

The alternative is to allow the PLC frequencies to either skip around or pass through the transformer and continue onto the home allowing any devices with PLC connections to be plugged in anywhere in the home

Shows In-building BPL

Categories of PLC or BPL

In-building BPL

¢ These BPL systems use the buildings electrical wiring to network computers within a building.
¢ Most operate under the Home Plug specification.
¢ An example of a company that offers Home Plug is Maxim's Power line products that are based over in the U.S.
¢ This company uses the Home Plug standard to turn ordinary AC power wiring into a data and multimedia network.
¢ It offers 14Mbps data transfer rates over existing electrical wiring in the home or office
Access BPL

Access BPL uses electrical distribution lines, overhead or underground, to provide broadband Internet access to homes and businesses.

These access BPL systems serve as a significant interference potential to over the air radio services such as the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) and the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

Multiple Formats of Access BPL

¢End-to-End Access BPL

Figure It Overview of End-to-End Access BPL Svstem

¢Hybrid Access BPL


The first technique to make use of the power line for control messages was the method - Ripple Control.

This is characterised by the use of low frequencies (100 - 900Hz) giving a low bit rate and a demand on very high transmitter power, often in the region of several 10kWs

In the mid 1980's experiments on higher frequencies were carried out to analyse the characteristic properties of the electric grid as a medium for data transfer

Bi-directional communication was developed in the late 80's and early 1990's and the main difference between these systems and modern systems today is that much higher frequencies and a substantial reduction of the signal levels are used on today's power grid network

Industry Players in PLC
Power Line Communications Association United Power Line Council PLC Forum HomePlug Alliance


Power line communications opens up many new business opportunities for applications and customer services, for both telecom and electricity sectors in Europe and in the U.S.

There are various strong, unique advantages for PLC to become a very important element in the future of broadband communications.

Power line communications provides many advantages for the providers of the service and also more importantly for the end users of the service

A major selling point for the development of PLC for utility companies is that most of the infrastructure is already in place because the technology relies on the existing power grid
The equipment needed to set-up PLC in the home in the U.S. is cheaper on average that that of other broadband solutions such as DSL and cable modem, usually costing (depending on equipment) between $45 up to $75
The equipment uses existing power outlets in the home making it a lot easier to set-up and also is very simple to set-up as it is plug and play
Power line communications outperforms its competitors with speeds of up to 14Mbps. For users in rural areas, who cannot receive DSL or cable modem services, PLC can be used to provide an all in one service providing telephone, cable television and high speed data


Access BPL systems are designed to send information within parts of the 2-80 MHz frequency range along unshielded power lines, which results in the unintended emission of RF energy.

This unintentional radiation can create interference to the radiocommunication services mentioned above
Standardisation of BPL technology to allow better deployment of BPL equipment

Cost of BPL needs to become more competitive in the broadband market

Interference issues needs to be resolved to prevent conflicts of interest between government and radio enthusiasts

The marketing of BPL needs to be performed to a high standard in order to make consumers aware of this technology

There are many examples of power line communications project and implimentations worldwide, ranging from R&D project and implimentations to Internet Service Provider (ISP's) commercial introductions of power line communications.
PLC has taken off in the UK, Germany and also in
the U.S.
The latest news on power line networking in the U.S. is that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has moved forward with a process to measure interference caused by the broadband over power line service.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have expressed concerns over the unlicensed broadband over power line equipment interfering with their licensed radio signals.

However, the FCC staff are confident that the interference problems can be resolved.

The FCC sees broadband over power lines as a potential competitor to digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modem services.

They also see broadband over power lines providing broadband access to places not served by cable or DSL

Thank You
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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14-06-2010, 06:49 PM

just wanted to know the modem they are used for this purpose..
and also like to know equpiments used behind this like(reciever,transmitter,transformer)...
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27-06-2010, 09:11 PM

plz send me the full report with slides to present to
projects wizhard
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Joined: Jul 2010
04-07-2010, 04:08 PM

you can download the doc files posted in the previous posts. PPT is available in these links:
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion

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