C++ Tutorials
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C++ Tutorials


Namespaces are a relatively new C++ feature just now starting to appear in C++ compilers.
We will be describing some aspects of namespaces in subsequent newsletters.
What problem do namespaces solve? Well, suppose that you buy two different generalpurpose
class libraries from two different vendors, and each library has some features that
you'd like to use.
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Introduction to C++

Readings: 1.1-1.3, 1.9-1.13, 1.16-1.18, 1.21-1.22
Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell Labs, 1979)
started as extension to C (macros and variables)
added new useful, features
nowadays a language of its own
C++ (the next thing after C, though wouldn’t ++C be more appropriate?)


Intro to C++
Object-Oriented Programming
Changes in C++
variable declaration location
pointer changes
tagged structure type
enum types
bool type

Object-Oriented Programming

First-class objects - atomic types in C
int, float, char
sets of operations that can be applied to them
how represented irrelevant to how they are manipulated
Other objects - structures in C
cannot be printed
do not have operations associated with them (at least, not directly)

Classes of Objects in C++

similar to structures in C (in fact, you can can still use the struct definition)
have fields corresponding to fields of a structure in C (similar to variables)
have fields corresponding to functions in C (functions that can be applied to that structure)
some fields are accessible by everyone, some not (data hiding)
some fields shared by the entire class

Initializing Array Elements

When giving a list of initial array values in C++, you can use expressions that have to be evaluated
Values calculated at run-time before initialization done

bool operations

Operators requiring bool value(s) and producing a bool value:
&& (And), || (Or), ! (Not)
Relational operators (==, !=, <, >, <=, >=) produce bool values
Some statements expect expressions that produce bool values:

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Origin of C++

C++ is an expanded version of C.The extension to C
were first invented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1980 at
Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill,New Jersey. He
initially called the new language “C with Classes”.
However,in 1983 the name was changed to C++.
Although C ,is one of the most liked and
widely used professional languages in the world,the
invention of C++ was necessiated by one major

Programming factor:

Increasing complexity.
C is an excellent programming language,it too has
its limits.In C,once a program exceeds from 25,000
T0 100,000 lines of code,it become so complex that
that is difficult to grasp as a totality.The purpose of
C++ is to allow this barrier to be broken.The essence
of C++ is to allow the programmer to comprehend
and manage larger,more complex programs.


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a new way of app-
roaching the job of programming.Approaches to programm-
ing have changed dramatically since the invention of the
computers,primarily to accommodate the increasing
complexity of programs.When computers were first
invented,programming was done by toggling in the binary
machine instruction.
The 1960 gave birth to structured programming.This is the
method encouraged by languages such as pascal and C.
The use of structured languages made it possible to write


Encapsulation is the mechanism that binds together
code and data,and that keeps both safe from outside
interference or misuse. Encapsulation allows the
creation of an object.
Within an object,data may be private to the object
and inaccessible to anything outside the object.
An object provides a significant level of protection
against some other,unrelated part of the program

Scope Resolution operator

The :: operator is used to link a class name with a
member name in order to to tell the compiler what
class the members belong to.However,the scope
resolution operator has another related use,it can
allow access to name in an enclosing scope that is
“hidden” by a local declaration of the same name.

Static variable

Static variables are initialized to zero when the
object is created.when declaring a static variable
within a class,that is not allocating storage for it.
Static variable provide a global definition.This is
done by redeclaring the static variable using the
scope resolution operator to identify which class it
belongs to.This causes storage for the variable to be


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