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30-01-2009, 12:01 AM

This paper outlines design, manufacturing, testing and service maintanence of high voltage bushing used in Power Transformers. Particular importance is given to Oil Impregnated paper condenser bushing which is generally used. International as well as national standards define bushing as ?a structure carrying one or several conductors through a partition such as a wall or tank and insulating it or them there from, incorporating the means of attachment (flange or other fixing device) to the partition.? The conductor may form an integral part of the bushing or be drawn through. Bushing in its simplest form would be around conducting electrode covered with insulating materials like porcelains, synthetic resin bonded paper, Cast Epoxy Resin, Polythene, stard rubber etc. In all cases the radial thickness of the bushing is determined by the electric strength of the insulting material and axial clearance governed by the electric strength of the medium surrounding the main insulation eg: air, oil SF-6 gas etc.
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19-09-2012, 10:59 AM


.ppt   condenser.ppt (Size: 2.99 MB / Downloads: 36)

The functions of condensers in steam power plants are to condense the exhaust steam from the steam engine or steam turbine and also to remove air and other non-condensable gases.

Elements of a condenser plant are:

Condenser body.
A supply of cooling water.
Air pump to remove air and uncondensed vapours from the condenser.
Condensate extraction pump.
A pump to circulate the cooling water through the condenser.
A hot well in which the condensed steam is discharged by the condensate extraction pump.
Arrangements for re-cooling the circulating cooling water.

Classification of Jet Condensers

Parallel Flow Type: Here the steam and cooling water enter at the top of the condenser and flow downwards in parallel. The coldest water is thus in contact with hot steam and, therefore, it is less efficient.

Counter Flow Type:

The steam flows upwards through the conden-ser, meeting the cooling water which flows downwards from the top. The air is removed at the top and the condensate and water, separately, at the bottom.
Since the hottest steam is in contact with the hottest cooling water, it is thermodynamically the most efficient, because heat transfer approximates towards reversibility. Also, the cooling of air is most effective and this will reduce the capacity of the air suction pump.


The effects of air leakage into a condenser are:
an increase in the condenser pressure which limits the useful heat drop in the turbine.
a lowering vi the partial pressure of the steam and of 'the saturation temperature along with it. This means that the latent heat increases and therefore, more cooling water is required. Also, the undercooling of the condensate is likely to be more severe. This will result in lower efficiency.

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05-11-2012, 01:04 PM

to get information about the topic "condenser types " full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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