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seminar surveyer
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06-10-2010, 10:59 AM


This is a web oriented application allows us to access the whole information about the college, staffs, students, facilities etc. This application provides a virtual tour of Campus. Here we will get the latest information about the students and staffs. This generic application designed for assisting the students of an institute regarding information on the courses, subjects, classes, assignments, grades and timetable. It also provides support that a faculty can also check about his daily schedule, can upload assignments, and notices to the students. Here administrator will manage the accounts of the student and faculties, makes the timetable, and upload the latest information about the campus.

• College information: Through this service one can access the complete information about the college campus such as courses available, admission procedure, placements, college events, achievements etc.
• Student tracking: Any company or any organization that want to check the summary about the student of the college, so that they will be able to choose the particular students for their campus placement And for that purpose they will be given a particular link through which they can access the information required.
• Student attendance status: It gives the attendance status of students. Faculty will update the attendance periodically and can be seen by students and parents.
• Student’s performance in exams: This facility provides the performance of the student in each exam which is conducted by university or college such as midterm performance. Marks obtained by students in exams will be updated by faculties that can be access by students and parents.
• Exam Notification: This facility notifies students and parents about examination schedule.
• Events: It will give information about different events that will be conducted by college time to time. Information about these events will be updated by administrator.
• Online assignments: This service provides the facility to faculty to upload assignments and to students to submit these assignments online.
• Information about staff: It will help in maintaining complete information about college faculty members such as their department, cadre, date of joining, salary, etc. Administrator will register new faculties and remove their account when they leave the college.

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seminar class
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Posts: 5,361
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18-03-2011, 09:34 AM

Presented by:
Mohammad Waqar
Umair Maqbool
Kashif Baloch
Kazim Raza Rizvi
Mohammad Shahzad
Muzammil Shah

.ppt   DBMS.ppt (Size: 3.96 MB / Downloads: 48)
 Introductory Database Concepts
 Data Warehouse and Data Mining
 Role in the Integrated Database Environment
 Database System Environment
 Database Models
 Data Dictionary
 Three Level Architecture
 Data Independence
Data vs. Information
Data is unprocessed information
Data that have been organized and communicated in a meaningful manner
Data to Information Benefit
Three basic benefits of Data to Information:
 Information reveals meaning of data
 Good, Timely, relevant information key to decision making
 Good decision making key to organization survival
What is Database?

A database is any organized collection of data Some examples of databases you may encounter in your daily life are:
 A Telephone Book
 T.V. Guide
 Airline Reservation System
 Motor Vehicle Registration Records
 Files on your Computer Hdd.
Difference between Database and DBMS?

Organized collection of related data
Ex. Names, Telephone numbers and Addresses of all the people you know
A computerized record-keeping system
It is a set of computer program that controls the creation, maintenance and the use of database. Database development in the hand of DBA and other specialists
Data Warehouse
 Data warehouse is a powerful database model that significantly enhances the users ability to quickly analyze large multidimensional data set
 It organizes data to allow user to make business decisions
 A set of new concept and tools has evolved into a new technology that addresses the problems of providing all key people with access to information needed for the enterprise to survive and prosper in increasingly competitive world
 Date warehousing is a field that has grown form the integration of a number of different technologies and experiences over the past two decades
Why A Data Warehouse?
Everyday organizations large and small create billions of bytes of data about all aspects of their business. Millions of individuals facts about their customers, products, operations, and people but for the most part this is locked up in a maze of computer system and exceedingly difficult to get at. This Phenomenon has been described as “data in jail”
Data Mining
It is a technique of organizing meaningful information from large and unorganized data banks
Organizations generate large amount of data that is unorganized. This data requires processing to be done to generate meaningful information to organize this data we use DBMS but it is not always adequate to meet end user requirements form on large data banks
What is the ultimate purpose of a database management system?
Is to transform
File System Critiques
File System Data Management

 Time consuming
 Make ad hoc quires impossible
 Leads to island of information
 Data inconsistency & redundancy
 Data dependence & structural dependence
Database vs. File System
Historical Perspective

 Earliest days 1960s
 The 1st general purpose DBMS was design by Charls Bachman at general electric in the early 1960s and was called integrated data store it formed for the network data model
 In the late 1960s IBM developed IMS (Information Management system)
 In 1970s Edgar cod IBMS in San Jose Research lab proposed a new data representation frame called relational data model
 In the late 1980s advances have made in many areas of database system
Goals of a DBMS
 To provide an efficient as well as a convenient environment for accessing data in a database
 Remove Difficulty in accessing data
 Enforce information security in database, concurrency & redundancy control, crash recovery
 Reduce application development time
 Uniform data Administration
 Multi users access control
Why do we need a database?
 Keep records of our:
• Clients
• Staff
• Volunteers
 To keep a record of activities and interventions
 Keep sales records
 Develop reports
 Perform research
 Longitudinal tracking
Role in the integrated database environment
Many individual and groups involved in operations, having different role depending on the way they interact with database
 End Users
 Application Programmers
 Database Administrator
End users
Database designs, created and maintained to serve the information need of End Users
User categorized:
 Sophisticated user (Casual User)
They are trained in use of online Query language and access data by entering queries at the terminal
 Naive User
They access the data through application programs
Application Programmers are responsible for writing application programs that use the database. These programs could be written in General Purpose Programming languages such as Visual Basic, C, FORTRAN, COBOL etc.
Database administrator
The DBA is a person or a group of persons who is responsible for the management of the database
DBA is responsible for:
 Authorizing access to the database
 Coordinating and monitoring its use
 managing backups
 Repairing damage due to hardware or software failures and its need
DBMS Users Interaction
Database System Environment
Database Models

Collection of logical constructs used to represent data structure and relationship within the database
 To manage data as a resource
 For the integration of Information System (IS)
 For designing database/data warehouse
 Semantic data model
 Entity Relationship model (ER Model)
 Record based model
 The Relational Model
 Hierarchal model
 The Network Model
Entity relationship model (er model)
 Proposed by Peter Chen in 1970s
 The ER Data Model views the real world as a set of basic objects (entities) and there attributes and relationships among these objects.
 Provide a graphical method for depicting the logical structure of database
An Entity is an object that exists and distinguishable from other objects
Attribute of an entity set are the defining properties or qualities of the entity type
A set of relationship of same type and we add fact the relationship may themselves have descriptive attribute
Graphical method of ER Model

StuName Attribute to entity


Line Link Entity set to Relationship set

Attribute to Relationship set
Hierarchal Database Model
 Logically represented by an upside down tree
• Each parent can have many children
• Each child has only one parent
Network Database Model
 Each record can have multiple parents
• Composed of sets
• Each set has owner record and member record
• Member may have several owners
Relational Database Model
 Perceived by user as a collection of tables for data storage
 Tables are a series of row/column intersections
 Tables related by sharing common entity characteristic(s)
Data Dictionary
It is a repository of information that describe the logical structure of the database
 It has entries from record type, data type, data aggregates and other information
 Store database schema but can be used in creating and processing database
 Contains metadata
 If part of DBMS then called integrated data dictionary
 Communicate with user for exact meaning store
 Helps in retrieving information on call
Three Level Architecture

Is to separate the way the database is physically represented from the way user think about it. Different reasons are there:
User’s view
 Different users need different views of the same data
 The way a particular user needs to see the data may change over time
Dba's view
 The DBA should be able to change the overall logical structure of the database without affecting all users
 The DBA should be able to change data and file structure of database without affecting all users
 Database structure should be unaffected by the changes to the physical aspects of storage, such as changes to the storage devices
Three Level Architecture
External View or Model

The way the user think about data, called the External View Level
 User’s point of view
 External level consists of many different external views
 Each external view may have different representations
 External views are described in External schemas which are written in the Data Definition Language
 Each user’s schema provides complete description of user’s view
 External sachems are used to create GUI
 User only interact with certain entities
 User will be unaware of other entities, attributes and relationships
Conceptual or Logical Model
 DBA’s point of view
 Middle level that contains entire information of the database
 Community view of the database.
 Complete model of working organization
 Complete logical model
 Entities, attributes, relationships, constraints on data, semantic information, security and integrity
 Conceptual model supports external views
 Conceptual model is relatively constant
 DBA is responsible to design it
 Conceptual model can be extended
 It is written in DDL, stored in Data Dictionary and compiled by DBMS, using DML
Physical Model
 Describe how the data stored in the database
 Physical implemetati0n of database
 Include data structure and file organization
 Works with operating system
 To layout data on the storage devices
 Build indexes
 Set the pointers
 Simply, it is managed by OS under the instruction of DBMS
 Mapping b/w logical and physical model
 Stores in data dictionary
Three Level Architecture
Data Independence
The disjointing of data description from the application program (or user interface) that uses the data, data independence
Three Level of Architecture provide the concept of Data Independence
Means that
upper levels are unaffected by bringing changes in the lower level
Types of Data Independence
There are two types
Logical data independence
 The ability to modify conceptual schema or model without causing application program rewritten
 Should not required changes to external schema or model
 Usually done when logical structure of database is altered
Physical data independence
 Refers to immunity of conceptual schema to changes in the internal schema
 Internal schema changes (e.g. using different file organization, storage structure/devices)
 If someone changes his HDD from FAT32 to NTFS
 Modification at this level are usually to improve performance
seminar girl
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17-08-2012, 10:32 AM

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