DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND FABRICATION OF HYDRAULIC ESCALATOR full report
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
JIND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, JIND
An escalator is a moving staircase conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.
Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centers, hotels, and public buildings.
The benefits of escalators are many. They have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase. They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic), they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and they may be weatherproofed for outdoor use.
Escalators are one of the largest, most expensive machines people use on a regular basis, but they're also one of the simplest.
At its most basic level, an escalator is just a simple variation on the conveyer belt. A pair of rotating chain loops pull a series of stairs in a consÃ‚Â¬tant cycle, moving a lot of people a short distance at a good speed.
In this article, we'll look inside an escalator to find out exactly how these elements fit together. While it is exceedingly simple, the system that keeps all the steps moving in perfect synchrony is really quite brilliant.
An escalator is a mechanized moving stairway, common in places with a lot of foot traffic or where a conventional staircase would be very long and tiring to climb. Escalators can often be seen in shopping malls, museums, multi-story parking garages, and subway stations, for example. Escalators are often installed in pairs, with an up escalator and a down escalator adjacent to each other, while a single escalator may be changed to go up or down according to the direction of heavier traffic at different times of the day.
An escalator is similar to a conveyor belt, but differs in that it is on an incline and has a surface of stairs rather than a flat belt. Most escalators also include a handrail that moves in conjunction with the stairs. To move from one end of an escalator to the other, a person may simply stand on one step until one reaches the end, or one may climb or descend the escalator like conventional stairs. Many escalators in busy areas are wide enough to accommodate two columns of people, and those who wish to stand conventionally remain on one side of the escalator.
Modern escalators are usually inclined at 30Ã‚Â°, limited in rise to about 60 feet (18 m), with floor-to-floor rise of about 12 feet (3.5 m). They are electrically powered, driven by chain and sprocket, and held in the proper plane by two tracks. As the treads approach the landing, they pass through a comb device; a deflection switch is actuated to cut off power if an object becomes jammed between the tread and the comb.
Escalators move at a rate of up to 120 feet (36 m) per minute; larger types have a capacity of 6,000 passengers per hour. If a chain breaks, the release of tension stops the escalator. A safety switch also halts the device if a handrail is broken or comes loose or if a side panel is deflected.
Moving ramps or sidewalks, sometimes called travelators, are specialized forms of escalators developed to carry people and materials horizontally or along slight inclines. Ramps may have either solid or jointed treads or a continuous belt. Ramps can move at any angle of up to 15Ã‚Â°; beyond this incline the slope becomes too steep and escalators are favoured. Escalator as shown in fig.1& fig.2
Fig-2 INTERNAL VIEW OF ESCALATOR
CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW
An escalator is a moving staircase conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.
Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centers, hotels, and public buildings.as shown in fig.3
Fig.3 ASSEMBLY OF THE ESCALATOR
There are many claims to the invention of the escalators,but it is like that it was known,at least in some place .in ancient times .Here some of themilesstones in the history of the device
2.1.1 Inventors and manufacturers
Nathan Ames, a patent solicitor from Saugus, Massachusetts, is credited with patenting the first "escalator" in 1859, despite the fact that no working model of his design was ever built. His invention, the "revolving stairs", is largely speculative and the patent specifications indicate that he had no preference for materials or potential use (he noted that steps could be upholstered or made of wood, and suggested that the units might benefit the infirm within a household use), though the mechanization was suggested to run either by manual or hydraulic power.
In 1889, Leamon Souder successfully patented the "stairway", an escalator-type device that featured a "series of steps and links jointed to each other". No model was ever built. This was the first of at least four escalator-style patents issued to Souder, including two for spiral designs
In 1892, Jesse W. Reno, son of American Civil War notable Jesse L. Reno, and an 1883 engineering graduate of Lehigh University, patented the "Endless Conveyor or Elevator." A few months after Reno's patent was approved, George A. Wheeler patented his ideas for a more recognizable moving staircase, though it was never built. Wheelerâ„¢s patents were bought by Charles Seeberger; some features of Wheelerâ„¢s designs were incorporated in Seebergerâ„¢s prototype built by the Otis Elevator Company in 1899.
Reno produced the first working escalator (he actually called it the "inclined elevator") and installed it alongside the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island, New York in 1896. This particular device was little more than an inclined belt with cast-iron slats or cleats on the surface for traction, and traveled along a 25Ã‚Â° incline. A few months later, the same prototype was used for a monthlong trial period on the Manhattan side of the Brooklyn Bridge. Reno eventually joined forces with Otis Elevator Company, and retired once his patents were purchased outright. Some Reno-type escalators were still being used in the Boston subway until construction for the Big Dig precipitated their removal. The Smithsonian Institution considered re-assembling one of these historic units from 1914 in their collection of Americana, but "logistics and reassembly costs won out over nostalgia", and the project and implimentation was discarded.
Around May 1895, Charles Seeberger began drawings on a form of escalator similar to those patented by Wheeler in 1892. This device actually consisted of flat, moving stairs, not unlike the escalators of today, except for one important detail: the step surface was smooth, with no comb effect to safely guide the rider's feet off at the ends. Instead, the passenger had to step off sideways. To facilitate this, at the top or bottom of the escalator the steps continued moving horizontally beyond the end of the handrail (like a miniature moving sidewalk) until they disappeared under a triangular "divider" which guided the passenger to either side. Seeberger teamed with Otis Elevator Company in 1899, and together they produced the first commercial escalator which won the first prize at the Paris 1900 Exposition Universelle in France. Also on display at the Exposition were Reno's inclined elevator, a similar model by James M. Dodge and the Link Belt Machinery Co., and two different devices by French manufacturers HallÃƒÂ© and Piat.
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
There is various type of escalator given below:
Escalators, like moving walkways, are powered by constant-speed alternating current motors and move at approximately 1â€œ2 feet (0.30â€œ0.61 m) per second. The maximum angle of inclination of an escalator to the horizontal floor level is 30 degrees with a standard rise up to about 60 feet (18 m). Modern escalators have single piece aluminum or steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop.layout as shown in fig.4
"Crisscross" "Multiple parallel" "Parallel"
Fig.4 Types of escalator
Escalators have three typical configuration options: parallel (up and down escalators "side by side or separated by a distance", seen often in multilevel motion picture theatres), crisscross (minimizes structural space requirements by "stacking" escalators hat go in one direction, frequently used in department stores or shopping centers), and multiple parallel (two or more escalators together that travel in one direction next to one or two escalators in the same bank that travel in the other direction).
Escalators are required to have moving handrails that keep pace with the movement of the steps. The direction of movement (up or down) can be permanently the same, or be controlled by personnel according to the time of day, or automatically be controlled by whoever arrives first, whether at the bottom or at the top (the system is programmed so that the direction is not reversed while a passenger is on the escalator).
Escalators, while rather expensive and large, are actually relatively basic machines. The machinery of an escalator is hidden beneath its steps in what is called a truss. At the top of the escalator, housed in the truss, is an electric motor which runs the four gears that all escalators have â€ two drive gears on either side at the top and two return gears on either side at the bottom. These gears have chains that loop around the gears and run down each side of the escalator. Connected to each step, these chains help the steps make their way up, or down, the escalator.
The handrails that riders use for balance and safety on their ride up or down escalators are powered by the same system that powers the steps. The handrails are essentially long rubber loops connected to the two drive gears at the top of the escalator and powered by the same electric motor that powers the steps
Speed is controlled by a governor, similar in general principle to that used on stationary steam engines. Two heavy metal balls are attached to pivoted levers which are in turn fixed to a vertical shaft, revolving through gearing. The faster the shaft revolves, the more are the metal balls swung out by centrifugal force, and should the lift speed exceed a predetermined figure the governor actuates a brake.
This device was originally designed to serve as a check on the working of lifts controlled by an attendant travelling on them. In the newer types, no attendant is necessary in the lift itself, as the result of introducing a semiautomatic means of operation known as landing control. With this system, human control is restricted to closing the gates, after which working, including acceleration and deceleration, is automatic.
The advantages of the method are that it saves the passenger's time, and that a single operator can attend to a number of lifts. At certain stations the lift is operated at the upper level by the booking clerk, and an attendant is necessary only at the bottom of the shaft.
Underground station design varies so considerably (for instance, the up and down platforms are not always on the same level) that uniformity in the design of lift shafts has been out of the question, but wherever possible a single shaft accommodates two lifts. Apart from the saving in constructional costs, the arrangement is valuable in the event of breakdown ; should one lift stop through mechanical defect or breakdown, the second lift is brought alongside, and passengers are transferred through the emergency doors at the side.
The existence of these doors is probably unknown to the majority of travellers, since the doors are normally concealed by the advertising panels. In this connexion, it might be pointed out that in general the public has but little knowledge of the steps that are taken to make railway travel safe.
The break-down of a lift is, as a rule, due to some minor mechanical defect that can be put right in a relatively short time. To provide for a complete break-down that is likely to take long to remedy, a special hand-winding gear is installed to bring the lift to the top of its shaft in a few minutes.
Although the application of escalators to railway purposes came later than the use of lifts, the escalator has a longer history than is generally imagined. Its principle is that of an endlessly moving way, running at slow speed, and in one primitive form it had no vertical lift, but moved horizontally.
The use of such moving ways has from time to time been suggested as a substitute for trains, especially on underground lines. Various ingenious schemes have been devised for building a series of such travelling platforms, each running at a different speed, so that passengers could first step on to one that moved forward at, say, three miles an hour, and end up on a fourth way geared to four times that speed ; this procedure to be reversed when alighting at stations. These project and implimentations have not, however, been put to practical use.
The latest practice is to arrange the escalators in banks of three, an arrangement permitting the use of the middle one for reversible working during the rush hours. Another recent innovation is to break up the escalators at interchange stations into two flights; the lower is served by only one line, while the upper is used by passengers to and from both.
Typical examples are at Piccadilly and Tottenham Court Road, and a similar arrangement has been adopted at the reconstructed Holborn Station, which serves both the Central London and the Piccadilly Tubes, and is the latest to be equipped with two flights. Where the flights are interrupted it is the general practice to provide a larger number of escalators at the higher level, where passengers to and from two lines have to be dealt with.
The speed and the capacity of escalators vary considerably. The capacity is, of course, dependent on length, which varies with the depth of the platforms below ground and whether the escalators give continuous travel or are arranged in two flights. So far as speed is concerned, the tendency in recent installations has been to quicken the maximum rate of movement, while the speed can be accelerated or slowed down to meet fluctuations in traffic requirements.
Slowing down is practised when, in the event of heavy traffic congestion, it is necessary to restrict the entrance of passengers to the platforms, or when the service is running irregularly owing to breakdown or other causes. The escalators can be stopped altogether, and then they are temporarily converted into fixed staircases. Where they are arranged in banks of three, the middle one is usually put out of working during the slack hours, both to save current and because a number of people prefer a fixed to a moving stairway.
Experimental use has also been made of an automatic device for regulating the speed. This varies from a travel of 90 ft. a minute on the older types to double that rate on the later installations. In normal working the maximum speed of the latter is, however, usually restricted to 120 ft., but the rate is gradually being increased, and 160 ft. a minute is common during the "rush" hours at a number of stations. With the automatic device referred to speed is increased in accordance with the number of passengers.
Certain of these preliminary models show the prospect of sizable cost savings, predominantly as a result of staff reductions. According to the Building Use Task Force, savings resulting from mothballing building(s) are judged to be minor, and transportation-related savings are reported by the Transportation Task Force to be non-existent.
In this chapter we have followed the procedure of creative engineering design. The following steps have been followed â€œ
Â¢ Definition of the problem.
Â¢ Need analysis description.
Â¢ Development of customer requirements.
Â¢ Development of basic concept design.
Â¢ Evaluation of basic concepts based on the customer requirements & weightages given for each requirement.
Â¢ Carryout detailed design based on the selected concept in all the design details and the manufacturing drawing are given in the chapters to follow.
4.1 DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM
We are to design escalator using gear which is lighter, smaller and less expensive to manufacture.
It also provides smooth drive and torque characteristics from starting to the designed peak condition.
4.2 NEED ANALYSIS
There is a great demand of escalator by the society in todayâ„¢s world of growing technology. it offers many advantages like
1. It is very useful in the multistorage building.
2. Escalator are used to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impracticle
4.3 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
1. Power consumption should be minimum.
2 Escalator running should be smoothly.
3. Handrail should be given for the support of passenger.
4. Surface of steps should not be slippery.
5. The size should be smallest possible so that it should occupy minimum amount of space.
6. angle of inclination should be 30 to 35 degree
7. The functioning of escalator should be easy to perform without much fatigue
8. It should be economical..
4.4 DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC SOLUTION
Requirement Weight age
1.Smooth drive .2
4.5 DETAIL DESIGN
In design of a gear drive, the following data is usually given:
1. The Power to be Transmitted
2. The speed of the driving gear
3. The speed of the driven gear or the velocity ratio
4. The centre distance
Designing of gear
(1) rpm =1440 , power = 5h.p
T = TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY SHAFT
(2) MODULE AND FACE WIDTH OF GEAR
V.R. = N1\N2= 1440\200=7.2
LET Dp=PITCH CIRCLE DIA OF PINION ON THE MOTOR SHAFT
Dg= PITCH CIRCLE DIA OF GEAR ON THE MAIN shaft
Let distance between the shaft
We know that pitch line velocity of drive
Let assume that motor pinion is made of forged steel and the gear of cast steel. Since the allowable static stress for the cast steel is less than the forged steel.
Therefore the design should be based upon the gear.
Let us take allowable static stress for gear material = 140n\mm2
Lewis factor for gear (for 20 stub teeth)
We also known that maximum tangential force on the gear
Wt= (sigma) wg*b*3.14*yg
Wt=140*0.23*10m*3.14*m (0.175-0.00095m) -1
But, Wt=p\v= p*60\3.14*0.878*200=p*60\3.14*0.878*200=405.88N
Putting the value of Wt in above equation of Wt, will get value of m (module) as
2) No. of teeth and pitch circle diameter of each gear
No. of teeth of the pinion
No. of teeth on the gear
Pitch circle diameter of the pinion
Pitch circle dia of the gear
Power that can be transmitted=Wt*v=405.8*9.19=3729.302N
Torque transmitted by the driven shaft
(3) Now N=400rpm
There for torque transmitted by driven shaft
(4) Now N=800rpm
Therefore torque transmitted by driven shaft
(5) Now N=1000rpm
Therefore torque transmitted by driven shaft
Sno. System of gear teeth Mim no, of teeth in pinion
1. 14Ã‚Â½Ã‚Âº composite 12
2. 14Ã‚Â½Ã‚Âº full depth involutes 32 ( bevel gear)
3. 20Ã‚Âº full depth involutes 18 (bevel ring gear)
4. 20Ã‚Âº stub depth involutes 14
We are working on 20Ã‚Âº full depth involutes because it has a strong teeth to take have load pressure angle 14Ã‚Â½Ã‚Âº to 20Ã‚Âº
Min .no, of teeth
Sno Particular 14Ã‚Â½Ã‚Âº comp.& full
Depth involutes system 20Ã‚Âº depth involutes system 20Ã‚Âº stub depth involutes system
1. Addendum 1m 1m 0.8
2. Addendum 1.25 1.25 1
3. Work depth 2 m 2m 1
4. Min.total depth 2.25 2.25 1.80
5. Tooth thick 1.508 1.508 1.508
6. Mim clear 0.25 0.25 0.2
7. Fillet radio at the 0.4 0.4 0.4
Assumption: - dia and teeth of both gears we are taking would be same
Propeller gear 32 â€œ T1
Crone gear â€œ 18 T2
G = T2/T1 = 18/32 =0.5625 %
MODULE (m) = D/T = D1/T1
m=1.75,D=31.5 m=1.75 ,D=56
m=2.75,D=49.5 m=2.75 ,D=88
If m= 1.25
Design considerations force gear drive
1. The power to be transmitted
2. the speed of the driving gear
3. the speed of driven gear
4. the control distance
Necessary with of pinion if p=500 & n-=1800 rpm
T = P p 60/ 2 p N = 500*1000*60/2 p 1800 = 2852N-m
Tangential load Wt= T/Dp = 2652/0.1212 = 49200N
Normal load on teeth Wn = Wt /cosÃƒËœ = 44200/cos22.5 = 47840 N
Since normal pressure 175 N per mm of teeth
Number of teeth on each gear
Tp = Dp/m = 80/5 = 16 Ans
Tg= Dg/m = 100/ 5 = 20 ans
Checking the gear for wear
K = (ses)Ã‚Â² sin/1.4[1/Ep + 1/ Eg]
= (630) Ã‚Â²sin14Ã‚Â½Ã‚Âº/1.4[1/84000 + 1/ 84000]
T = 2 Teg/ Teg + Tep = 2-160/m/160/m + 102.4 m = 1.22
Wn = Dpb Q k/cos pÃ‚Â¹
= 80*22*1.22*1.687/cos 38.66
= 4640 N
Angle =30 degree
Velocity = 1 m/sec
Step width = 1000 mm
Speed desired = 90 feet/min.
Sprocket dia. ~ 20 inch.
Circumference of sprocket = 20 * 3.14
Speed in inch. = 90 fpm*12inch./feet
= 1080 inch./min.
Revolution per minute of sprocket = 1 rotation*velocity/circumference
= 17.19 r.p.m
Assume total passenger load =20000 N
Total stairs load =2000 N
Total load on escalator = 22000 N
No. of stairs = 15
Area of one stairs = 1*0.4 = 0.4m^2
Total area =15*0.4 = 6m^2
Stress produced = load / area
Strain produced = stress / E
(E = Modulus of elasticity)
Material used for escalator is aluminium
E for aluminium = 70 GN
So strain = 3666.6 / 70GN
This means that for a given floor to floor rise, the work point (WP) the point at which the 30 degree incline intersects with the floor level to work point (WP) dimension is always the same, regardless of the manufacturer (floor to floor rise x 1.73205.)
Since manufacturers configure escalator components differently, the distance between the floor level WP and the point at which the escalator intersects with the building structure known as the Face of Support (FOS) varies. As a result, all manufacturers' space requirements between the WP and FOS have different dimensions.As shown in fig.5&6
Fig.5 Escalator geomaterys
Interfacing with the building. The distance between the FOS at the upper end and the FOS at the lower end formulates the actual structural opening of the escalator well-way. Then, an 8" pocket is typically provided at each landing to allow for the alignment of plate finishes with the walk-on plate.
Fig.6 Face support detail
The depth and length of the pit, number of level steps and whether or not intermediate support is required at the back of the escalator pit will all vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, depending upon the rise of the escalator and width of the steps.
Fig.7 Building Interface: Pit Depth, Length and Intermediate Support Insert
4.3 MODEL SIZE
Escalator step widths Energy usage
Size Width (Between Balustrade Panels), in Millimeters Width (Between Balustrade Panels), in Inches Single-step capacity Applications Energy consumption, in Kilowatts Energy consumption, in Horsepower
Very small 400 mm 16 in One passenger, with feet together A rare historic design, especially in older department stores 3.75 kW 5 HP
Small 600 mm 24 in One passenger Low-volume sites, uppermost levels of department stores, when space is limited 3.75 kW 5 HP
Medium 800 mm 32 in One passenger + one package or one piece of luggage. Shopping malls, department stores, smaller airports 7.5 KW 10 HP
Large 1000 mm 40 in Two passengers â€ one may walk past another Mainstay of metro systems, larger airports, train stations, some retail usage 7.5 KW 10 HP
TABLE-1 MODELS SIZE
i. Detailed description about the Escalator is given in the report.
ii. Literature survey on Escalator has been carried out.
iii. Work to be carried on Escalator been clearly defined.
iv. Procedural steps to carry out the investigation are given in the methodology chapter.
Components of Escalator
Main camponants of the escalator are discussed below:-
These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. These sections also anchor the ends of the escalator truss. In addition, the platforms contain a floor plate and a combplate. The floor plate provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs. This plate is flush with the finished floor and is either hinged or removable to allow easy access to the machinery below. The combplate is the piece between the stationary floor plate and the moving step. It is so named because its edge has a series of cleats that resemble the teeth of a comb. These teeth mesh with matching cleats on the edges of the steps. This design is necessary to minimize the gap between the stair and the landing, which helps prevent objects from getting caught in the gap.
The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. It is composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top. The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections.
The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop. There are actually two tracks: one for the front wheels of the steps (called the step-wheel track) and one for the back wheels of the steps (called the trailer-wheel track). The relative positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the combplate. Along the straight section of the truss the tracks are at their maximum distance apart. This configuration forces the back of one step to be at a 90-degree angle relative to the step behind it. This right angle bends the steps into a shape resembling a staircase. At the top and bottom of the escalator, the two tracks converge so that the front and back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line. This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheetlike arrangement, one after another, so they can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track. The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the bottom landing, where they pass through another curved section of track before exiting the bottom landing. At this point the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a staircase configuration. This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back to the bottom again.
The steps themselves are solid, one piece, die-cast aluminum or steel. Yellow demarcation lines may be added to clearly indicate their edges. In most escalator models manufactured after 1950, both the riser and the tread of each step is cleated (given a ribbed appearance) with comblike protrusions that mesh with the combplates on the top and bottom platforms and the succeeding steps in the chain. Seeberger- or "step-type" escalators (see below) featured flat treads and smooth risers; other escalator models have cleated treads and smooth risers. The steps are linked by a continuous metal chain that forms a closed loop. The front and back edges of the steps are each connected to two wheels. The rear wheels are set further apart to fit into the back track and the front wheels have shorter axles to fit into the narrower front track. As described above, the position of the tracks controls the orientation of the steps.
The handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers while they are riding the escalator. In an escalator, the handrail is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the main drive gear by a series of pulleys. It is constructed of four distinct sections. At the center of the handrail is a "slider", also known as a "glider ply", which is a layer of a cotton or synthetic textile. The purpose of the slider layer is to allow the handrail to move smoothly along its track. The next layer, known as the "tension member", consists of either steel cable or flat steel tape, and provides the handrail with tensile strength and flexibility. On top of tension member are the inner construction components, which are made of chemically treated rubber designed to prevent the layers from separating. Finally, the outer layerâ€the only part that passengers actually seeâ€is the cover, which is a blend of synthetic polymers and rubber. This cover is designed to resist degradation from environmental conditions, mechanical wear and tear, and human vandalism.
In the factory, handrails are constructed by feeding rubber through a computer-controlled extrusion machine to produce layers of the required size and type in order to match specific orders. The component layers of fabric, rubber, and steel are shaped by skilled workers before being fed into the presses, where they are fused together.
In the mid-twentieth century, some handrail designs consisted of a rubber bellows, with rings of smooth metal cladding called "bracelets" placed between each coil. This gave the handrail a rigid yet flexible feel. Additionally, each bellows section was no more than a few feet long, so if part of the handrail was damaged, only the bad segment needed to be replaced. These forms of handrail have largely been replaced with conventional fabric-and-rubber railings.
Number of factors affect escalator design, including physical requirements, location, traffic patterns, safety considerations, and aesthetic preferences. Foremost, physical factors like the vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered. These factors will determine the pitch of the escalator and its actual length. The ability of the building infrastructure to support the heavy components is also a critical physical concern. Location is important because escalators should be situated where they can be easily seen by the general public. In department stores, customers should be able to view the merchandise easily. Furthermore, up and down escalator traffic should be physically separated and should not lead into confined spaces
Traffic patterns must also be anticipated in escalator design. In some buildings, the objective is simply to move people from one floor to another, but in others there may be a more specific requirement, such as funneling visitors towards a main exit or exhibit. The number of passengers is important because escalators are designed to carry a certain maximum number of people. For example, a single-width escalator traveling at about 1.5 feet (0.46 m) per second can move an estimated 170 persons per five minute period. The carrying capacity of an escalator system must match the expected peak traffic demand, presuming that passengers ride single file. This is crucial for applications in which there are sudden increases in the number of riders. For example, escalators at stations must be designed to cater for the peak traffic flow discharged from a train, without causing excessive bunching at the escalator entrance.
In this regard, escalators help in controlling traffic flow of people. For example, an escalator to an exit effectively discourages most people from using it as an entrance, and may reduce security concerns. Similarly, escalators often are used as the exit of airport security checkpoints. Such an egress point would generally be staffed to prevent its use as an entrance, as well.
It is preferred that staircases be located adjacent to the escalator if the escalator is the primary means of transport between floors. It may also be necessary to provide an elevator lift adjacent to an escalator for wheelchairs and disabled persons. Finally, consideration should be given to the aesthetics of the escalator. The architects and designers can choose from a wide range of styles and colors for the handrails and balustrades.
Safety is also major concern in escalator design. Fire protection of an escalator floor opening may be provided by adding automatic sprinklers or fireproof shutters to the opening, or by installing the escalator in an enclosed fire-protected hall. To limit the danger of overheating, ventilation for the spaces that contain the motors and gears must be provided.
Safety is major concern in escalator design from both the passenger's perspective and the operational integrity of the escalator system and its setting. It is important for designers and specifiers to be aware of escalator installation requirements and available safety features from manufacturers.
Fire protection of an escalator floor opening may be provided by adding automatic sprinklers or fireproof shutters to the opening, or by installing the escalator in an enclosed fire-protected hall. To limit the danger of overheating, adequate ventilation for the spaces that contain the motors and gears must be provided.
Operational safety enhancements:
1. Control & Annunciator. A microprocessor controller is designed to work in conjunction with other safety devices to provide correct information processing and proper escalator control. Escalator faults are identified by the controller and illuminated in a display on the control cabinet.
2. Escalator brake. A permanent magnet ceramic brake is designed to gradually stop the escalator and hold it stationary under full load. The closed-loop brake circuit is designed to meet current ASME Code deceleration rate requirements and operate in conjunction with a velocity feedback
3. Pit stop switch. All escalator machine spaces and areas where interior access to the escalator is allowed, are furnished with a stop switch.
4. Reversal stop device. Protection against accidental or inadvertent reversing of an escalator operating in the UP direction is monitored by a directional feedback encoder. This device, when activated, turns off the motor and activates the brake, bringing the escalator to a smooth stop. This device is designed to turn off the motor and activate the brake to stop the escalator when an object is detected entering the handrail inlet area.
5. Step up thrust device is designed to detect obstructions in the lower curve area, which could cause a step to be elevated, thus impacting the comb plate. When this device detects a raised step, it will shut off the motor and activate the brake to stop the escalator.
6. Handrail speed monitoring device is designed to measure the variation in speed between the step band and handrail. If speed variation exceeds the standard, the controller will sound an alarm buzzer, turn off power to the motor and activate the brake to stop the escalator.
7.Missing step device is designed to detect a missing step. When a missing step is detected, power to the motor is turned off and the brake is activated to stop the escalator.
8. Step level device is designed to detect a step that is about to enter the comb area at a "lower elevation" than the comb plate. If a "low step" is detected, the escalator is turned off and the brake is applied to stop the escalator.
9. Handrail entry device is designed to turn off the motor and activate the brake to stop the escalator when an object is detected entering the handrail inlet area.
10. Comb impact device is designed to shut off the motor and activate the brake in the event that comb plate movement is detected horizontally or vertically.
11. Skirt obstruction switch is designed to detect obstructions between the skirt and step at the point where the step approaches the upper and/or lower comb plate area. This device will shut down the escalator in the case of an entrapment.
12 Broken step chain device. Installed on the lower end carriage, this device is designed to detect step-chain breakage or excessive step-chain sag.
13 Energy saving control is designed to save up to 40% in energy costs, extend motor life and provide a smooth, safe start.
Passenger safety features:
14.Skirt gap and stiffener. Installation of skirt stiffening channels is designed to provide uniform clearance between the step edge and skirt, reducing the possibility of entrapment between the step and skirt.
15 Demarcation inserts. Installation of plastic demarcation inserts along the side and rear of step warn passengers of possible foot entrapment points and will not wear off after time like paint.
16 Emergency stop buttons and alarm. The emergency stop button installed at a 45 degree angle increases accessibility in the event of an emergency.
17 Step demarcation lights. Green fluorescent light fixtures beneath the steps at the landings are designed to signal the passenger that the end of the escalator is near.
18. Safety signs. These signs are designed to caution and provide safety information to the passengers.
19. Skirt brushes. These escalator skirt deflector brushes are designed to encourage safe escalator use by providing a subtle indicator to passengers riding near the step's edge.
20. Deck guards. These plastic barriers are designed to prevent an object and people from getting wedged between the escalator handrail and a wall or another escalator
21. Yellow comb segments. Yellow comb segments define the end of a moving escalator step and the stationary aluminum comb plate while warning passengers to pick up their feet.
Primary uses and application
As noted above, a few escalator types were installed in major department stores (including Harrods) before the Expo. Escalators proved instrumental in the layout and design of shopping venues in the twentieth century.
By 1898, the first of Renoâ„¢s "inclined elevators" were incorporated into the Bloomingdale Bros. store at Third Avenue and 59th Street. This was the first retail application of the devices in the US, and no small coincidence, considering that Reno's primary financier was Lyman Bloomingdale, co-owner of the department store with brother Joseph Bloomingdale.
The first "standard" escalator installed on the London Underground was a Seeberger model at Earls Court. Noted above, London's Underground installed a rare spiral escalator designed by Reno, William Henry Aston and Scott Kietzman for the Holloway Road Underground station in 1906; it was run for a short time but was taken out of service the same day it debuted. The older lines of the London Underground had many escalators with wooden treads (ca. 1930s) until they were rapidly replaced following the King's Cross fire, noted above
An escalator at Hunters Point Naval Shipyard was used to convey personnel between the first and third floors. At the time of its construction in 1948, it was touted thus: "[it has the] highest lift of any industrial building in the world. It rises 42 feet."
Escalators were also utilized on aircraft carriers such as the USS Hornet (CV-12), to transport pilots from "ready rooms" to the flight deck.
Chapter no. 1 2-4
Chapter no. 2 5-10
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Chapter no. 3 11
Chapter no. 4 12-18
Chapter no.5 19-24
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