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Computer Science Clay
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25-02-2009, 02:24 PM


Now a day it is very easy to establish communication from one part of the world to other. Despite this even now in remote areas villagers travel to talk to family members or to get forms which citizens in-developed countries an call up on a computer in a matter of seconds. The government tries to give telephone connection in very village in the mistaken belief that ordinary telephone is the cheapest way to provide connectivity. But the recent advancements in wireless technology make running a copper wire to an analog telephone much more expensive than the broadband wireless Internet connectivity. Daknet, an ad hoc network uses wireless technology to provide digital connectivity. Daknet takes advantages of the existing transportation and communication infrastructure to provide digital connectivity.

Daknet whose name derives from the Hindi word "Dak" for postal combines a physical means of transportation with wireless data transfer to extend the internet connectivity that a uplink, a cyber café or post office provides.Real time communications need large capital investment and hence high level of user adoption to receiver costs. The average villager cannot even afford a personnel communications device such as a telephone or computer. To recover cost, users must share the communication infrastructure. Real time aspect of telephony can also be a disadvantage. Studies show that the current market for successful rural Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services does not appear to rely on real-time connectivity, but rather on affordability and basic interactivity.

The poor not only need digital services, but they are willing and able to pay for them to offset the much higher costs of poor transportation, unfair pricing, and corruption. It is useful to consider non real-time infrastructures and applications such as voice mail, e-mail, and electronic bulletin boards. Technologies like store- and forward or asynchronous modes of communication can be significantly lower in cost and do not necessarily sacrifice the functionality required to deliver valuable user services. In addition to non real-time applications such as e-mail and voice messaging , providers can use asynchronous modes of communication to create local information repositories that community members can add to and query.
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10-09-2009, 12:34 PM

report of daknet
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10-09-2009, 02:33 PM

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1 2 MOBILE AD HOC CONNECTIVITY The DakNet wireless network takes advantage of the existing communications and transportation infrastructure to distribute digital connectivity to outlying villages lacking a digital communications infrastructure. 3 DakNet, an ad hoc network that uses wireless technology to provide asynchronous digital connectivity. Developed by MIT Media Lab Researchers. Deployed in remote parts of both India and Cambodia at a cost two orders of magnitude less than that of traditional landline solutions. 4 DakNet transmits data over short pointto-point links between kiosks and portable storage devices, called mobile access points (MAPs). MAP physically transports data among public kiosks and private communications devices (as an intranet) and between kiosks and a hub (for nonreal-time Internet access). Low-cost WiFi radio transceivers automatically transfer the data stored in the MAP at high bandwidth for each point-topoint connection. 5 6 7 8 As the MAP-equipped vehicle comes within range of a village WiFienabled kiosk, it automatically senses the wireless connection and then uploads and downloads tens of megabytes of data. When a MAP-equipped vehicle comes within range of an Internet access point (the hub), it automatically synchronizes the data from all the rural kiosks, using the Internet. 9 Although the data transport provided by DakNet is not real-time, a significant amount of data can be moved at once. As a result, it is interesting to note that physically transporting data from village to village by this means generally provides a higher data throughput than other low-bandwidth technologies, such as telephone modems. By employing short-distance radio links, DakNet allows for small low-cost low-power radio devices to be used. The use of short-distance radio links also ensures high-data rates and does not have the interference problems, security problems, and maintenance costs associated with long distance wireless links. 10 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS The store-and-forward wireless network represented by DakNet can be used for a wide variety of applications that require automated low-cost distribution and collection of information. Internet/intranet messagingThis can include e-mail, video/audio messaging, mobile ecommerce. Information distribution/broadcastingThis can include community bulletin boards, transfer of educational materials, public health announcements, news, music and video Broadcasts. 11 Information collectionThis can include collection of environmental sensor information, voting, census/polling, health records, and land records. Rural supply chain managementBy incorporating Global Positioning Systems the DakNet network can also function as a means of tracking the movement of vehicles and shipment of goods in a geographical area. Information searching, web servicesBy incorporating new types of Internet applications that are designed for non-real-time access, many new web-related applications can be developed for the rural market. 12 Seamless scalability DakNet provide a seamless method of upgrading to always-on broadband connectivity. Can use the same hardware, software, and user interface to enjoy real time information access. With low-cost terminals and local userinterface design and applications” DakNet makes it practical for individual households and private users to get 13 connected. DAKNET ECONOMICS A back-of-the-envelope calculation for DakNet suggests that a capital investment of $5M could equip 50,000 rural vehicles with a $100 MAP and thereby provide intermittent broadband connectivity to most of rural India. This is orders of magnitude lower in cost than current alternatives for rural communications. {Capital cost of a DakNet Hub providing connectivity to 12 14 surrounding villages} Distributing this cost across 12 villages (the estimated average range for 1 MAP is 6 villages), the cost per-village of DakNet would be under $500. This could enable each village kiosk operator to achieve profitability within one year of operation. If capital expenditures for the villages are assumed by the owner of the Hub, this entity could achieve positive operating income within 24 months of operation and cumulative cash flow positive within 36 months of operation. This also factors in the salary of a Hub manager, rent, and administrative and marketing expenses. 15 DAKNET DEMONSTRATION & TESTING A technology demonstration of DakNet has been performed at Tikawali village in Faridabad, India in March, 2002. The network was implemented to successfully support text, audio, and video messaging as an intranet between the village and a Hub located near Ballabgarh. Further testing of the network performance was done at 6 villages near Sirsa, India, which included range and throughput tests for fixed and mobile wireless access points. 16 Continuous Range & Throughput Test For each village, a compact 3 dbi antenna was installed on the roof of the kiosk as well as on the roof of a car vehicle serving as the Mobile Access Point (MAP). The maximum range at which the wireless connection could be established was approximately 400m. At this distance, the measured data rate was approximately 0.2 Mb/s increasing to 4 Mb/s at a distance of 10 meters from the kiosk antenna. During the approach to the kiosk, the MAP would typically go in and out of line-of-sight with the kiosk antenna due to intervening buildings, with 66% line17 of-sight on average. DAKNET IN ACTION Villages in India and northern Cambodia are actively using DakNet with good results. One of DakNet™s earliest deployments was as an affordable rural connectivity solution for the Bhoomi e-governance project and implimentation. In September 2003, DakNet is implemented in a remote province of Cambodia. DakNet is implemented in 20 villages in Orissa which are abt 75 miles away from Bhuvaneshwar. People make job searches and matrimonial searches and also e-shopping 18 Access Point 19 Bhoomi initiative in India Bhoomi, an initiative to computerize land records, is recognized as the first national egovernance initiative in India. Pioneered by the State Government of Karnataka, Bhoomi has been successfully implemented at district headquarters across the state to completely replace the physical land records system. A public government bus with a DakNet MAP is employed to transport land record requests from each village kiosk to the taluka server. 20 DakNet enabled Public Bus 21 22 A session occurs each time the bus comes within range of a kiosk and the MAP transfers data. The average length of a session is 2 minutes and 34 seconds, during which the MAP transfers an average of 20.9 Mbytes unidirectionally (kiosk to MAP or MAP to kiosk) and up to twice that amount bidirectionally (from kiosk to MAP and MAP to kiosk). The average goodput (actual data throughput) for a session, during which the MAP and kiosk go in and out of connection because of mobility and obstructions, is 2.47 Mbps. 23 The total cost of the DakNet MAP equipment used on the bus is $580, which includes ¢ A custom embedded PC running Linux with 802.11b wireless card and 512 Mbytes of compact flash memory; ¢ A 100-mW amplifier, cabling, mounting equipment, and a 14-inch omni-directional antenna; and ¢ An uninterruptible power supply powered by the bus battery. 24 E-mail for Cambodian schools CambodiaSchools.com operates 225 rural schools throughout Cambodia with funding from private donors and the World Bank. The aim was to provide students with Internet access by providing asynchronous connectivity to the backbone or hub”a satellite dish in the provincial capital of Ban Lung, which has a 256Kbyte per second link. The terrain in northern Cambodia is so difficult that MAPs are placed on Honda motorcycles instead of buses. For one particularly remote area, the MAP is affixed even to an ox cart. The results of the project and implimentation, which we dubbed the Internet. For the first time, students in these Cambodian schools could send e-mail, request Web pages, and feel connected to the rest of the world. 25 26 Internet Village Motomen Motoman After 16km Ride Through Swamp¦ 27 OxNet 28 Next Steps: Scaling It Up DakNet is going to be deployed and tested in larger implementations with applications that exploit in broadband capabilities. The current R&D focus is on further lowering the costs of the required and developing a highly interoperable and cross platform software module so that deployment processes can be streamlined.

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