Electrical Seminar Abstract And Report 9
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15-02-2009, 01:27 PM

Fuzzy Logic

In this context, FL is a problem-solving control system methodology that lends itself to implementation in systems ranging from simple, small, embedded micro-controllers to large, networked, multi-channel PC or workstation-based data acquisition and control systems. It can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. FL provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy, or missing input information. FL's approach to control problems mimics how a person would make decisions, only much faster. As the complexity of a system increases, it becomes more difficult and eventually impossible to make a precise statement about its behavior, eventually arriving at a point of complexity where the fuzzy logic method born in humans is the only way to get at the problem.


The concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL) was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the University of California at Berkley, and presented not as a control methodology, but as a way of processing data by allowing partial set membership rather than crisp set membership or non-membership. This approach to set theory was not applied to control systems until the 70's due to insufficient small-computer capability prior to that time. Professor Zadeh reasoned that people do not require precise, numerical information input, and yet they are capable of highly adaptive control. If feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they would be much more effective and perhaps easier to implement. Unfortunately, U.S. manufacturers have not been so quick to embrace this technology while the Europeans and Japanese have been aggressively building real products around it.

How is FL different from conventional control methods?

FL incorporates a simple, rule-based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach to a solving control problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically. The FL model is empirically-based, relying on an operator's experience rather than their technical understanding of the system. For example, rather than dealing with temperature control in terms such as "SP =500F", "T <1000F", or "210C
How does Fl work?

FL requires some numerical parameters in order to operate such as what is considered significant error and significant rate-of-change-of-error, but exact values of these numbers are usually not critical unless very responsive performance is required in which case empirical tuning would determine them. For example, a simple temperature control system could use a single temperature feedback sensor whose data is subtracted from the command signal to compute "error" and then time-differentiated to yield the error slope or rate-of-change-of-error, hereafter called "error-dot". Error might have units of degs F and a small error considered to be 2F while a large error is 5F. The "error-dot" might then have units of degs/min with a small error-dot being 5F/min and a large one being 15F/min. These values don't have to be symmetrical and can be "tweaked" once the system is operating in order to optimize performance. Generally, FL is so forgiving that the system will probably work the first time without any tweaking.

Simputer is a multilingual mass access low cost hand held device currently being developed. The information mark up language is the primary format of the content accessed by the Simputer. The information mark up language (IML) has been created to provide a uniform experience to users and to allow rapid development of solution on any platform. The Simputer proves that illiteracy is no longer a barrier in handling a computer. The Simputer through its smart card feature allows for personal information management at the individual level for a unlimited number of users. Applications in diverse sectors can be made possible at an affordable price.

A rapid growth of knowledge can only happen in an environment which admits free exchange of thought of information. Indeed, nothing else can explain the astounding progress of science in the last three hundred years. Technology has unfortunately not seen this freedom two often. Several rounds of intends discussions among the trustees convinced them that the only way to break out the current absurdities is to foster a spirit of co-operation in inventing new technologies. The common mistake of treating to-operation as a synonym of charity poses its own challenges. The Simputer Licensing Framework is the Trust's responds to these challenges.

What is Simputer?

A Simputer is a multilingual, mass access, low cost, portable alternative to PC's by which the benefits of IT can reach the common man. It has a special role in the third world because it is ensures that illiteracy is no longer barrier in handling a computer. The key to bridging the digital divide is to have shared devices that permit truly simple and natural users interfaces based on sight, touch and studio. The Simputer meets these demands through a browser for the Information Markup Language (IML). IML has been created to provide a uniform experience to users to allow rapid development of solutions on any platform.


Simputer is a hand held device with the following features:

- It is portable
- A (320 X 240) LCD Panel which is touch enabled
- A speaker, microphone and a few keys
- A soft keyboard
- A stylus is a pointing device
- Smart card reader in Simputer
- The use of extensive audio in the form of text to speech and audio snippets

The display resolution is much smaller than the usual desktop monitor but much higher than usual wireless devices (cell phones, pagers etc). The operating system for Simputer is Linux. It is designed so that Linux is to be started up in frequently, but the Simputer is in a low power mode during the times it is not in use. When the Simputer is 'powered on', the user is presented with a screed having several icons.

What Makes Simputer Different From Regular PCs?

Simputer is not a personal computer. It could however be a pocket computer. It is much more powerful than a Palm, with screen size 320 x 240 and memory capability (32MB RAM). The Wintel (Windows + Intel) architecture of the de facto standard PC is quite unsuitable for deployment on the low cost mass market. The entry barrier due to software licensing is just too high. While the Wintel PC provides a de facto level f standardization, it is not an open architecture. The Simputer mean while is centered around Linux which is freely available, open and modular
Wavelet Video Processing Technology
Wavelet Video Processing Technology


Uncompressed multimedia data requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Despite rapid progress in mass storage density processor speeds and digital communication system performance, demand for data storage capacity and data transmission bandwidth continues to outstrip the capabilities of available technologies. The recent growth of data intensive multimedia-based web applications have not only sustained the need for more efficient ways to encode signals and images but have made compression of such signals central to storage and communication technology.

For still image compression, the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) standard has been established. The performance of these codes generally degrades at low bit rates mainly because of the underlying block-based Discrete cosine Transform (DCT) scheme. More recently, the wavelet transform has emerged as a cutting edge technology, within the field of image compression. Wavelet based coding provides substantial improvements in picture quality at higher compression ratios. Over the past few years, a variety of powerful and sophisticated wavelet based schemes for image compression have been developed and implemented. Because of the many advantages, the top contenders in JPEG-2000 standard are all wavelet based compression algorithms.

Image Compression

Image compression is a technique for processing images. It is the compressor of graphics for storage or transmission. Compressing an image is significantly different than compressing saw binary data. Some general purpose compression programs can be used to compress images, but the result is less than optimal. This is because images have certain statistical properties which can be exploited by encoders specifically designed for them. Also some finer details in the image can be sacrificed for saving storage space.

Compression is basically of two types.

1. Lossy Compression
2. Lossless Compression.

Lossy compression of data concedes a certain loss of accuracy in exchange for greatly increased compression. An image reconstructed following lossy compression contains degradation relative to the original. Often this is because the compression scheme completely discards redundant information. Under normal viewing conditions no visible is loss is perceived. It proves effective when applied to graphics images and digitized voice.

Lossless compression consists of those techniques guaranteed to generate an exact duplicate of the input data stream after a compress or expand cycle. Here the reconstructed image after compression is numerically identical to the original image. Lossless compression can only achieve a modest amount of compression. This is the type of compression used when storing data base records, spread sheets or word processing files.
IP Telephony
IP Telephony

If you've never heard of Internet Telephony, get ready to change the way you think about long-distance phone calls. Internet Telephony, or Voice over Internet Protocol, is a method for taking analog audio signals, like the kind you hear when you talk on the phone, and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet.

How is this useful? Internet Telephony can turn a standard Internet connection into a way to place free phone calls. The practical upshot of this is that by using some of the free Internet Telephony software that is available to make Internet phone calls, you are bypassing the phone company (and its charges) entirely.

Internet Telephony is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world's phone systems. Internet Telephony providers like Vonage have already been around for a little while and are growing steadily. Major carriers like AT&T are already setting up Internet Telephony calling plans in several markets around the United States, and the FCC is looking seriously at the potential ramifications of Internet Telephony service. Above all else, Internet Telephony is basically a clever "reinvention of the wheel." In this article, we'll explore the principles behind Internet Telephony, its applications and the potential of this emerging technology, which will more than likely one day replace the traditional phone system entirely.

The interesting thing about Internet Telephony is that there is not just one way to place a call. There are three different "flavors" of Internet Telephony service in common use today: ATA - The simplest and most common way is through the use of a device called an ATA (analog telephone adaptor). The ATA allows you to connect a standard phone to your computer or your Internet connection for use with Internet Telephony.

The ATA is an analog-to-digital converter. It takes the analog signal from your traditional phone and converts it into digital data for transmission over the Internet. Providers like Vonage and AT&T CallVantage are bundling ATAs free with their service. You simply crack the ATA out of the box, plug the cable from your phone that would normally go in the wall socket into the ATA, and you're ready to make Internet Telephony calls. Some ATAs may ship with additional software that is loaded onto the host computer to configure it; but in any case, it is a very straightforward setup. IP Phones - These specialized phones look just like normal phones with a handset, cradle and buttons. But instead of having the standard RJ-11 phone connectors, IP phones have an RJ-45 Ethernet connector. IP phones connect directly to your router and have all the hardware and software necessary right onboard to handle the IP call. Wi-Fi phones allow subscribing callers to make Internet Telephony calls from any Wi-Fi hot spot.

Computer-to-computer - This is certainly the easiest way to use Internet Telephony. You don't even have to pay for long-distance calls. There are several companies offering free or very low-cost software that you can use for this type of Internet Telephony. All you need is the software, a microphone, speakers, a sound card and an Internet connection, preferably a fast one like you would get through a cable or DSL modem. Except for your normal monthly ISP fee, there is usually no charge for computer-to-computer calls, no matter the distance.

If you're interested in trying Internet Telephony, then you should check out some of the free Internet Telephony software available on the Internet. You should be able to download and set it up in about three to five minutes. Get a friend to download the software, too, and you can start tinkering with Internet Telephony to get a feel for how it works.

The nature of the public network has changed. Demand for Internet Protocol (IP) data is growing at a compound annual rate of between 100% and 800%1, while voice demand remains stable. What was once a predominantly circuit switched network handling mainly circuit switched voice traffic has become a circuit-switched network handling mainly IP data. Because the nature of the traffic is not well matched to the underlying technology, this network is proving very costly to scale. User spending has not increased proportionally to the rate of bandwidth increase, and carrier revenue growth is stuck at the lower end of 10% to 20% per year. The result is that carriers are building themselves out of business.

Over the last 10 years, as data traffic has grown both in importance and volume, technologies such as frame relay, ATM, and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) have been developed to force fit data onto the circuit network. While these protocols provided virtual connections-a useful approach for many services-they have proven too inefficient, costly and complex to scale to the levels necessary to satisfy the insatiable demand for data services. More recently, Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) has been adopted by many network service providers as a way to network user data without the burden of SONET/SDH and ATM. GigE has shortcomings when applied in carrier networks were recognized and for these problems, a technology called Resilient Packet Ring Technology were developed.

RPR retains the best attributes of SONET/SDH, ATM, and Gigabit Ethernet. RPR is optimized for differentiated IP and other packet data services, while providing uncompromised quality for circuit voice and private line services. It works in point-to-point, linear, ring, or mesh networks, providing ring survivability in less than 50 milliseconds. RPR dynamically and statistically multiplexes all services into the entire available bandwidth in both directions on the ring while preserving bandwidth and service quality guarantees on a per-customer, per-service basis. And it does all this at a fraction of the cost of legacy SONET/SDH and ATM solutions.

Data, rather than voice circuits, dominates today's bandwidth requirements. New services such as IP VPN, voice over IP (VoIP), and digital video are no longer confined within the corporate local-area network (LAN). These applications are placing new requirements on metropolitan-area network (MAN) and wide-area network (WAN) transport. RPR is uniquely positioned to fulfill these bandwidth and feature requirements as networks transition from circuit-dominated to packet-optimized infrastructures.

RPR technology uses a dual counter rotating fiber ring topology. Both rings (inner and outer) are used to transport working traffic between nodes. By utilizing both fibers, instead of keeping a spare fiber for protection, RPR utilizes the total available ring bandwidth. These fibers or ringlets are also used to carry control (topology updates, protection, and bandwidth control) messages. Control messages flow in the opposite direction of the traffic that they represent. For instance, outer-ring traffic-control information is carried on the inner ring to upstream nodes.
PH Control Technique using Fuzzy Logic

Multisensor Fusion and Integration

Integrated Power Electronics Module



Fluorescent Multi-layer Disc
Fluorescent Multi-layer Disc

Requirements for removable media storage devices (RMSDs) used with personal computers have changed significantly since the introduction of the floppy disk in 1971. At one time, desktop computers depended on floppy disks for all of their storage requirements. Even with the advent of multigigabyte hard drives, floppy disks and other RMSDs are still an integral part of most computer systems, providing.

¢ Transport between computers for data files and software
¢ Backup to preserve data from the hard dive
¢ A way to load the operating system software in the event of a hard failure.

Data storage devices currently come in a variety of different capacities, access time, data transfer rate and cost per Gigabyte. The best overall performance figures are currently achieved using hard disk drives (HDD), which can be integrated into RAID systems (reliable arrays of inexpensive drives) at costs of $10 per GByte (1999). Optical disc drives (ODD) and tapes can be configured in the form of jukeboxes and tape libraries, with cost of a few dollars per GByte for the removable media. However, the complex mechanical library mechanism serves to limit data access time to several seconds and affects the reliability adversely.

Most information is still stored in non-electronic form, with very slow access and excessive costs (e.g., text on paper, at a cost of $10 000 per GByte).Some RMSD options available today are approaching the performance, capacity, and cost of hard-disk drives. Considerations for selecting an RMSD include capacity, speed, convenience, durability, data availability, and backward-compatibility. Technology options used to read and write data include.

¢ Magnetic formats that use magnetic particles and magnetic fields.
¢ Optical formats that use laser light and optical sensors.
¢ Magneto-optical and magneto-optical hybrids that use a combination of magnetic and optical properties to increase storage capacity.

The introduction of the Fluorescent Multi-layer Disc (FMD) smashes the barriers of existing data storage formats. Depending on the application and the market requirements, the first generation of 120mm (CD Sized) FMD ROM discs will hold 20 - 100 GigaBytes of pre -recorded data on 12 - 30 data layers with a total thickness of under 2mm.In comparison, a standard DVD disc holds just 4.7 gigabytes. With C3D's (Constellation 3D) proprietary parallel reading and writing technology, data transfer speeds can exceed 1 gigabit per second, again depending on the application and market need.


Increased Disc Capacity
DVD data density (4.7 GB) on each layer of data carriers up to 100 layers. Initially, the FMD disc will hold anywhere from 25 - 140 GB of data depending on market need. Eventually a terabyte of data on a single disc will be achievable.

Quick Parallel Access and Retrieval of Information
Reading from several layers at a ime and multiple tracks at a time nearly impossible using the reflective technology of a CD/DVD - is easily achieved in FMD. This will allow for retrieval speeds of up to 1 gigabyte per second.

Media Tolerances
By using incoherent light to read data the FMD/FMC media will have far fewer restrictions in temperature range, vibration and air- cleanness during manufacturing. And will provide a considerably more robust data carrier than existing CD and DVDs.
Digital Visual Interface
Digital Visual Interface

In a constantly changing industry, DVI is the next major attempt at an all-in-one, standardized, universal connector for audio/video applications. Featuring a modern design and backed by the biggest names in the electronic industry, DVI is set to finally unify all digital media components with a single cable, remote, and interface.

DVI is built with a 5 Gbps bandwidth limit, over twice that of HDTV (which runs at 2.2 Gbps), and is built forwards-compatible by offering unallocated pipeline for future technologies. The connectors are sliding contact (like FireWire and USB) instead of screw-on (like DVI), and are not nearly as bulky as most current video interfaces.

The screaming bandwidth of HDMI is structured around delivering the highest-quality digital video and audio throughout your entertainment center. Capable of all international frequencies and resolutions, the HDMI cable will replace all analog signals (i.e. S-Video, Component, Composite, and Coaxial), as well as HDTV digital signals (i.e. DVI, P&D, DFP), with absolutely no compromise in quality.

Additionally, HDMI is capable of carrying up to 8 channels of digital-audio, replacing the old analog connections (RCA, 3.5mm) as well as optical formats (SPDIF, Toslink).


Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. While it has been obsolete for some time, it was the last graphical standard that the majority of manufacturers decided to follow, making it the lowest common denominator that all PC graphics hardware supports prior to a device-specific driver being loaded. For example, the Microsoft Windows splash screen appears while the machine is still operating in VGA mode, which is the reason that this screen always appears in reduced resolution and color depth.

The term VGA is often used to refer to a resolution of 640×480, regardless of the hardware that produces the picture. It may also refer to the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector which is still widely used to carry analog video signals of all resolutions.

VGA was officially superseded by IBM's XGA standard, but in reality it was superseded by numerous extensions to VGA made by clone manufacturers that came to be known as "Super VGA".

A Male DVI-I Plug

The DVI interface uses a digital protocol in which the desired brightness of pixels is transmitted as binary data. When the display is driven at its native resolution, all it has to do is read each number and apply that brightness to the appropriate pixel. In this way, each pixel in the output buffer of the source device corresponds directly to one pixel in the display device, whereas with an analog signal the appearance of each pixel may be affected by its adjacent pixels as well as by electrical noise and other forms of analog distortion.

Previous standards such as the analog VGA were designed for CRT-based devices and thus did not use discrete time. As the analog source transmits each horizontal line of the image, it varies its output voltage to represent the desired brightness. In a CRT device, this is used to vary the intensity of the scanning beam as it moves across the screen.
Compact peripheral component interconnect (CPCI)
Compact peripheral component interconnect (CPCI)

Compact peripheral component interconnect (CPCI) is an adaptation of the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) specification for industrial computer applications requiring a smaller, more robust mechanical form factor than the one defined for the desktop. CompactPCI is an open standard supported by the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer's Group (PICMG). CompactPCI is best suited for small, high-speed industrial computing applications where transfers occur between a number of high-speed cards.

It is a high-performance industrial bus that uses the Eurocard form factor and is fully compatible with the Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum(ECTF) computer telephony (CT) Bus„¢ H.110 standard specification. CompactPCI products make it possible for original equipment manufacturers (OEM), integrators, and resellers to build powerful and cost-effective solutions for telco networks, while using fewer development resources. CompactPCI products let developers scale their applications to the size, performance, maintenance, and reliability demands of telco environments by supporting the CT Bus, hot swap, administrative tools such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), and extensive system diagnostics. The move toward open, standards-based systems has revolutionized the computer telephony (CT) industry. There are a number of reasons for these changes. Open systems have benefited from improvements in personal computer (PC) hardware and software, as well as from advances in digital signal processing (DSP) technology. As a result, flexible, high performance systems are scalable to thousands of ports while remaining cost effective for use in telco networks. In addition, fault-tolerant chassis, distributed software architecture, and N+1 redundancy have succeeded in meeting the demanding reliability requirements of network operators. One of the remaining hurdles facing open CT systems is serviceability. CT systems used in public networks must be extremely reliable and easy to repair without system downtime. In addition, network operation requires first-rate administrative and diagnostic capabilities to keep services up and running.

The Compact PCI Standard

The Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Computer Manufacturer's Group (PICMG) developed the compact peripheral component interconnect (CompactPCI) specification in 1994. CompactPCI is a high-performance industrial bus based on the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) electrical standard. It uses the Eurocard form factor first popularized by VersaModule-Eurocard (VME). Compared to the standard PCI desktop computer, CompactPCI supports twice as many PCI slots (eight) on a single system bus. In addition, CompactPCI boards are inserted from the front of the chassis and can route input/output (I/O) through the backplane to the back of the chassis. These design considerations make CompactPCI ideal for telco environments.

CompactPCI offers a substantial number of benefits for developers interested in building telco-grade applications. CompactPCI systems offer the durability and maintainability required for network applications. At the same time, they can be built using standard, off-the-shelf components and can run almost any operating system and thousands of existing software applications without modification. Other advantages of CompactPCI are related to its Eurocard form factor, durable and rugged design, hot swap capability, and compatibility with the CT Bus
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