Forwarding factor based directed diffusion for path construction in wireless sensor n
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Forwarding factor based directed diffusion for path construction in wireless sensor networks
B.Tech Seminar report
Department of Computer Science And Engineering
Government Engineering College, Thrissur
Forwarding factor based directed diffusion for path construction in wireless sensor networks.pdf (Size: 225 KB / Downloads: 55)
Wireless sensor networks(WSN) consists of light weight nodes having the capabilities
of sensing, processing, storing, and communication. These networks can be deployed
in wide variety of applications that include both military and civilian applications.The
nodes in a wireless sensor network co-operate with each other to perform the task of
transmission of sensed data to the destination. Limited power is a major challenge in
WSN. As such the routing protocol to be implemented in the wireless sensor network
should be energy efficient. Forwarding Factor Based Directed Diffusion protocol is
an energy efficient protocol for path construction in wireless sensor networks that is
found to enhance the network lifetime and is also effecient compared to the routing
protocols in existence.
Advancements in technology have lead to the manufacturing of sensor nodes with
computational, sensing, communication capabilities feasible both technically and eco-
nomically.Wireless sensor networks that consists of tthousands of such nodes have
become an emerging area of networking. The sensors have the ability to communicate
with each other or with an external base station. The low cost of the sensor nodes
facilitates the use of sensor nodes in variety of applications that require unattended
operations. Routing in wireless sensor networks are challenging due to the following
1. There will be large number of sensor nodes scattered over a region. Hence it
becomes difficult to build an addressing scheme.
2. The nodes in sensor networks require the flow of sensed data from multiple
sources to a particular base station.
3. Sensor networks are constrained in terms of energy, processing and storage ca-
4. Nodes in WSN are generally stationary after deployment.
The above mentioned factors distinguishes wireless sensor networks from ad hoc
networks and as such the routing protocols employed in ad-hoc networks is not suit-
able for wireless sensor networks. Forwarding Factor Based Directed Diffusion is an
energy efficient routing protocol that takes into consideration five important param-
eters related to the efficiency of the sensor network and performs energy efficient
routing thereby increasing the network lifetime.
1.1 Organization Of the Report
1. Chapter 2 deals with various aspects of wireless sensor networks and its appli-
2. Chapter 3 briefly describes the different routing algorithms used in wireless
3. Chapter 4 illustrates the Directed Diffusion algorithm.
4. Chapter 5 introduces the forwarding factor based directed diffusion algorithm
for path construction in wireless sensor networks.
5. Chapter 6 compares the efficiency of FFDD algorithm with that of DD.
Wireless Sensor Networks
A number of spatially distributed nodes capable of sensing the environmental phe-
nomenon such as temperature, pressure,vibration forming a network communicating
with each other constitute a wireless sensor network. A node in the wireless sensor
network is equipped with a number of components.
Figure 2.1: Wireless Sensor Network
The main components in a sensor node are:
1. Sensors hardware device capable of sensing and measuring the physical condi-
tions such as pressure or temperatures are called sensors. The sensed informa-
tion are analog signals.
2. Controller The data sensed by the sensor need to be processed. They are to
be converted from analog form to digital. This conversion is done using the con-
troller.The contollers used usually microcontrollers. Even though there are other
alternatives for controllers such as destop microprocessors ,microcontrollers are
prefered because of its low cost, its low power consumption etc. Several other
controllers such as digital signal processors are also in use according to the
3. Transceiver-The role of the transceiver part in the sensor nodes is to transmit
and recieve the information that is being passed between the nodes.
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