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Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
01-03-2011, 12:49 PM

Anoop Kovoor
Deepu K. R
Rahul S Raj
Sandeep Wilson
Xavier George

.doc   higwaycollision.doc (Size: 66.5 KB / Downloads: 213)
We propose to design a device which could be used by automobiles in the highway for the purpose of collision prevention. The main objective of this project and implimentation is to avoid collisions between vehicles which results in losses in massive proportions to life and economy. We will be specifically dealing with accidents caused when a multitude of vehicles travelling in a linear manner collide. Such collisions do not terminate with damage to one or two vehicles, rather, an array of cars go smashing into one another.
So, we intend to design ultrasonic sensors (transceivers) both at the front and rear of a vehicle in order to detect the range of another vehicle which is in its immediate vicinity. The data from the transceivers along with the velocity of the vehicle and an emergency input from the driver of each vehicle could be used to determine the status of the vehicle. This status, if found alarming will be transmitted backwards to the vehicle immediately behind it. The vehicle which receives this “alert” code, will take steps to slow down and also pass on the same code to the vehicle behind it, and so on the code gets transmitted to all vehicles behind the troubled car which are in range of the ultrasonic transceivers.
First of all it is very important that we understand the need for a collision prevention system in
automobiles. These are some of the statistics that compelled us to take up a small step towards the
prevention of road accidents, particularly Forward Collision.
There are 1.2 M fatalities yearly worldwide due to road accidents - 3242 people a day!
According to the World Health Organization, road accident fatalities worldwide are
expected to rise by 67% by the year 2020.
Over 20 million people are injured each year in road accidents
Financial damages of road accidents are ~2% of world GDP.
In the US, in 2003 there were 6 million accidents, costing $230 million; averaging $38,000
per accident – these statistics have been steady in recent years.
Studies and Statistics on Causes of Accidents and Accident Prevention:
93% of all accidents are due to human factor (Driver inattention cited as the primary cause
for accidents).
Nearly 80% of all crashes involve driver inattention within three seconds before the event.
Examples of types of inattention that increase crash risk:
 Talking on a cell phone (increases risk by 30%)
 Drowsiness (increases risk by 400% and responsible for ~23% of all crashes and
Reaching for moving objects, like a falling cup (increases risk by 900%)
One in every five vehicle accidents is caused by drowsiness at the wheel, momentary
drowsiness or inattentiveness.
Run off road accidents account for nearly 20% of road accidents and are responsible for
60% of all road accident fatalities.
“In a study done at Volkswagen, an analysis of the pre-crash braking behavior shows that in
severe accidents about 85% of drivers either did not brake at all or not to the full possible
Rear-end collision accidents account for about 28% of road accidents.
Many drivers drive in a false belief that if the car in front suddenly started braking, they would react
and brake and end up stopped the same distance apart.
The total stopping distance of a vehicle is made up of 4 components:
 Human Perception Time: The human perception time; is how long the driver takes to see the
hazard, and the brain realize it is a hazard requiring an immediate reaction. This perception
time can be as long as ¼ to ½ a second.
 Human Reaction Time: Once the brain realizes danger, the human reaction time is how long
the body takes to move the foot from accelerator to brake pedal. Again this reaction time
can vary from ¼ - ¾ of a second.
These first 2 components of stopping distance are human factors and as such can be
affected by tiredness, alcohol, fatigue and concentration levels. A perception and reaction
time of 2 or 3 seconds is possible. 2 seconds at 75 km/hr means the car travels 40 metres
before the brakes are applied.
 Vehicle Reaction Time: Once the brake pedal is applied there is the vehicles reaction time
which depends on the brake pedal free-play, hydraulic properties of the brake fluid and
working order of the braking system.
 Vehicle Braking Capability: The last factor than determines the total stopping distance is the
cars braking capability which depends on factors such as;
 the type of braking system,
 brake pad material,
 brake alignment,
 tyre pressures,
 tyre tread and grip,
 vehicle weight,
 suspension system,
 the co-efficient of friction of the road surface,
 wind speed,
 slope of road,
 surface smoothness
 the braking technique applied by the driver
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20-04-2011, 12:17 AM

please give me some data on collision mitigation sytems for automobiles....
my email id is atulktyagi13@gmail.com

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