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seminar surveyer
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22-12-2010, 03:10 PM

Presented by:
Sajjad Hussain
Neha Gambhir

.pptx   HYGROELECTRICITY.pptx (Size: 592.88 KB / Downloads: 115)

Concept: Extracting electricity out of humidity
Not just a pie in the sky
Atmosphere : A great source of electricity
Could be of great utility in region of high humidity

What is the need ?
Humans : A creative creature but still acts as virus when it comes to energy consumption
The end of fossil fuel
Global population
Demand for Energy
Global Warming

Conclusion: A need to look for alternative and renewable source of energy

HYGROELECTRICITY : The basic principle
A metal placed in humid environment develops charge on its surface.
The charge increases with the increase in relative humidity
The amount of charge depends on
Nature of metal
Exposure time
Relative humidity
Surface area

Contrast with electroneutrality principle
Electroneutrality principle statement
water droplets in the atmosphere were electrically neutral, and remained so even after coming into contact with the electrical charges on dust particles and droplets of other liquids

Recent researches shows ion imbalances
Not actually contradiction
water has ion imbalances that could allow it to produce a charge. The principle of electroneutrality states that if you consider the liquid as a whole that the net charge within the liquid will be neutral . The principle does not state that if you subdivide a liquid and only consider a portion of its volume that the charge in that portion has to be neutral

Unexpected pattern of R H v/s Static electricity
Decreases with increase in RH .

Due to increase in conductance,the charge dissipation

Actually this idea was for dielectrics.

Charge deposition on metals due to humidity remain undiscovered.

Recent researches shows opposite behaviour in case of metals

Gameblack’s report
Presented on Aug 25 at 240th meeting of ACS
Revealed his research showing unexpected electric charge distribution on metals and insulator surfaces.
Questioning the well proved concept of electrostatics.
Our lack of knowledge about the identity of charge forming species.
Builds and tests models explaining adsorption of H+ and OH- on metal in humid environment.
Aims at capturing this electricity calling it hygroelectricity.
Experimental Observations
According to the previous theory of charge dissipation, static electricity decreases with increase in RH
Behaviour of humidity
Dual behaviour of humidity
Encourages reproducibility of electrostatic experiments .
Electric shocks experienced from boiler surfaces
Age old mystery unfold
The idea was actually given by Faraday long ago but was buried in grave of time due to technological limitations
Isolated metals within faraday cages acquire charge spontaneously
Aluminium and CPB becomes negative
SS rendered positive
First observed during faraday cup experiment
Electric charge on isolated metal should
remain zero if it is grounded
Sample made of brass or electrolytic copper
mounted within but electrically isolated
from an outer hollow CPB.
Charge drifts slowly to negative values
Independent of RH

Different behaviour when outer
hollow cylinder is made of
Similar behaviour at low Humidity
But at 50% or more RH ,
sharp steep on the curve.
Aluminium acquires
negative charge, SS acquires
positive charge.

Possible explanation
Acidic behaviour of Aluminium oxides attracts OH-
Basic behaviour of SS oxide attracts H+
Charge flows through conducive wires
H+ and OH- left out in atmosphere recombines

Verification of adsorption thery
Coating the aluminium and SS cylinder with silicone oil
Silicone oil reduces water vapour contact
Charge accumulation negligible upto relative humidity =95%
All the results encourages development of device to capture the charge to produce electricity
Charge on metal easily transferable to circuitry

Stacked sheets of filter paper, Al, filter, SS, filter paper and so on in this order.
Acts as capacitor
The electrodes to be chosen so as to form oxide layer on its surface
One should be acidic in nature, the other basic
Filter paper used because it is an excellent dielectric and great adsorbent of moisture
A large number of capacitor bank should be connected in parallel by means of conducive wires

Allowing it to charge and short circuiting after certain intervals shows the following pattern

Quite reproducible at high humidity

Thus electricity can be generated continuously 

Possible application and quantitative analysis
The hygropanels can be mounted on the roof tops and electricity generated can be utilized like solar panels
As a supplement to solar panels
A 5cm2 area sheet can develop 10-4 C charge at RH> 60%we use 10 cm thick stacks or piles made of Aluminium or SS sheet (thickness-0.3-0.4 mm)
A stack of 10 cm thickness approx. equals to 200 sheets
Let n be the number of sheets in 1 m2 area, 10 cm thick panel
Energy generated by one capacitor bank =0.8(v)*10-5(C/s) W
This multiplied by n gives 3.2W of energy

Cost analysis of the proposed hygropanels
We have calculated the approximate cost as given below:
The hygro panel taken is of 1m2 area 10 cm thick
Materials used where aluminium, stainless steel, filter paper, conducive wires, etc.
Supposing 33% of the panel is made with aluminium and another 33% by stainless steel, and the rest with filter paper, conducive wiring, etc.
Density of aluminium = 2700kg/m3
Hence amount of aluminium used = 2700/1*1*0.1*3 = 85 kg approx
Similarly density of stainless steel = 8000 kg/m3
Hence amount of SS used = 240 kg

Aluminium = Rs 70 per kg
SS = Rs 100 per kg
Total cost on metal = 70*85+240*100= Rs 29950
Extra cost on wiring panel and filter paper = Rs 10000
Total cost of hygropanel = Rs 39500 approx
Although in this amount of money we can have a 224 W solar panel, but further researches and developments would for sure bring down the cost per unit of electricity produced .
Talking of the efficiency , we don’t have any idea about the exact value because it has never been practically implemented but it could be well around 90% due to the static nature of the device.

Why to invest money on development of this technology ?
Other possible future energy sources are using waste heats , body electricity etc.
But in this technology small electricity needs not to be stored because of the static nature of the system
Unlike solar technology, doesn’t work only in day time
Need not to be mounted on roof tops only
Doesn’t involve manual interference
Can be employed as supplement to solar technology
Can prove to be of great utility in coastal areas
The metals used are not so costly
Can act as absorber of atmospheric electricity formed during lightning
Thus useful in country like Brazil

Since theoretically fascinating but practical application still a dream
Low level of current produced
Can only work in high humidity areas
Development of reverse potential between the electrodes due to desorbed or left out charges

This technology will be challenged on many practical grounds but that doesn’t concern me a lot because
“That's how science works”


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