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14-01-2011, 11:55 AM


.doc   Intra Mailing System documentation.doc (Size: 1.3 MB / Downloads: 327)


The ‘VIRTUAL OFFICE’ is an Enterprise Intranet Application that automates and improves procedures within organizations. It is a useful technology for delineating the steps that must be taken, the dependencies that must be enforced, and the approvals that must be obtained during the completion of project and implimentations.
It keeps track the information about the employees and also it keeps track of the task assigned to each employee. The super users of the system are the ‘ADMIN’ and the ‘EMPLOYEES’ of the different departments allocated by the admin in an organization or company.
The ‘VIRTUAL OFFICE’ mainly consists of eight modules Administrative module, Login module, Bulletin board, E-forum, Task management module, Project management module, Address book, Documents library and lastly Logout.
In the administrative module administrator the admin may be the owner of the site, he can create a new employee and can assign a password to them. Login module consists of Login Registration, Changing password, Password Reminder. Where actually a new user can register and the existing user can login with user id and password.
E-forum is discussion software allows people from within a corporation to exchange work and ideas. Included in the software are links to other intranet resources, so that from within a discussion, people can link out to a Web page on the Internet or intranet, or can even link into intranet databases.
Project management module gives employees task status reports. We can assign a task to an employee, can view status of all tasks and also can view today’s report of all tasks. Address book module mainly maintains information about all employees addresses where we can view addresses of all the employees. Document library module contains the list of documents available in document library and it also allows posting documents.


Web Based Application.


VIRTUAL OFFICE is an Enterprise Intranet Application that automates and improves procedures within organizations. It is a useful technology for delineating the steps that must be taken, the dependencies that must be enforced, and the approvals that must be obtained during the completion of project and implimentations.

It keeps track the information about the employees and also it keeps track of the task assigned to each employee. The super users of the system are the ‘ADMIN’ and the ‘EMPLOYEES’ of the different departments allocated by the admin in an organization or company.

The Application starts with a login page, which is an html file where the user can
Login to the company’s website where he can access his account details, he can do his
Work of doing project and implimentation tasks there, where he can have an access to the company’s
Database with some constraints basing on his designation.

There is link in the page for the Registration of New user and another link for the forget password for the employees who have forgot their password.

After entering the user details there is an Authentication of the user can be done using login page. After the login session has been completed he can access to the home page where all the tasks regarding the employees like view task status, project and implimentation status and Bulletin board, E-forum.

After doing his work the logout details of the employee will be stored in the database where we can access those details for further use.


Administration processes are simplified allowing more time for management of resources. This project and implimentation information will assist management in ensuring that project and implimentations underway within the organization are strategically aligned to the business and that the important project and implimentations are receiving the priority required. It also allows management to check that the project and implimentation is being managed effectively.
There are many benefits for an organization that opts to follow a standardized Process or method when investigating, initiating and managing project and implimentations. Some of these benefits are:
• It provides a consistent approach to project and implimentations in an organization
• The project and implimentation success rate is increased, ultimately saving costs
• It raises the skill of project and implimentation managers in the organization
• A common knowledge base is created reducing project and implimentation risks.


• Employee can login with his id and password.

• He can view his details and can modify if any changes needed. This is called as “Employee Details”

• He can view the “Documents” which are needed for his project and implimentation.

• He can view the “Announcements” which are given by the Administrator.

• If he has any problem, he can create a “Forum” which can solve by the other employees if they know. If he know he can also give solution to the others problem in Forum.

• He must update the current “Status” of the project and implimentation and modifications done on that day.

The Virtual office is being charactered to decrease the wastage of time for the employee. Employee can interact through online for doing his regular works which will be done at regular conventional office.

Project Objectives and Benefits

The primary objective of the virtual office is to fully automate the conventional office. Connecting Employees to the company site through online, the secondary objectives (and benefits) are as follows

 Seeking a low-risk alternative to renting a conventional office;

 Testing a new product or service idea;

 Downsizing from a conventional office;

 Migrating from using post-office box;

 Seeking to establish a business presence in the provider's country or city;

 Seeking a business address within an expensive location, for corporate image purpose;

 Seeking a business address as its registered business address for complying to government regulation;

 Seeking supportive business services such as answering services;
Seeking a proxy for collection of mails and parcels

The Portal Administrator role would typically be allocated to an individual working in the project and implimentation office. If your organization does not have a project and implimentation office, it should be someone who is involved in the overall prioritization, administration and management of project and implimentations and who has authority in these areas.

Virtual office contains a documentation repository per project and implimentation and a general repository of project and implimentation management templates that can be used by the project and implimentation managers and team members. The repository enables all team members to upload specific documentation relating to the project and implimentation i.e. project and implimentation plans, minutes of meetings, specification documentation, training documentation, agreements with suppliers etc.

This facility enables the easy sharing of documentation by team members and also assists in ensuring that the latest version is always centrally available to the team members. It avoids the unnecessary emailing of large documents to several team members and the risk that documentation could be mislaid. Up-to-date, relevant documentation is a critical requirement for a successful project and implimentation.

The cost of using project and implimentation portal is based on the number of users requiring access to the portal with annual and monthly payment options available.
Costs are also dependant on:
• Implementation assistance required
• Amount of disk space required
• System administration services
• Hosting requirements (on-site hosting is available)
• Customization requirements
• Support requirements



Hard Ware Requirements:

Components Minimum Recommended
Processor Pentium IV Pentium IV
Clock Speed 450 MHz 700 MHz
Random Access Memory 128MB 256MB
Hard drive disk space 3GB NA
Video 800x600, 256 colors 1024x768, 16 bit

Software Requirements:

Operating System: Microsoft’s Windows NT
Server Software: Internet Information Service
Database; MS Sql Server
Application Designing Software: HTML 5.0, ASP.NET, C#.NET

Existing System:-

Existing systems have has all the features above discussed and it’s a third party maintained software to do the tasks like calls receiving and forwarding and handling of mails and messages receive by us and helps in the business.
• These Systems are now available as Software products in the market so that we can buy them and use.
• One more Advantage of this system is they will interact and can cooperatively work with the new media technologies like mobiles.
All the systems in the Today markets don’t have certain security constraints. They are cryptographically poor.
Proposed System:-

Proposed system is mainly concentrating upon creating virtual Environment for the employees of specific company. We imposed certain security constraints like session Management, any where access. And this system would be a Best of its kind.

• High volume of companies using the same address;
• Lack of government regulation, resulting in fly-by-night providers;
• Usage by fraudulent companies due to ease of registration;
• Lack of structured training of service staff, as it is a niche industry

Related Work

Our project and implimentation Virtual Office mainly deals with maintaining, storing the employee and project and implimentation details in databases. And to automate the tasks in the conventional office that are usually done by the employees. The employees can login into the site and can do their work.
Feasibility analysis:
Feasibility study is an important concept in any system development. It should be noted always how far the system will be feasible on way in its development and after development. It is made mainly into 3 aspects.

They are:

 Technical Feasibility
 Economic Feasibility
 Operational Feasibility

Technical Feasibility:
The feasibility study involves knowing whether the project and implimentation can be developed with the help of current equipment, existing software technologies, employees etc.

The organization contains required equipment and the required software and the employees. No other special requirements are to be created just for the system development. The system is technically feasible.

Economic Feasibility:
Economic Feasibility involves cost to develop and install the system.Here, the check is done whether the organization can meet thee costs involved in developing the project and implimentation or not.

Operational Feasibility:
The study involves in finding whether the system will be used if it is developed and implemented or there will be any resistance from the user due to development of system.

Module Description:
The ‘VIRTUAL OFFICE’ mainly consists of eight modules
 Administrative Module
 Login module
 Bulletin board
 E-forum
 Project management module
 Address book
 Documents library and lastly Logout

Administrative Module:

In the administrative module administrator the admin may be the owner of the site, he can create a new employee and can assign a password to them.

Login module:

Login module consists of Login Registration, Changing password, Password Reminder. Where actually a new user can register and the existing user can login with user id and password.

Bulletin Board:

The Bulletin board is an important module where all the employees can see the articles which were putted on notice board. Not only they can view they can also post their own articles. It just acts like notice board where one can get all the information about the activities which were going on in all departments. A bulletin board (pin board, pin board or notice board in British English) is a place where people can leave public messages, for example, to advertise things to buy or sell, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages or it can be placed on the computer so people can leave and erase messages for other people to read and see.
Bulletin boards are particularly prevalent at universities. Many sport dozens, if not hundreds or thousands of public bulletin boards, used for everything from advertisements by extracurricular groups and local shops to official notices. Dormitory corridors, well-trafficked hallways, lobbies, and freestanding kiosks often have cork boards attached to facilitate the posting of notices. At some universities, lampposts, bollards, trees, and walls often become impromptu posturing sites in areas where official boards are sparse in number.


E-forum is discussion software allows people from within a corporation to exchange work and ideas. Included in the software are links to other intranet resources, so that from within a discussion, people can link out to a Web page on the Internet or intranet, or can even link into intranet databases. Forum software packages are widely available on the Internet. One significant difference between forums and electronic mailing lists is that mailing lists automatically deliver new messages to the subscriber, while forums require the member to visit the website and check for new posts. Because members may miss replies in threads they are interested in, many modern forums offer an "e-mail notification" feature, whereby members can choose to be notified of new posts in a thread, and web feeds that allow members to see a summary of the new posts using aggregator software. The main difference between newsgroups and forums is that additional software, a newsreader, is required to participate in newsgroups. Visiting and participating in forums normally requires no additional software beyond the web browser.

Project Management Module:

Project management module gives employees task status reports. We can assign a task to an employee, can view status of all tasks and also can view today’s report of all tasks. We can allocate the project and implimentation tasks to various employees in the office. Project manager can view the employees work details like how many hours have been

Address Book:

Address book module mainly maintains information about all employees addresses where we can view addresses of all the employees.

Documents Library:

Document library module contains the list of documents available in document library and it also allows posting documents. Fields to fill out when uploading a document
To upload a document, click the "Upload Document" link on any Virtual Office web
Page. Fill out the fields as completely as possible. Remember, the information you
Provide about the document is used to allow other users (or even yourself) to search
For and find the document later:
1. Document Title - a brief document name.
2. Document Description - a brief description of the contents of the document.
3. Owner - the user who is currently uploading this document. This field is filled in automatically by the Virtual Office, which recognizes each user? NOTE: If this User is not you, you should log out and log in again as yourself.
4. Category - the document category that best fits the document you are uploading.
Document categories are used simply to facilitate searching by dividing the Documents contained in the Virtual Office into logical groups. Only the Virtual Office administrator can add or edit the list of document categories.
5. File - click the button to locate the file on your local computer that you wish to Upload. Filenames should always include a proper 3-letter extension, or users will have problems trying to download the file. Rename suspicious files before uploading them to the Virtual Office.
6. Who may view (download) this file - the list of groups you would like to have access to this file. By default, a document will be accessible to all groups, meaning that any other user can download the file. You can restrict download of the file to one or more groups by selecting only those groups from the list. Select and unselect multiple groups by holding down the "Control" key as you click on each selection.
7. Who may replace or delete this file - the list of groups you would like to have the ability to edit or replace this file. By default, a document will be accessible to "(all groups)", meaning that any other user can edit the file. You can restrict edit ability of the file to one or more groups by selecting only those groups from the list. Select and unselect multiple groups by holding down the "Control" key as you click on each


Object oriented analysis

Object oriented analysis is concerned with developing software engineering and specification that expressed as a systems object model as opposed to traditional data or functional views of a system .OOA can yield following benefits maintainability through simplified mapping to the real world, which provides less analysis effort, less complexity in system design and easier verification by the user reusability of the analysis artifacts which sales time and costs; and depending on the analysis model and programming language, productivity games through direct mapping to features of data modeling .

Data Modeling: Modeling is a central part of all activities that ads up to deployment of good software we build models to communicate the desire structure and behavior of a system we built the models to visualize control system architecture. We built models to better understand the system we are building, after exposing opportunities for simplification and reuse we build models to manage risks. Modeling is proven and well accepted engineering technique. A model is a simplification of reality.
Unified Modeling Language:
Visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting object oriented system is exactly the purpose of UML.UML is standard language for writing software blue prints. It is very expressive language, easy to understand and easy to use, addressing all the views needed to develop and then deploy software systems.
Object oriented design:
Object Oriented Design is design strategy where system designers think in terms of ‘things’ (objects) instead of operations of functions. The executing system is map of interacting objects that maintain their own local state and provides operation on the state information. An Object Oriented Design process involves designing objects and relationships between these classes. When design is realized as an executing program, the required objects are created dynamically using class definitions.
An important advantage of an object oriented approach is that simplifies the problem of making changes to design. Changing interval details of objectives unlikely to affect any other system objects further more, because objects are usually coupled, usually straight forwards to introduce new objects out significant effects on the rest of systems.
The various UML diagrams for the various sub system involved in our website are given below.
Class Diagram:
Class diagram are the back bone of object oriented modeling. Class diagram shows static descriptive view of system diagrams visualize, specify, construct, document, structure of system that is definition. These diagrams are built with structural things like classes, interaction, collaboration relationships between them thus class diagram represent design view of a system.
Classes represent an abstraction of entities common and characteristics. Associations represent the relationships between classes.
A class diagram is graphical notation that shows set of classes, interfaces, collaboration and their relationship graphically.
Graphically it is a collection of vertices and arcs, classes and interfaces are represented as vertices on relation ships as arcs connecting classes together. Some times these arcs are represented with extension symbols and different form to represent different types of relationships.

Advantages of class diagrams:

 It designs static view of a system. This view provides functions of systems, services of system to end users.

 It models vocabulary of system. This means defining abstraction from information which is a part of a system.

 It models simple collaboration. Collaboration is society of classes, interfaces that connect together with common specifics operation implementation.

 Class diagrams are useful to model logical database schema based on object orientation that is to design data base on object orientation called object oriented database.

Components Diagram:
Component diagram models the instances of things continue in classes’ diagrams. That is used to model the instances of classes and interfaces, relationships defined, modeled in class diagram.

A component diagram that shows set of components and their relationships at a point in time. A component diagram is collection of vertices and arcs between vertices here component are acted as vertices and arcs represent relationships between vertices.

A component diagram commonly contains
 Objects
 Links

Component diagram also contains packages or subsystems. Thus a component diagram is essential instance of class diagram.

Component are instances of classes found in class diagram where as lines are relationships between objectives at run time.

Use Case Diagrams:

Use case diagram identify the functionality provides by the system (use cases), identifies users who interact with the system (actor) and provides association between users and use cases.
This model behavior of a system with respect to users it shows the dynamic aspects of the system then user interact with the system. A use case can have all possible interactions of users with use case graphically. Thus use case diagram models use case view of a system.

A use case diagram is set of use cases, actors and relation ships between actors use cases
A use case diagram contains:

 Use cases
 Actors
 Association relationship between actors, use cases
 Generalization between actors
 Include , extent, generalization relationships

Common uses of use case diagram:

 Provides high level view of a system with respect to user
 To model context of a system
 Determine human system interaction

The basic components in use case diagram are:

 Use case
 Actor
 Association

Use case:

It is functionality provided by system to user.
Example: lodges a complaint, provides user id and password
Use case is represented graphically as ellipse with name inside it


An actor is a user of a system of data base in a system it is represented with stick figure


Association links actors to use case explain in what way and how actor interacts

Microsoft SQL server 2005:

Microsoft SQL server is a relational database management system that can be used by individuals or business for storing and managing the data. It also offers powerful functionality for data analysis and reporting SQL server 2005 is major milestone for Microsoft which is trying to position itself in database market.
Microsoft SQL server is a scalable database system whose primary purpose is to serve as a backend database for a client program. Most common usage scenarios client connects to SQL server and request some information where up on SQL server processes the requests and return results the client must then interpret and display results.


Scalability and Availability:
It supports features such as federated servers, indexed view and large memory support that allow it to scale performance levels.

Data warehousing:
It includes tools for extracting and analyzing summary data for online analytical processing it also includes tools for visually designing databases.

Microsoft .net frame work

The .net framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The .net frame work is designed to fulfill the following objectives:

• To provide the a consistent object oriented programming environment whether object code os stored and executed locally, but internet distributed, or executed remotely.
• To provide a code execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts.
• To provide a code execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code including code created by an unknown or semi trusted third party.
• To provide a code execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
• To make the developer experienced consistent across widely varying types of applications, such as windows based applications and web based applications.
• To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .net frame work can integrate with any other code.

Features of .net:
1. Versioning.
2. COM interoperability.
3. Garbage collection.
4. Globalization
6. Multithreading
7. Multilanguage
8. Crystal report
9. Early setup and deployment
10. Faster performance due to compile code

1. versioning:
.net allows to use multiple versioning of a single .dll file in the same system, same application, same process at the same time is called side by side execution which shows dll hell situation in vb 6.0 hence it supports versioning.

2. com interoperability:
Com stands for component object model to provide reusability of code across the languages which can understand com interface.

3. garbage collection:
It can manage by removing the unwanted objects.

4. globalization:
Allows us to convert application into international standard.

5. data object):
It is used to connect to the data base by taking a local copy of main data base in the local application.
Ex: if we want to know the record or data of EMP data base we can use the copy of EMP to the data system.

6. multithreading:
It supports multiple processes at the time for execution.

7. Multilanguage:
It supports 41 languages.
Ex: c++, c#, j# etc.

8. crystal report:
Generates reports in a printable format.

9. easy setup and deployment:
It can generate .exe without source code in an easy way.

10. faster performance due to compile code:
Compiled code is permanent in .net it shows faster performance in a compilation.

Common language runtime features:

The common language runtime languages, manages memory, thread execution, code execution, code safety verification, compilation and other system services. These features are intrinsic to manage code that runs on common language runtime.

The runtime enforced code access security for example, users can trust an excitable embedded in a webpage can play an animation on screen or but cannot its personal data, file system or network. The current runtime also enforce code robustness by implementing a strict type and code verification infrastructure called the common type system (cts).

The cts ensures that all managed code is itself describing cts provides a ctype function that is conversion type which converts type which converts the data types as per our requirements at runtime.

Page Execution in ASP.NET:

Web pages are of types:

 Static
 Dynamic

When ever we send any request to the server through the Internet Browser, web-server executes the page in ASPX Engine and stores the compiled code into temporary ASP.NET file directory. Server stores the compiled code only when we send the request to the browser. This happens for the first time execution.
Whenever the same request sends to the server instead of executing the page, it comes from the compiled code, which takes less time than first execution.


Validation Specification:

The terms verification and validation are used interchangeably, verification is a processes of determining whether are not the products of given phase of software development fulfill the specification established during the previous phase. The activities include providing, testing and previous. Validation is a process of evaluating the software the software at end of software development process to find out how well the software satisfies requirement specification.

The development of software starts with requirement document and is there fore important that requirement specification contain no error and specifies client’s requirements correctly. The validation process of evaluating deployment system at an end is must, to ensure that it meets all necessary requirement specifications. Requirement verification also checks the factors as complete ness, consistency and testability of the requirements.
The major verification and validation activities for software development are transactions, queries and reports.
Transaction and queries are performed in order to check various inputs and expected outputs. These outputs are checked against the existing document to see whether they are matching or not.
Inspections and reviews are performed in order to be careful with calculations being made. The primary purpose of review was to detect the defects at different stages during the project and implimentation. The review processes is generally done by group of people including author of product, department head and a person from each phase preceding and succeeding the current phase under review.
The review material usually includes specification, system design, detail, design code and test plan. Proper execution of reviews is critical to successes of project and implimentation.
According to pressman “validation criteria” is probably the most important, and, ironically, the most often neglected section of SRS. How do we recognize successful implementation? What losses of tests must be conducted to validate functional performance and constrains? Specification of validation criteria acts as an implicit review of all other requirement. Reasonable expectations are defined in SRS under this section and user visible attributes of software are also defined here. Information contained in this section forms the basis for a validation testing approach.


Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate role of specification, design and code generation.
Once the source code has been generated, software must be tested to uncover as many errors as possible before delivery to consumer. We have to design a series of test cases that have high likelihood of finding errors.
The strategies provide systematic guidance of designing tests that
 Exercise the internal logic of software components and
 Exercise the input and output domains of program function, behaviors and performance.

Testing principles:
 All tests should be traceable to customer requirements.
 Test should be planned long before testing begins.
 The highly error prone components of the software products should be recognize and thoroughly exercise.
 The testing should start from small components to large components.
 For effective testing, team should be a third party rather than developer and client
 The physical system specifications are turned over to programmers at the part of the implementation space.
It is last phase of SDLC. It is most expensive and time consuming phase of entire life cycle. During implementation, you turn system specification into a working system i.e., tested and then put into use. Implementation includes coding, testing and instillation.
Hence we mainly concentrate on the various types of tests and preparation of user manual.

This can be broadly classified into two categories based on the area in which tests are conducted.
They are
 White box testing
 Black box testing
 White Box Testing:
White box testing, some time called glass box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure procedural design to drive the test cases. As specified design space the inputs are considered, actual processing that goes on with in the system and final output.
The test was extensively conducted and checked against the specification given in the design phase module.
 Black Box Testing:
Black box testing focuses on the functional requirements of the software. It enables the software engineer to derive the sets of input condition for a program.
Black box testing is not an alternate to white box testing techniques. Here we no longer consider the independent working of each module separately. Rather we aggregate them together to test if they perform the required goals and objectives has specified in study phase.
For testing, we had to resort both the sample and real data. In all area the real data was made available to us by our effort in collection them from the engineering department of the hotel.
 Unit Testing:
Here the entire software system is tested. The reference document for the processes is requirement document and the goal if system meets its requirements.
 Boundary Condition Test:
Boundary conditions as in the case of generating sequences ware tested he ensure that module operates properly at boundaries establish to limit of restricts processing.
 Acceptance Test:
This is normally performed with realistic with data of the clients to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactory. Testing here focuses on the external behavior of the system.

Data bases are normally implemented by using package called database management system (DBMS).Each particular DBMS has some what unique characteristics, and so such, general technique for the database are limited. One of the most useful methods of analyzing the data required by the system for the data dictionary has developed from research into relational database, particularly the work of E.F Codd. This method of analyzing data is called “Normalization”. UN normalized data are converted into normalize data by three stages. Each stage has procedure to follow.

The first stage of normalization is to reduce the data and to its first normal form, by removing repeating terms showing them as separate records but including in them the key fields of original record.
The next stage of reduction to the second normal form is to check that the record, which one is first normal form, all the items in each record are entirely dependent on the key of the record. If a data is not dependent on the key of record, but on other data item, then it is removed with its key to form another record. This is done until each record contains data items, which are entirely dependent on the key of their record.
The final stage of analysis, the reduction of third normal form involves examining each record which one is in second form to see whether any items are mutually dependent. If there are any item there are removed to a separate record leaving one of items behind in the original record and using as the key in the newly created record.

A relational database management system only its relational capabilities to manage the information store in its databases.

All information stored in a relational is represented only by data items values, which are stored in tables that makeup the database. Associations between data items are not logically represented in any other way, such as a use of pointers from one table to another.

Every data item value stored in relational data base is accessible by stating nature of table it is stored name of column under which it is stored and value of primary key that defines the row in which it is stored.

The database management system has a constitute method of representing null values. For example, null values for numeric data must be distinct from zero or any other numeric and for character data it must be different from string of blanks or any other character value.

The logical description of relation database is represented in the same manner or ordinary data. This is done so that facilities of relational database management system itself can be used to maintain database description.

The relational database management system may support many types of languages for describing and accessing database. However, there must be at least one language that uses ordinary character strings to support the definitions if data, the definition of views, manipulation of data, constrains on data integrity, information concerning authorization and the boundaries for recovery of units.

Any view that can be defined combination of basic tables that are theoretically updatable, these capitals of being updated by the relational database management system.

Any operand that describes the result of single retrieval operation is capable of being applied an insert, update or delete operation as well.
Changes made to physical storage representation or access methods do not require changes to be made to application programmers.

Changes made to tables that do not modify any data stored in that table, do not require changes to be made to application programmers.

Constraints that applied to integrity and referential integrity are specifiable by the data language implemented by the database management system and not by the statements coded into the application programs.

The data language implemented by the relation management system supports the ability to distribute database without requiring changes to be made to application programmers this facility must be provided in the data language, whether are not the database management system itself supports distributed databases.

If the relational database management system supports facilities that allow application programmers to operate on that table or a row at a time, an application programmer using this type access is prevented from by passing entity integrity or referential integrity constraints that are defined for the database.

A Logical Schema is a data model of a specific problem domain that is in terms of a particular data management technology. Without being specific to a particular database management product, it is in terms of either (for example, in 2007) relational tables and columns, object-oriented classes, or XML tags. This is as opposed to a conceptual data model, which describes the semantics of an organization without reference to technology, or a physical data base model, which describes the particular physical mechanisms used to capture data in a storage medium.

A conceptual schema or conceptual data model is a map of concepts and their relationships. This describes the semantics of an organization and represents a series of assertions about its nature. Specifically, it describes the things of significance to an organization (entity classes), about which it is inclined to collect information, and characteristics of (attributes) and associations between pairs of those things of significance (relationships).
Because it represents the semantics of an organization, and not a database design, it may exist on various levels of abstraction. The original ANSI four-schema architecture began with the set of external schemas that each represents one person's view of the world around him or her. These are consolidated into a single conceptual schema that is the superset of all of those external views. A data model can be as concrete as each person's perspective, but this tends to make it inflexible. If that person's world changes, the model must change. Conceptual data models take a more abstract perspective, identifying the fundamental things, of which the things an individual deals with are but examples.
The model does allow for what is called inheritance in object oriented terms. The set of instances of an entity class may be subdivided into entity classes in their own right. Thus, each instance of a sub-type entity class is also an instance of the entity class's super-type. Each instance of the super-type entity class then is also an instance of one of the sub-type entity classes.
Super-type/sub-type relationships may be exclusive or not. A methodology may require that each instance of a super-type may only be an instance of one sub-type. Similarly, a super-type/sub-type relationship may be exhaustive or not. It is exhaustive if the methodology requires that each instance of a super-type must be an instance of a sub-type.


The application was tested and implemented successfully. The system behavior was found to be as expected in the problem definition. By this application employees in the organization can easily update their day to day work and they can easily clarify their doubts and get the information what ever he want for example details of their other employees and can view different documents and Articles what are available and they can post and update their own Articles and documents and by this department heads or who are super users get the details of employees and their daily work progress and status of work assigned. and details So by this The Employees can now use the online system to do their usual work in the office.


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