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17-02-2011, 04:51 PM

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Introduction to Java
Java is a simple and yet powerful object oriented programming language and it is in many respects similar to C++. Java originated at Sun Microsystems, Inc. in 1991. It was conceived by James Gosling, Patrick Naughton, et al. at Sun Microsystems, Inc. It was developed to provide a platform-independent programming language.
Platform independent
Unlike many other programming languages including C and C++ when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into platform specific machine, rather into platform independent byte code. This byte code is distributed over the web and interpreted by virtual Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it is being run.
What is the Java Virtual Machine? What is its role?
Java was designed with a concept of ‘write once and run everywhere’. Java Virtual Machine plays the central role in this concept. The JVM is the environment in which Java programs execute. It is a software that is implemented on top of real hardware and operating system. When the source code (.java files) is compiled, it is translated into byte codes and then placed into (.class) files. The JVM executes these bytecodes. So Java byte codes can be thought of as the machine language of the JVM. A JVM can either interpret the bytecode one instruction at a time or the bytecode can be compiled further for the real microprocessor using what is called just-in-time compiler. The JVM must be implemented on a particular platform before compiled programs can run on that platform.
Java Features
• Since Java is an object oriented programming language it has following features:
• Reusability of Code
• Emphasis on data rather than procedure
• Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
• Objects can communicate with each other through functions
• New data and functions can be easily added
• Java has powerful features. The following are some of them:-
• Platform Independent
• Simple
• Object Oriented
• Robust
• Distributed
• Portable
• Dynamic
• Secure
• Performance
• Multithreaded
• Interpreted
• Architectural Neutral
• Object Oriented Programming is a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collection of objects, each of which represents an instance of a class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships.
Java is:
• Object Oriented : In java everything is an Object. Java can be easily extended since it is based on the Object model.
• Platform independent: Unlike many other programming languages including C and C++ when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into platform specific machine, rather into platform independent byte code. This byte code is distributed over the web and interpreted by virtual Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it is being run.
• Simple :Java is designed to be easy to learn. If you understand the basic concept of OOP java would be easy to master.
• Secure : With Java secure feature it enables to develop virus-free, tamper-free systems. Authentication techniques are based on public-key encryption.
• Architectural- neutral :Java compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format which makes the compiled code to be executable on many processors, with the presence Java runtime system.
• Portable :being architectural neutral and having no implementation dependent aspects of the specification makes Java portable. Compiler and Java is written in ANSI C with a clean portability boundary which is a POSIX subset.
• Robust :Java makes an effort to eliminate error prone situations by emphasizing mainly on compile time error checking and runtime checking.
• Multi-threaded : With Java multi-threaded feature it is possible to write programs that can do many tasks simultaneously. This design feature allows developers to construct smoothly running interactive applications.
• Interpreted :Java byte code is translated on the fly to native machine instructions and is not stored anywhere. The development process is more rapid and analytical since the linking is an incremental and light weight process.
• High Performance: With the use of Just-In-Time compilers Java enables high performance.
• Distributed :Java is designed for the distributed environment of the internet.
• Dynamic : Java is considered to be more dynamic than C or C++ since it is designed to adapt to an evolving environment. Java programs can carry extensive amount of run-time information that can be used to verify and resolve accesses to objects on run-time.
• Object Oriented Programming is a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collection of objects, each of which represents an instance of a class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships.
• Java is Distributed
With extensive set of routines to handle TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP java can open and access the objects across net via URLs.
• Java is Multithreaded
One of the powerful aspects of the Java language is that it allows multiple threads of execution to run concurrently within the same program A single Java program can have many different threads executing independently and continuously. Multiple Java applets can run on the browser at the same time sharing the CPU time.
• Java is Secure
Java was designed to allow secure execution of code across network. To make Java secure many of the features of C and C++ were eliminated. Java does not use Pointers. Java programs cannot access arbitrary addresses in memory.
• Garbage collection
Automatic garbage collection is another great feature of Java with which it prevents inadvertent corruption of memory. Similar to C++, Java has a new operator to allocate memory on the heap for a new object. But it does not use delete operator to free the memory as it is done in C++ to free the memory if the object is no longer needed. It is done automatically with garbage collector.
• Java Applications
Java has evolved from a simple language providing interactive dynamic content for web pages to a predominant enterprise-enabled programming language suitable for developing significant and critical applications. Today, It is used for many types of applications including Web based applications, Financial applications, Gaming applications, embedded systems, Distributed enterprise applications, mobile applications, Image processors, desktop applications and many more.
OOP Concepts
• Four principles of Object Oriented Programming are
• Abstraction
Abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that distinguish it from all other kinds of objects and thus provide crisply defined conceptual boundaries, relative to the perspective of the viewer.
• Encapsulation
Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing the elements of an abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior ; encapsulation serves to separate the contractual interface of an abstraction and its implementation.
• Encapsulation
* Hides the implementation details of a class.
* Forces the user to use an interface to access data
* Makes the code more maintainable.
• Inheritance
Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object.
• Polymorphism
Polymorphism is the existence of the classes or methods in different forms or single name denoting different implementations.
seminar flower
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Posts: 10,120
Joined: Apr 2012
07-08-2012, 03:55 PM

Java Programming Language Concepts

.docx   JAVA-2.docx (Size: 103.1 KB / Downloads: 25)

The Java virtual machine was designed to support the Java programming language. Some concepts and vocabulary from the Java programming language are thus useful when attempting to understand the virtual machine. This chapter gives an overview intended to support the specification of the Java virtual machine, but is not itself a part of that specification.
The content of this chapter has been condensed from the first edition of The JavaTM Language Specification, by James Gosling, Bill Joy, and Guy Steele.1 Readers familiar with the Java programming language, but not with The JavaTM Language Specification, should at least skim this chapter for the terminology it introduces. Any discrepancies between this chapter and The JavaTM Language Specification should be resolved in favor of The JavaTM Language Specification.
This chapter does not attempt to provide an introduction to the Java programming language. For such an introduction, see The JavaTM Programming Language, Second Edition, by Ken Arnold and James Gosling.


Programs written in the Java programming language supported by JDK release 1.1.7 and the Java 2 platform, v1.2 use the Unicode character encoding, version 2.1, as specified in The Unicode Standard, Version 2.0, ISBN 0-201-48345-9, and the update information for Version 2.1 of the Unicode Standard available at Programs written in the Java programming language used version 2.0.14 of the Unicode Standard in JDK releases 1.1 through 1.1.6 and used version 1.1.5 of the Unicode Standard in JDK release 1.0.
Except for comments, identifiers (§2.2), and the contents of character and string literals (§2.3), all input elements in a program written in the Java programming language are formed from only ASCII characters. ASCII (ANSI X3.4) is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The first 128 characters of the Unicode character encoding are the ASCII characters.


An identifier is an unlimited-length sequence of Unicode letters and digits, the first of which must be a letter. Letters and digits may be drawn from the entire Unicode character set, which supports most writing scripts in use in the world today. This allows programmers to use identifiers in their programs that are written in their native languages.
The method (§2.10) Character.isJavaLetter returns true when passed a Unicode character that is considered to be a letter in an identifier. The methodCharacter.isJavaLetterOrDigit returns true when passed a Unicode character that is considered to be a letter or digit in an identifier.
Two identifiers are the same only if they have the same Unicode character for each letter or digit; identifiers that have the same external appearance may still be different. An identifier must not be the same as a boolean literal (§2.3), the null literal (§2.3), or a keyword in the Java programming language.


A literal is the source code representation of a value of a primitive type (§2.4.1), the String type (§2.4.8), or the null type (§2.4). String literals and, more generally, strings that are the values of constant expressions are "interned" so as to share unique instances, using the method String.intern.
The null type has one value, the null reference, denoted by the literal null. The boolean type has two values, denoted by the literals true and false.

Types and Values

The Java programming language is strongly typed, which means that every variable and every expression has a type that is known at compile time. Types limit the values that a variable (§2.5) can hold or that an expression can produce, limit the operations supported on those values, and determine the meaning of those operations. Strong typing helps detect errors at compile time.
The types of the Java programming language are divided into two categories: primitive types (§2.4.1) and reference types (§2.4.6). There is also a special null type, the type of the expression null, which has no name. The null reference is the only possible value of an expression of null type and can always be converted to any reference type. In practice, the programmer can ignore the null type and just pretend that null is a special literal that can be of any reference type.
seminar flower
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Posts: 10,120
Joined: Apr 2012
13-09-2012, 03:18 PM

Java (programming language)

.doc   Java full view.doc (Size: 415 KB / Downloads: 17)

Java is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-levelfacilities. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users.


James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project and implimentation in June 1991.[11] Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time.[12] The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office; it went by the name Green later, and was later renamed Java, from Java coffee, said to be consumed in large quantities by the language's creators.[13] Gosling aimed to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/C++ style of notation.[14]
Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised "Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Javaapplets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular. With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998–1999), new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. For example, J2EE targeted enterprise applications and the greatly stripped-down version J2ME for mobile applications (Mobile Java). J2SE designated the Standard Edition. In 2006, for marketing purposes.

Java platform

One characteristic of Java is portability, which means that computer programs written in the Java language must run similarly on any hardware/operating-system platform. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to platform-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but are intended to beinterpreted by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End-users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or in a Web browser for Java applets.

Automatic memory management

Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer's code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a nonexistent object are called, a "null pointer exception" is thrown


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