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computer science crazy
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In a non-networked personal computing environment resources and information can be protected by physically securing the personal computer. But in a network of users requiring services from many computers the identity of each user has to be accurately verified. For authentication kerberos is being used. Kerberos is a third party authentication technology used to identify a user requesting a service
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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28-06-2010, 08:38 PM

.ppt   Kerberos.ppt (Size: 125.5 KB / Downloads: 222)


Presented By;
Jean-Anne Fitzpatrick
Jennifer English

What is Kerberos?

Network authentication protocol
Developed at MIT in the mid 1980s
Available as open source or in supported commercial software

Why Kerberos?

Sending usernames and passwords in the clear jeopardizes the security of the network.
Each time a password is sent in the clear, there is a chance for interception.

Firewall vs. Kerberos?

Firewalls make a risky assumption: that attackers are coming from the outside. In reality, attacks frequently come from within.
Kerberos assumes that network connections (rather than servers and work stations) are the weak link in network security.

Design Requirements

Interactions between hosts and clients should be encrypted.
Must be convenient for users (or they wonâ„¢t use it).
Protect against intercepted credentials.

Cryptography Approach

Private Key: Each party uses the same secret key to encode and decode messages.
Uses a trusted third party which can vouch for the identity of both parties in a transaction. Security of third party is imperative.

How does Kerberos work?

Instead of client sending password to application server:
Request Ticket from authentication server
Ticket and encrypted request sent to application server
How to request tickets without repeatedly sending credentials?

Ticket granting ticket (TGT)

How does Kerberos work?: Ticket Granting Tickets
How does Kerberos Work?: The Ticket Granting Service
How does Kerberos work?: The Application Server




Within networks and small sets of networks
Weaknesses and Solutions
The Competition: SSL

Limitation: Scalability

Recent modifications attempt to address this problem
Public key cryptography for Client Authentication and cross realm authentication
Issues are not resolved

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sumaya shawkath
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30-07-2010, 04:45 PM

hello...i want to get the abstract,ppt,report of kerberos as soon as kindly send me to
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27-08-2011, 09:38 AM

hello i want a full project and implimentation on kerbrose server
and also include the nis,dns

if u hav than mail me
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09-10-2012, 03:33 PM


.docx   kerberos.docx (Size: 163.43 KB / Downloads: 16)

Kerberos [1] is an authentication service developed as part of Project Athena at MIT. The problem that Kerberos addresses is this: Assume an open distributed environment in which users at workstations wish to access services on servers distributed throughout the network. We would like for servers to be able to restrict access to authorized users and to be able to authenticate requests for service. In this environment, a workstation cannot be trusted to identify its users correctly to network services. In particular, the following three threats exist:
[1] "In Greek mythology, a many headed dog, commonly three, perhaps with a serpent 's tail, the guardian of the entrance of Hades." From Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art , by James Hall, Harper & Row, 1979. Just as the Greek Kerberos has three heads, the modern Kerberos was intended to have three components to guard a network's gate: authentication, accounting, and audit. The last two heads were never implemented.


If a set of users is provided with dedicated personal computers that have no network connections, then a user's resources and files can be protected by physically securing each personal computer. When these users instead are served by a centralized time-sharing system, the time-sharing operating system must provide the security. The operating system can enforce access control policies based on user identity and use the logon procedure to identify users.
Today, neither of these scenarios is typical. More common is a distributed architecture consisting of dedicated user workstations ( clients ) and distributed or centralized servers. In this environment, three approaches to security can be envisioned :
1. Rely on each individual client workstation to assure the identity of its user or users and rely on each server to enforce a security policy based on user identification (ID).
2. Require that client systems authenticate themselves to servers, but trust the client system concerning the identity of its user.
3. Require the user to prove his or her identity for each service invoked. Also require that servers prove their identity to clients.

A More Secure Authentication Dialogue

Although the foregoing scenario solves some of the problems of authentication in an open network environment, problems remain . Two in particular stand out. First, we would like to minimize the number of times that a user has to enter a password. Suppose each ticket can be used only once. If user C logs on to a workstation in the morning and wishes to check his or her mail at a mail server, C must supply a password to get a ticket for the mail server. If C wishes to check the mail several times during the day, each attempt requires reentering the password. We can improve matters by saying that tickets are reusable. For a single logon session, the workstation can store the mail server ticket after it is received and use it on behalf of the user for multiple accesses to the mail server.
However, under this scheme it remains the case that a user would need a new ticket for every different service. If a user wished to access a print server, a mail server, a file server, and so on, the first instance of each access would require a new ticket and hence require the user to enter the password.
The second problem is that the earlier scenario involved a plaintext transmission of the password [message (1)]. An eavesdropper could capture the password and use any service accessible to the victim.

The Version 4 Authentication Dialogue

Although the foregoing scenario enhances security compared to the first attempt, two additional problems remain. The heart of the first problem is the lifetime associated with the ticket-granting ticket. If this lifetime is very short (e.g., minutes), then the user will be repeatedly asked for a password. If the lifetime is long (e.g., hours), then an opponent has a greater opportunity for replay. An opponent could eavesdrop on the network and capture a copy of the ticket-granting ticket and then wait for the legitimate user to log out. Then the opponent could forge the legitimate user's network address and send the message of step (3) to the TGS. This would give the opponent unlimited access to the resources and files available to the legitimate user.
Similarly, if an opponent captures a service-granting ticket and uses it before it expires , the opponent has access to the corresponding service.
Thus, we arrive at an additional requirement. A network service (the TGS or an application service) must be able to prove that the person using a ticket is the same person to whom that ticket was issued.

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