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30-01-2009, 04:34 PM
Pollution of the world?s oceans is quickly becoming a major problem on Earth. We know very little about the effect that pollution has on the oceans but we continue to dispose of chemicals, sewage and garbage into it. Most people likely do not even know what types of pollutants reach the oceans. There may be billions of people who do not believe ocean pollution is a problem. The causes, types, effects, sources and control of marine pollution are included.
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Joined: Feb 2013
16-04-2013, 02:36 PM
Marine Pollution.ppt (Size: 1.65 MB / Downloads: 256)
Marine pollution includes a range of threats including from land-based sources,
eutrophication (nutrient enrichment), I
persistent organic pollutants (POP’s),
heavy metals from mine tailings and other sources,
overfishing and destruction of coastal and marine habitats
Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes.
Inland mining for copper, gold. etc., is another source of marine pollution. Most of the pollution is simply soil, which ends up in rivers flowing to the sea.
However, some minerals discharged in the course of the mining can cause problems, such as copper, a common industrial pollutant, which can interfere with the life history and development of coral polyps.
Mining has a poor environmental track record. For example, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, mining has contaminated portions of the headwaters of over 40% of watersheds in the western continental US. Much of this pollution finishes up in the sea.
Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff and runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours, can carry soil and particles laden with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals. This nutrient-rich water can cause fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas, known as algal blooms, which have the potential to create hypoxic conditions by using all available oxygen
Polluted runoff from roads and highways can be a significant source of water pollution in coastal areas. About 75 percent of the toxic chemicals that flow into Puget Sound are carried by stormwater that runs off paved roads and driveways, rooftops, yards and other developed land.[4
Ships can pollute waterways and oceans in many ways.:
Oil spills can have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil, are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.
Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting such actions.
It has been estimated that container ships lose over 10,000 containers at sea each year (usually during storms).
Ships also create noise pollution that disturbs natural wildlife
Wind blown dust and debris, including plastic bags, are blown seaward from landfills and other areas.
Dust from the Sahara moves into the Caribbean and Florida during the warm season
Dust can also be attributed to a global transport from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts across Korea, Japan, and the Northern Pacific to the Hawaiian Islands.
Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened due to periods of drought in Africa.
The USGS links dust events to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida
Climate change is raising ocean temperatures and raising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. These rising levels of carbon dioxide are acidifying the oceans. This, in turn, is altering aquatic ecosystems and modifying fish distributions, with impacts on the sustainability of fisheries and the livelihoods of the communities that depend on them
The oceans are normally a natural carbon sink, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Because the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are increasing, the oceans are becoming more acidic.
structures made of calcium carbonate may become vulnerable to dissolution, affecting corals and the ability of shellfish to form shells..
Oceans and coastal ecosystems have removed about 25% of the carbon dioxide emitted by human activities between 2000 and 2007 and about half the anthropogenic CO2 released since the start of the industrial revolution. Rising ocean temperatures and ocean acidification means that the capacity of the ocean carbon sink will gradually get weaker.
A report from NOAA scientists published in the journal Science in May 2008 found that large amounts of relatively acidified water are upwelling to within four miles of the Pacific continental shelf area of North America. This area is a critical zone where most local marine life lives or is born.
A related issue is the methane clathrate reservoirs found under sediments on the ocean floors. These trap large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane, which ocean warming has the potential to release.
either the human population is reduced, or
a way is found to reduce the ecological footprint left behind by the average human.
The second way is for humans, individually, to pollute less. That requires social and political will
the most important strategy for reducing marine pollution is education
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