MATTER ANTI-MATTER SPACE CRAFT PROPULSION
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 summer project pal Active In SP Posts: 308 Joined: Jan 2011 14-01-2011, 08:09 PM INTRODUCTION The history of antimatter begins with a young physicist named Paul A.M.Dirac (1902-1984) and the strange implications of a mathematical equation. This British physicist formulated a theory for the motion of the electrons in electric and magnetic fields. Such theories had been formulated before, but what was unique about Dirac’s was that his included the effects of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. This theory was formulated by him in 1928.Mean while he wrote down an equation, which combined quantum theory and special relativity, to describe the behavior of the electron. Dirac’s equation won him a Nobel prize in I 933,but also posed another problem; just at the equation x2 = 4 can have two solutions (x 2, x = -2). So Dirac’s equation would have two solutions, one for an electron with positive energy, and one for an electron with negative energy. This led theory led to a surprising prediction that the electron must have an “antiparticle” having the same mass but a positive electric charge. 1n1932, Carl Anderson observed this new particle experimentally and it was named “positron”. This was the first known example of antimatter. In 1955, the anti proton was produced at the Berkeley Bevatron, and in 1995, scientists created the first anti hydrogen atom at the CERN research facility in Europe by combining the anti proton with a positron Dirac’s equation predicted that all of the fundamental particles in nature must have a corresponding “Antiparticle”. In each case, the masses of the particle and anti particle are identical and other properties are nearly identical. But in all cases, the mathematical signs of some property are reversed. Anti protons, for example have the same mass as a proton, but the opposite electric charge. Since Dirac’s time, scores of these particle-antiparticle pairings have been observed. Even particles that have no electrical charge such as the neutron have anti particle.   MATTER ANTI-MATTER SPACE CRAFT PROPULSION.doc (Size: 1.77 MB / Downloads: 166) ANTIMATTER PRODUCTION Anti protons do not exist in nature and currently are produced only by energetic particle collision conducted at large accelerator facilities (e.g. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Fermi Lab, in US or CERN in Geneva, Switzerland). This process typically involves accelerating protons to relativistic velocities (very near to speed of light) and slamming them into a metal (e.g. Tungsten) target. The high-energy protons are slowed or stopped by collisions with nuclei of the target; the kinetic energy of the rapidly moving protons is converted into matter in the form of various subatomic particles, some of which are anti protons. Finally, the anti protons are electro magnetically separated from the other particles, then they are captured and cooled (slowed) by a Radio-Frequency Quadrapole (RFQ) linear accelerator (operated as a decelerator) and then stored in a storage cell called as a Penning Trap. Note that anti protons annihilate spontaneously when brought into contact with normal matter, thus they must be stored and handled carefully. Currently the highest anti proton production level is in the order of nano-grams per year. ANTIMATTER STORAGE As we know that the antiprotons annihilate spontaneously when brought into Contact with normal matter, thus, they must be contained by electromagnetic fields in high vacuums. This greatly complicates the collection, storage and handling of antimatter. Thus, just after the production of antiproton they are captured and cooled by a RFQ linear accelerator and then stored as gaseous plasma of negatively —charged antiprotons. The storage cell is called a Penning trap; it uses magnetic fields to trap charged particles.- These are under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pennsylvania State University (PSU) fore use in particle physics research experiments. However, the storage density of an antiproton plasma in a penning trap is too low to be feasible for propulsion applications where all of the propulsive energy is derived from matter-antimatter annihilation. Thus, it is necessary to convert the anti protons into a high-density storage form such as solid antihydrogen. To do this, positive antielectrons are combined with negative anti protons to form antihydrogen atoms. This is done in a Paul Trap, which uses oscillating electric and magnetic fields to trap neutral particles (such as atoms). The atoms are then allowed to combine to form molecules possibly as clusters of ions and molecules; then the molecules are cooled to form a solid. Unfortunately, currently only the antiatom production step has been demonstrated. Still the remaining steps that is conversion of antiprotons to anti atoms to anti molecules to anti solid H2 has to be demonstrated; this represents one of the major feasibility issues associated with antimatter propulsion. PORTABLE ANTIPROTON PENNING TRAP The picture below shows a schematic and actual photo of the portable antiproton Penning Trap being developed by Pennsylvania State University (PSU). The Penning Trap was completed in 1996. It is designed to hold —1010 antiprotons. In late 1997, the Penning Trap will be filled with antiprotons at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and transported to the Air Force Phillips Laboratory SHIVA-STAR facility at Kirkland AFB, where a demonstration of antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission (but not fusion) is planned for 1997-98. An improved Penning Trap (with higher capacity) will be assembled in 1998, and used for a demonstration of antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission and fusion in 1999-2000. The actual antiproton storage compartment is kept at liquid helium temperatures so as to keep the antiprotons ‘cool” (i.e., so that they won’t have enough kinetic energy to escape the confining magnetic fields provided by the Trap’s permanent magnets). Thus, the Trap design provides for a large outer insulating liquid nitrogen and inner liquid helium volume to permit trips of several days without cryogen refill. Finally, note that there is minimal hazard from transporting this small amount of antimatter: 1010 proton-antiproton annihilations, with an annihilation energy content of I .8x 1016 Joules per kg (0f proton plus antiproton total mass), would only release 0.6 Joules (0.14 calories), or the energy required to heat one drop (1/20 ml) of water 2.8°C. ANTI-MATTER PROPULSION Matter Anti-matter propulsion offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. The ideal energy density (E = mc2) of 9 x 1016 J/Kg is order of magnitude greater than chemical (lx 107 J/Kg), fission (8 x 1013 J/Kg) or even fusion (3 x 1014 i/Kg) reactions. Additionally, the matter antimatter annihilation proceeds spontaneously, therefore not requiring massive or complicated reactor systems. These properties make antimatter very attractive for propulsive ambitious space missions. This section describes antimatter propulsion concepts in which matter antimatter annihilation provides all of the propulsive energy. Once produced and stored, antimatter can annihilate with normal matter to produce energy for propulsion. The annihilation produces tremendous energy in the form of energetic, unstable, charged and neutral sub atomic particles (mostly pions,p). Note that for a propulsion application, proton antiproton annihilation is preferred over electron positron annihilation because the products of proton antiproton annihilation are charged particles that can be confined directed magnetically so as to transfer their energy to propulsive “working fluid” like normal H2. By contrast, electron-positron annihilation produces only high-energy gamma rays, which do not “couple” their energy efficiently to a working fluid. Thus, in the annihilation of proton (p+) and the antiproton (p-), the products include neutral and charged pions (p0, p+, p-). In this case, the charged ions can be trapped and directed by magnetic fields to produce thrust. However, pions do possess mass, so not all of the proton antiproton mass is converted into energy. This results in an energy density of the proton antiproton reaction of only 1.8 x l0l6J/Kg. To implement an antimatter rocket engine, the three main components required are antimatter storage system, feed system and thruster. In this fig. the antimatter is stored in the form of solid pellets of anti hydrogen. A high-density form of antimatter is required because storage as gaseous plasma in a Penning Trap is limited to about 1010 particles per cubic centimeter; the volume of 10mg of antimatter would be equivalent to 40 space shuttle cargo bays. However storage as a solid requires low temperature to prevent sublimation of the pellets. Gaseous antihydrogen could not be contained; only the solid (or liquid) is diamagnetic and can be levitated by a magnetic field. Also, very high- quality vacuum in the storage chamber is required to prevent residual normal matter gas annihilating on the solid antihydrogen pellets. For eg. , in the image, both a vacuum pump and a series of air lock doors are required to prevent gas from the thruster entering the storage chamber. Finally normal hydrogen is used as the propellant working fluid; an excess of hydrogen is used such that the annihilation energy between a small amount of antihydrogen and normal hydrogen heats a large mass of normal hydrogen. This annihilation is accomplished inside the thruster. ANTIMATTER THRUSTER CONCEPTS There are four basic antimatter thruster concepts to harness matter antimatter annihilation energy for propulsion. They are the solid-core, gas-core, plasma-core and beam-core thrusters. The solid-core thruster is similar in concept to nuclear rocket. Antiprotons annihilate inside a solid core heat exchanger made of tungsten or graphite. The annihilation heats the core, which in turn heats hydrogen propellant flowing through the core. The heated 142 then expands through a conventional nozzle to produce thrust. This device is very efficient and produces high thrust, but the specific impulse is limited to less than 1000 lbf-s/lbm due to material constraints. In the gas-core device, antimatter is annihilated directly in the H2 propellant to be exhausted. Magnetic fields are used to contain only the energetic charged pions (p+, p-) which spiral into the H2 gas to heat it. The heated 1-12 is then expanded through a conventional rocket engine. The device is less effective or less efficient than the solid-core concept but could possibly achieve higher specific impulse in the range up to 2500 lbf-s/lbm. The plasma-core thruster, which is similar to earlier one but operates by annihilating larger amounts of antimatter in H2 to produce hot plasma. The plasma is confined in a magnetic bottle configuration, which also contains the energetic charged pions, which heat the plasma. To produce thrust, the heated plasma is then exhausted through one end of the magnetic bottle. Since this device uses magnetic fields for plasma confinement, it is not limited in temperature by material melting points. It can therefore achieve much higher specific impulse in the range of 5000 to 100,000 Ibf-sllbm at useful thrust levels. Lastly, the beam-core thruster employs a diverging magnetic field just upstream of the annihilation point between the antimatter and low density H2. The magnetic field is then directly focuses the energetic charged pions as the as the exhausted propellants. Thus the charged pions are traveling close to the speed of light, the specific impulse of the device could possibly range as high as l0 lbfs/Ibm, but at very low thrust levels. ANTIMATTER ROCKET FOR INTERSTELLAR MISSIONS This image represents an antimatter rocket with a beam-core thruster. The long length of the vehicle is required due to the lona distance that the proton antiproton annihilation products travel (because the decay products are moving at nearly the speed of light). For eg the initial proton antiproton annihilation produces, on an average 1.6 neutral (p°) and 3.2 charged pions (p, p) P+ + P- 1.6pO 3.2p+, p- The neutral pion rapidly decays into high-energy gamma rays (g), which are effectively useless for propulsion p°—2g The charged pions, on the other hand, have a longer life time and travel on the order of 21 m before decaying into charged muons (i’, f) and neutrons (n); the charged muons travel an additional 1.85km before decaying into electrons (e or positrons (e and neutrinos. Thus the magnetic nozzle of the vehicle might be as short as 21 m or as long as several kilometers in length to effectively or efficiently capture and direct the pions and muons to produce thrust. P+ µ+ + n µ µ+ e + + n µ+ n e P- µ+ + n µ µ- e - + nµ + n e INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION (ICF) PROPULSION Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires high-power lasers or particle beams to compress and heat a pellet of fusion fuel to fusion ignition conditions. In operation, the pellet of fusion fuel (typically deuterium-tritium, D-T) is placed at the locus of several high-power laser beams or particle beams. The lasers or particle beams simultaneously compress and heat the pellet. Compression of the pellet is accomplished by an equal and opposite reaction to the outward explosion of the surface pellet material. Heating of the pellet results from both the compression and the inputted laser energy (or particle-beam kinetic energy). The pellets’ own inertia is theoretically sufficient to confine the plasma long enough so that a useful fusion reaction can be sustained; hence this fusion reaction is inertially confined. Unfortunately, from a spacecraft perspective, lasers and particle beam ICF implosion ‘drivers are heavy, electric-power intensive systems. In an attempt to avoid these drawbacks, several alternative concepts have been proposed. One simple solution is to take the lasers off of the vehicle and place them in a remote location (e.g., Earth orbit) and beam the laser energy to the vehicle. Several chemical drivers have also been considered. For example, high-energy chemical explosives or high energy density matter (FDM) metastable species (e.g., metaslable helium) could be applied to the surface of the fusion fuel pellet and triggered to produce an implosion. Also, macroscopic kinematic dnvers (basically high-speed “hammers’) have been modeled. Finally, the most exotic approach is a variation on the Interstellar Ramjet; in this concept, fusion fuel pellets are fired (from Earth orbit using a mass driver or rail gun) Out ahead of the vehicle. At sufficiently high speeds, the relative velocity of impact between the vehicle and the pellet is sufficient to cause ignition. VISTA SPACECRAFT The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reaction can ‘e used to provide useful thrust for space travel. This has been proposed in .5 concept called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications). (A closely related concept uses a small amount of antimatter to trigger a micro-fission/fusion reaction.) In the VISTA ICF propulsion concept. a fraction of the fusion reaction energy produced is converted to electric power and u5ed to operate the laser (or particle beam) pellet implosion driver modules. A super conducting ring magnet at the base of the cone produces a magnetic nozzle, which directs the flow of the fusion plasma debris to produce thrust. The fusion pulse occurs at the apex of a 500 half-angle cone. The unique hollow-cone configuration of the vehicle is chosen so that a ring-shaped radiation shield 15-rn from the apex protects the rest of the vehicle in a conical radiation shadow. The below image illustrate the VISTA ICF spacecraft The red “tubes” are the driver lasers; the white rectangular “boxes’ between the lasers are the power processors. Mirrors used to focus the laser light onto the fusion pellet are on the standoffs (the mirrors are just visible in the picture). The VISTA hydrogen propellant tank is the ring-shaped bulge at the top of the vehicle (base of cone). Above this are cylindrical habitat modules and conical aero shell (Apollo-shaped) landers. Finally, note that the tethered astronaut (shown in the vehicle at Mars picture) is grossly out of scale; the vehicle is on the order of 100 m tall and 170 m in diameter (at the base of the cone) VISTA (and all ICF systems) is operated in a pulsed mode. The VISTA vehicle sized for a fast (60 day round trip) manned-Mars mission (100 metric tons [MT] payload) has a total weight of 5800 MT tons, of which 4100 MT is hydrogen expellant, and 40 MT is DT fuel. It produces ajet power of 30,000 MW at 30Hz operation (30 DT pellets are ignited per second in the magnetic thrust chamber), and a specific impulse of 17,000 lbf-s/lbm (166,600 m/s). This concept design is based on assumptions regarding the success of present inertial confinement fusion research efforts and on spacecraft technology expected to be available by the year 2020. The VISTA study participants included Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Johnson Space Center (JSC). VISTA SPACECRAFT CONCEPT DAEDALUS SPACECRAFT The British Interplanetary Society conducted a design study to evaluate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) propulsion for interstellar travel. The vehicle was called Daedalus and was designed for an interstellar flyby with a total DV of 0.1 c. Daedalus was engineered as a two-stage vehicle “ith a total mass at ignition of 53,500 MT. The first stage carries 46,000 MT of propellant and has a dry mass of 1690 MT; it produces a thrust of 7.5 x 106 N and has an ignition rate of 250 pellets/second. The burn time is estimated to he about 2 years. The second stage carries 4000 MT of propellant and has a dry mass of 980 Mg. Second-stage thrust is 6.6 x 105 N at an ignition rate pf 250 pellets second; its bum time is estimated to be about 2 years. The final net payload is S30 MT. The specific impulse for each stage is approximately 106 lbf-s/lbm (10 mis, or 0.03 c). ANTIPROTON-CATALYZED MICRO-FISSION/ FUSION PROPULSION Previous studies have identified fusion propulsion as an enabling technology.’ for rapid human transportation within the solar system and potentially for interstellar missions. In particular, fusion propulsion is especially attractive for fast round trip) piloted Mars missions. For example, in the VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications) study, an inertial co-.fteiflct1t fusion (ICF) propulsion system was found capable of performing a 60-d’ round- trip Mars mission with a 100-MT payload. This type of performance is typical of fusion rockets, although it requires large vehicles (—1600-MT dry without payload, 4100-MT of propellant), operating at high powers (30 GW and high Isps (17,000 lbf-s/lbm or 166,600 m/s). An alternative approach to conventional’ VISTA-type fusion propulsion systems is the inertial-confinement antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission fusion nuclear (ICAN) propulsion concept under development at Pennsylvania State University (PSU). In this approach to ICF propulsion, a pellet containing Uranium(U) fission fuel and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion fuel is compressed i lasers, ion beams, etc. At (he time of peak compression, the target is bombarded with a small number (108-1011) of antiprotons to catalyze the uranium fission pr0Ce55. (For comparison, ordinary U fission produces 2 to 3 neutrons per jsLOi1 by contrast, antiproton-induced U fission produces —16 neutrons per fission. The fission energy release then triggers a high-efficiency fusion burn to the propellant, resulting in expanding plasma used to produce thrust. Significantly, unlike ‘pure antimatter propulsion concepts which require large amounts of antimatter (because all of the propulsive energy is supplied by matter- antimatter annihilation), this concept uses antimatter in amounts that we can produce today with existing technology and facilities. This technology could enable 100- to 130-day round trip (with 30-day stop-over) piloted Mars missions, 1 .5-year round trip (with 30-day stop-over) piloted Jupiter missions, and 3-year one-way robotic Pluto orbiter mission (all with 100 MT payloads). Also, because much of the fusion ignition energy comes from the initial fission reaction, it may be possible to employ smaller or simpler pellet compression ‘drivers’ (e.g., particle beams, lasers, etc.) than those considered for a “conventional’ ICF system where all of the fusion ignition energy is derived from the compression process. Similarly, it may also be possible to use difficult-to- ignite aneutronic fuels like D-He3. For example, recent simulations of D-He3 versus D-T antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission/fusion have shown that although neutron energy yields are reduced by a factor of 5 using D-He3, the fusion energy yield is 12 times smaller than that with D-T due to the slow “burn rate of the DHe3 target (which allows time for disassembly of the target before it can be consumed). However, neutron flux with D-He3 may result in reductions in overall vehicle mass (due to decreased shielding, waste-heat control, etc. requirements) may compensate for the reduced fusion energy yield. Concept I Uranium (or Pu) enriched DT .(or D-He3) pellet compressed (by ions, lasers, etc.) 2.At the time of peak compression, the target is bombarded with a small number. (-..108) of antiprotons to catalyze fission. 3. The fission energy release triggers a high-efficiency fusion burn to heat the Propellant. 4. Resulting expanding plasma used to produce thrust. Features I. Uses s small amount of antimatter - an amount that we can produce today with existing technology and facilities. 2. Mission benefits of 120-day Earth-Mars round trip. 3. Potential benefits of “easier” drivers/aneutronic fuels. Feasibility Issues 1. Pellet implosion dynamics 2. Fission bum up (number of antiprotons needed) 3. Fus ion ignition and bum (total gain) 4. Transfer of fission/fusion energy to propellant 5. Transfer of propellant energy to vehicle ICAN PROPULSION VEHICLE The following picture shows the inertial-confinement antiproton-catalyzed micro- fission/fusion nuclear (ICAN) propulsion concept vehicle, which employs the antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission/fusion concept under development at Pennsylvania State University (PSU). (This is the second and most recent configuration, thus it is called ICAN-Il.) The system has several similarities to the ORION pulsed fission propulsion concept because each micro-fission/fusion explosion releases an energy equivalent to 20 tons of TNT. Thus, a shock absorber system is used to couple the propulsive pulses to the rest of the vehicle. Also in this configuration, the antiprotons are contained in storage rings (essentially recreating) on a small scale the large storage rings at FermiLab or (CERN). Finally, the crew compartments are located as far as possible from the fission/fusion reaction to minimize shielding requirements. (The crew compartments are also spun to provide artificial gravity.) ICAN PROPULSION VEHICLE ENGINE The above picture shows the engine portion of the inertial confinement antiproton-catalyzed micro-fission/fusion nuclear (JCAN) propulsion concept vehicle, which employs the antiproton –catalyzed micro-fission/fusion concept under development at Pennsylvania State University.(This is the second and most recent configuration, thus it is called ICAN II). The system has several similarities to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) propulsion concepts. For example, there is a particle beam (rather than laser- beam) driver” that compresses the micro-fission/fusion pellet prior to injection of antiprotons. After the micro-fission/fusion explosion which releases an energy equivalent to 20 tons of TNT, the expanding plasma ablates a layer of lead on the inside “cup of the thrust chamber. In fact, most of the total propellant mass is lead. Lead is used so as to efficiently capture the energy released the micro- fission/fusion explosion (which is in the form of-various, forms of high-energy photons and particles) and convert this energy into directed propulsive thrust. ADVANTAGES I. When antimatter comes into contact with normal matter, these equal but opposite particle collides to produce an explosion emitting pure radiation. This explosion transfers the entire mass of both objects into energy, which is believed to be more powerful than any that can be generated by other propulsion system. II. In ICAN propulsion vehicle, a small amount of antimatter is used to trigger the micro-fission/fusion reaction. Thus the antimatter acts as a catalyst to drive another reaction. LIMITATIONS I. As we know that antiprotons annihilate spontaneously when brought into contact with normal matter, thus they must be contained by electromagnetic fields in high vacuums. This greatly complicates the collections, storage and handling of antimatter. Thus storage is the greatest limitation. II. Finally, current production technology has an energy efficiency of about an order of nanograms per year. This is very small compared to the mission propulsion requirement for antimatter, which requires milligrams of antimatter for simple orbit transfer maneuvers and up to tons of kilograms of antimatter for near star interstellar flybys. HI. During the matter anti-matter annihilation, some amount of gamma rays is produced. These rays are harmful to the onboard passengers/crews traveling in it. Research is going on to rectify it. CONCLUSION Currently, just 14 nanograms of antiprotons would be enough fuel to send a manned spacecraft to Mars in one month. Today it takes nearly a year for an unmanned spacecraft to reach Mars. Scientists believe that the speed of a matter- antimatter powered spacecraft would allow man to go where no man has gone before in space. Meanwhile lots of research & studies are going on to use the small fraction of antimatter available on earth (which where artificially produced) to trigger the micro fission) fusion reaction in an ICAN propulsion vehicle. Anyhow, after some decades it would be possible to make trips to Jupiter and even beyond the heliopause, the point at which the sun’s radiation ends.
 summer project pal Active In SP Posts: 308 Joined: Jan 2011 14-01-2011, 08:20 PM MATTER ANTI-MATTER SPACE CRAFT PROPULSION PRESENTED BY JOSEPH VARKEY K S7 MECH ROLL NO 22   MATTER ANTI-MATTER SPACE CRAFT PROPULSION.ppt (Size: 1.26 MB / Downloads: 171) INTRODUCTION HISTORY Begins with young physicist named PAUL A.M.DIRAC(1902-1984). In 1932 Carl Anderson observed new particle and named it as positron. In 1955 scientists created the first anti hydrogen atom at the CERN research facility in Europe . ANTIMATTER PRODUCTION Accelerating protons to relativistic velocities and slamming them into a metal target. The kinetic energy of the rapidly moving protons is converted into matter in the form of various subatomic particles, some of which are anti protons. Anti protons are electro magnetically separated from the other particles, then they are captured and cooled (slowed) by a Radio-Frequency Quadrapole (RFQ) linear accelerator . ANTIMATTER PRODUCTION ANTI MATTER STORAGE They must be contained by electromagnetic fields in high vacuums. The storage cell is called a Penning trap; it uses magnetic fields to trap charged particles. Positive antielectrons are combined with negative anti protons to form antihydrogen atoms. PENNING TRAP PORTABLE ANTIPROTON PENNING TRAP Developed by Pennsylvania State University (PSU). It is designed to hold —1010 antiprotons. The actual antiproton storage compartment is kept at liquid helium temperatures so as to keep the antiprotons ‘cool” . PORTABLE ANTIPROTON PENNING TRAP ANTI MATTER PROPULSION ANTI MATTER ROCKET ENGINE Three main components Storage system ,Feed system ,Thruster Antimatter stored in the form of solid pellets Penning trap is limited to about 1010 particles However storage as a solid requires low temperature to prevent sublimation of the pellets ANTIMATTER ENGINE Gaseous antihydrogen could not be contained; only the solid (or liquid) is diamagnetic and can be levitated by a magnetic field Finally normal hydrogen is used as the propellant working fluid; an excess of hydrogen is used such that the annihilation energy between a small amount of antihydrogen and normal hydrogen heats a large mass of normal hydrogen This annihilation is accomplished inside the thruster Schematic Diagram ANTIMATTER THRUSTERS Solid-core,Gas-core,Plasma-core,Beam-core thrusters The solid-core thruster is similar in concept to nuclear rocket. Antiprotons annihilate inside a solid core heat exchanger made of tungsten or graphite. The annihilation heats the core, which in turn heats hydrogen propellant flowing through the core This device is very efficient and produces high thrust THRUSTERS The plasma-core thruster, which is similar to earlier one but operates by annihilating larger amounts of antimatter in H2 to produce hot plasma To produce thrust, the heated plasma is then exhausted through one end of the magnetic bottle It can therefore achieve much higher specific impulse in the range of 5000 to 100,000 Ibf-s/lbm at useful thrust levels ANTIMATTER THRUSTER In the gas-core device, antimatter is annihilated directly in the H2 propellant to be exhausted Magnetic fields are used to contain only the energetic charged pions (p+, p-) which spiral into the H2 gas to heat it. The heated H2 is then expanded through a conventional rocket engine The device is less effective or less efficient than the solid-core concept but could possibly achieve higher specific impulse in the range up to 2500 lbf-s/lbm. THRUSTERS the beam-core thruster employs a diverging magnetic field just upstream of the annihilation point between the antimatter and low density H2 Thus the charged pions are traveling close to the speed of light, the specific impulse of the device could possibly range as high as l0 lbfs/Ibm, but at very low thrust levels. DIAGRAM ANTIMATTER ROCKET FOR INTERSTELLAR MISSIONS ANTIMATTER ROCKET FOR INTERSTELLAR MISSIONS This image represents an antimatter rocket with a beam-core thruster. The long length of the vehicle is required due to the long distance that the proton antiproton annihilation products travel Thus the magnetic nozzle of the vehicle might be as short as 21 m or as long as several kilometers in length to effectively or efficiently capture and direct the pions and muons to produce thrust INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION (ICF) PROPULSION Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires high-power lasers or particle beams to compress and heat a pellet of fusion fuel to fusion ignition conditions Compression of the pellet is accomplished by an equal and opposite reaction to the outward explosion of the surface pellet material to take the lasers off of the vehicle and place them in a remote location (e.g., Earth orbit) and beam the laser energy to the vehicle DIAGRAM ANTIPROTON-CATALYZED MICRO-FISSION/ FUSION PROPULSION In this approach to ICF propulsion, a pellet containing Uranium(U) fission fuel and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion fuel is compressed i lasers, ion beams, etc. At (he time of peak compression, the target is bombarded with a small number (108-1011) of antiprotons to catalyze the uranium fission process ICAN PROPULSION VEHICLE ENGINE ADVANTAGES I. When antimatter comes into contact with normal matter, these equal but opposite particle collides to produce an explosion emitting pure radiation. This explosion transfers the entire mass of both objects into energy, which is believed to be more powerful than any that can be generated by other propulsion system. II. In ICAN propulsion vehicle, a small amount of antimatter is used to trigger the micro-fission/fusion reaction. Thus the antimatter acts as a catalyst to drive another reaction LIMITATIONS I. As we know that antiprotons annihilate spontaneously when brought into contact with normal matter, thus they must be contained by electromagnetic fields in high vacuums II. Finally, current production technology has an energy efficiency of about an order of nanograms per year During the matter anti-matter annihilation, some amount of gamma rays is produced. These rays are harmful to the onboard passengers/crews traveling in it. Research is going on to rectify it CONCLUSION Currently, just 14 nanograms of antiprotons would be enough fuel to send a manned spacecraft to Mars in one month. Today it takes nearly a year for an unmanned spacecraft to reach Mars. Scientists believe that the speed of a matter- antimatter powered spacecraft would allow man to go where no man has gone before in space. Meanwhile lots of research & studies are going on to use the small fraction of antimatter available on earth (which where artificially produced) to trigger the micro fission) fusion reaction in an ICAN propulsion vehicle. Anyhow, after some decades it would be possible to make trips to Jupiter and even beyond the heliopause,the point at which the sun’s radiation ends

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