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31-01-2009, 12:58 AM
Mesh radio is an innovative approach to delivering broadband access to residential and small business customers. Instead of using a central base station to serve all customers with in a radius of a few kilometres, it makes every customer?s equipment capable of providing service to its neighbours. New customers do not need to be able to ?see? a central base station-they only need to ?see? an existing customer?s antenna. The mesh radio avoids base stations and allows low power micro wave devices in the nodes. This reduces the startup costs and makes it feasible to offer services in low subscriber densities. The mesh radio allow to deliver high-capacity and high-quality services to customers. Mesh radio is a very new technology and nobody is yet offering large scale services based on it. The system of trial in Cardiff and further trials planned for the US, Spain and Germany, works at 28 gigahertz ? in the millimetre waveband. Later systems will work at 40 gigahertz. Two way data rates of four mega bits per second are said to be possible for upto 600 subscriber per square kilometres compared with cell phones mesh technology may raise fewer concerns over radiation health effects. It operates at higher frequencies than the microwaves used by cell phone networks, allowing the signals to travel high in the air in a tight line-of-sight beam. Power levels will be less than one watt; whereas cell phone masts push out eight watts. There are a number of trials and pilot services being run in Europe and the USA. Commercial services could be available in two or three years.
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18-12-2010, 04:56 PM
Mesh Radio.ppt (Size: 2.97 MB / Downloads: 300)
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Mesh radio is an innovative approach to delivering broadband access to residential and small business customers.
It makes every customer’s equipment capable of providing service to its neighbours.
It is independent of any existing service provider.
It will let them watch movies on demand,broadcast quality videos and download from internet at a blistering speed [4-25Mbits/sec].
Each Subscriber linked to several other subscribers nearby by low-power radio transmitters;these in turn connected to others,forming a network or mesh.
It is used to increase the reach of cable networks without incurring the expense of digging up streets.
Originally developed for military applications.
It is a communication network made up of
radio nodes organized in a mesh topology.
The coverage area of radio nodes working as a
single network is called mesh cloud.
Wireless mesh networks can be implemented with various wireless technology including 802.11, 802.16, cellular technologies or combinations of more than one type.
Each wireless device is capable of acting as a router as well as an end station.
Packet routing is similar to the way packets go around the Internet.
The number of links between any two nodes are potentially much greater than in a wired network, since the actual configuration of a particular wireless mesh need not be determined until it is actually moving data.
Paths through the network can change from moment to moment in response to varying traffic loads, radio conditions e.t.c.
Mesh Network Layout
Configurations of Mesh Radio
Dual-Radio with 1-Radio Backhaul Mesh
3 Radio with 2 Radio Backhauls Mesh
This configuration uses one radio channel both to service clients and to provide the mesh backhaul.
This provides worst service of all options,since both backhaul and service compete for bandwidth.
This architecture suffer from the send-receive-wait cycle.
Dual-Radio with 1-Radio Backhaul
It is referred to as a "1+1" network , since each node contains two radios, one to provide service to the clients, and one to create the mesh network for backhaul.
The "1+1" name indicates that these radios are
separate from each other.
These two radios can operate indifferent bands.
Fig. Dual Radio Mesh
3 Radio with 2 Radio Backhauls Mesh
This architecture provides separate backhaul and
service functionality and dynamically manages
channels of all of the radios so that all radios are
on non-interfering channels.
It provides better performance of any options.
Broadband Wireless Network Topologies
There are three different topologies.
Point-to-Multipoint Topology .
Mesh Topology (multipoint-to- multipoint).
two buildings connected directly to one another through a point-to-point (PtP) communications link.
For situations where long-distance links are required, a PtP architecture may be the best solution.
It provides the highest data rates.
Each communication link consist of an individual pair of broadband wireless routers, and requires the dedicated use of an RF channel.
It allows multiple remote buildings to share a connection back to a single, central base station.
Easily scale up the network.
It causes "hidden transmitter interference" .
To address this problem, some base station products can operate in a polling mode.
It is referred to as peer-to-peer or multipoint-to-multipoint topologies.
Enables network expansion.
Provides a self-healing architecture.
Reduces implementation and operating costs.
Mesh Radio Architecture
It has flexible architecture.
It is based on Mesh networking or multi-hop networking for moving data efficiently between devices.
In a multi-hop network, any device with a radio link can serve as a router or AP.
Trunk Network Connection Points (TNCPs) link the radio access Mesh to the trun communications network.
Each of the TNCPs will serve a number of Mesh Insertion Points(MIP).
These consist of a standard Customer Node (CN),which can set up connections to other customers, and equipment for multiplexing the signals to and from that customer node onto a link to the TNCP.
Customer Node(CN) not only provides service for that customer but also handles transit traffic from other customers.
It consists of an outdoor radio unit and an indoor service presentation unit.
The Mesh will also include a number of Seed Nodes (SNs).
These are the same as the customer Nodes except that there are no customers connected to them.
The operator installs them at strategic locations to extend coverage to a large number of potential customers.
The role of a seed node is to establish a path back to an MIP (perhaps via other SNs).
It therefore must have atleast one line of sight to an MIP or another seed.
Advantages of Mesh Radio
Fewer central stations, Non-line-of-sight
With Mesh Radio each new customer only needs to be within sight of at least one other customer, not within line of sight of the base station as with other technologies.
No need for high Sites
It is no longer necessary to deploy network connection points on the highest buildings or hilltops .
In a single-hop network, if the sole access point goes down, so does the network.
In mesh network architecture, if the nearest AP is down or there is localized interference, the network will continue to operate; data will simply be routed along an alternate path.
4) Minimum upfront network investment for deployment
With traditional fixed wireless systems, coverage, even to a few subscribers, depends on installing a significant number of base stations, so that an operator is faced with high initial costs.
With Mesh Radio new customers can be connected with a very low density of deployed 'seed' nodes, which provide initial coverage.
5) Fault-tolerance, Self-healing architecture
Meshes are very adaptable to failures in nodes or dropouts in radio coverage - traffic is simply re-routed dynamically.
Each mesh node is aware of the primary optimal path, the secondary path, and every tertiary path a packet may follow to reach its intended destination.
If a building node is removed from the network, each node rapidly learns of the change and defines a new optimal path for its traffic.
6) Higher bandwidth
In wireless communication bandwidth is higher at shorter range, because of interference and other factors that contribute to loss of data as distance increases.
One way to get more bandwidth out of the network, is to transmit data across multiple short hops.
7) Spatial reuse
In a single-hop network, devices must share an AP.
If several devices attempt to access the network at once, a virtual traffic jam occurs and the system slows.
In a multi-hop network, many devices can connect to the network at the same time, through different nodes, without necessarily degrading system performance.
8) Spectrally efficient
By using Mesh Radio, radio spectrum is used up to 50 times more efficiently, because the 'narrow' beams are much less likely to interfere with each other.
This enabling massive increases in data capacity for end users at high customer densities
The substrate nodes of a mesh network can be built with extremely low power requirements, meaning that they can be deployed as completely autonomous units with solar, wind, or hydro power.
Mesh hardware is typically small, noiseless, and easily encapsulated in weatherproof boxes.
11) Network Expansion
With mesh, each network node also acts as a repeater, or forwarding agent, for every other network node whose wireless signal it can hear.
Because each mesh node plays a dual role, adding additional nodes to the network is very simple.
Disadvantages of Mesh Radio
Time Bounded Behavior
If we're relaying traffic between a large number of nodes, the latency involved in this relaying can affect time-bounded traffic, like voice or video.
This problem is usually addressed via the routing protocols used to implement the mesh, but it is potentially a serious concern regardless.
If user traffic is traveling through intermediate nodes in a mesh, security is an issue.
Intermediate nodes might be able to eavesdrop on data not intended for them.
Applications Of Mesh Radio
A significant application for wireless mesh networks is VoIP.
By this, the wireless mesh may support local telephone calls to be routed through the mesh.
VoIP system uses session control protocol like SIP to set up and tear down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over a mesh network as digital audio via an audio stream.
Some current applications:
U.S. military forces are now using wireless mesh networking to connect their computers, mainly ruggedized laptops, in field operations. It enables troops to know the locations and status of every soldier or marine, and to coordinate their activities without much direction from central command.
Electric meters now being deployed on residences transfer their readings from one to another and eventually to the central office for billing without the need for human meter readers or the need to connect the meters with cables.
The 66-satellite Iridium constellation operates as a mesh network, with wireless links between adjacent satellites. Calls between two satellite phones are routed through the mesh, from one satellite to another across the constellation, without having to go through an earth station. This makes for a smaller travel distance.
Products based on point-to-point and point-to-multipoint topologies may not be well suited for industrial communications.
Mesh technology is reliable and redundant, and it can be extended to include thousands of devices.
In addition, these networks can be installed in hours instead of days or weeks.
The self-configuring, self-healing networks are inherently less expensive to install and maintain.
P3M technology enables ,a set of of mesh nodes to function without the presence of a root node.
Clients within the P3M mesh will be able to communicate with other through the MD4000 mesh nodes.
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23-01-2011, 10:48 AM
i want mesh radio total documentation
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Joined: Sep 2010
24-01-2011, 11:30 AM
more on mesh radio are in the following thread.
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Joined: Feb 2012
10-04-2012, 12:08 PM
Mesh Radio is a new Broadband Fixed Wireless Access architecture that avoids the limitations of point to multi-point systems. A series of point-topoint links are set up between nodes mounted on customer’s homes, avoiding the cost of conventional base stations. The use of directional antennas reduces the power requirements (and device costs) and increases spectrum efficiency. Networks grow to meet demand and can achieve a higher penetration over a larger geographic area than other systems. Mesh Radio could provide a platform for residential broadband that is practical in suburban and semi-rural areas if small, low cost nodes can be implemented. It would therefore give significant economic benefits in any country that implements it. The creation of an open interoperability standard would help to create confidence in a mass-market, encouraging investment in essential devices. Allocation of spectrum at 40GHz accompanied by a positive regulatory environment could kick-start the process.
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