MOBILE IPTV Approaches, CHALLENGES,STANDARDS, AND QoS SUPPORT
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AND QoS SUPPORT
Presented by : Satheesh Kumar B
College Of Engineering , Trivandrum
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WHAT IS IPTV ?
TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF MOBILE IPTV.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK.
IPTV-The reinvention of televsion
WHAT IS IPTV?
It is a technology that delivers video or TV broadcasts over the Internet.
Internet TV, in simple terms, is video and audio delivered over an Internet connection. It's also known as Internet protocol television, or IPTV.
You can watch Internet TV on a computer screen, a television screen (through a set-top box) or a mobile device like a cell phone.
True interactive television.
See anything you want to see, any time, any where, on any device .
Reduced infrastructure costs.
IPTV works on your existing internet connection.
Infinite number ofÃ‚Â channels .
Video or TV broadcasts over the Internet on Mobile Devices.
Transmit and receive Multimedia traffic-TV, video, audio, through IP based Wireless Networks.
Using IP based services including IPTV anywhere on earth.
Architecture for Mobile IPTV
Different Approaches for Mobile IPTV
Mobile TV plus IP Approach.
IPTV plus Mobile Approach.
Mobile TV plus IP approach
Traditional Digital broadcast networks to deliver IP based broadband data services.
Combines broadcasting service and Internet.
Audio/Video Services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking.
May incur the loss of individuality of IP.
IPTV plus Mobile Approach
IPTV beyond fixed terminals such as Set top Boxes.
Provides mobility and wireless characteristics to IPTV.
Mobility Services based on IMS(IP Multimedia Subsystems)
IP based Mobile broadcasting networks.
Applicable to mobile terminals.
It is BEARER AGNOSTIC - any broadcasting distribution network can be adopted as its distribution networks.
Already countless video services.
Quality of service not guaranteed.
Highly diversified and dynamically independent.
Mobile devices â€œ Internet â€œ various wireless networks.
Vulnerable wireless links.
QoS and QoE
Technical Issues Around Mobile IPTV
SD/HD contents delivery
IMS for media streaming
IMS for media streaming
Restricted device capability
Vulnerable wireless link
Weak security chain
GSI &ITU-T FG are major organisations.
Unified MOBILE IPTV services
Congestion control capabilities.
Adapt dynamically to change in wireless net work characteristics
CONCLUSION & FUTURE of MOBILE IPTV
Development in accordance with IPTV.
Too many strict requirements to deploy IPTV.
Ensuring QoS/QoE for heterogeneous devices.
Future work â€œ Sophisticated Architecture.
Optimal resource allocation for large systems.
Soohong Park, Seong-Ho Jeong and Cheolju Hwang, Mobile IPTV Expanding the Value of IPTV, The seventh International Conference on Networking, pp. 296-301, 2008. (DOI 10.1109/ICN.2008.8)
 Mobile IPTV Approaches, Challenges, Standards and QoS Support IEEE magazine, may2009
Jinsul Kim,Tai-Won UmÃ‚Â Ã‚Â Ryu, W. Byung Sun Lee, Heterogeneous Networks and Terminal-Aware QoS/QoE-Guaranteed Mobile IPTV Service, IEEE Communication Magazine, May 2008, Volume: 46,Ã‚Â Issue: 5,110-117.
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MOBILE IPTV APPROACHES, CHALLENGES STANDARDS AND QOS SUPPORT
Applied Electronics and Instrumentation
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
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Mobile IPTV is a technology that enables users to transmit and receive multimedia traffic including television signal, video, audio, text and graphic services through IP-based the wired and wireless networks with support for Quality of Service/QoE, security, mobility, and interactive functions. Through Mobile IPTV, users can enjoy IPTV services anywhere and even while on the move. Mobile IPTV lets mobile users transmit and receive multimedia traffic ,such as TV signal, video, audio, text, and graphics, through IP-based networks with the support of quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE), security, mobility and interactivity. In short, mobile IPTV extends many IPTV services to mobile users. To coordinate and promote development of global IPTV standards, the ITUT in 2006 formed a focus group called FG IPTV, which took into account the existing work of ITU-T study groups and other standards development organizations. Then, in January 2008, the IPTV Global Standards Initiative (IPTV-GSI) took over the IPTV standardization role. Here we describe the current status of mobile IPTV standardization as well as mobile IPTV approaches and technical challenges. Additionally, we propose an efficient signaling scheme to support QoS for seamless mobile IPTV services. QoS support is critical for video delivery systems, especially in the mobile environment, and a requirement for viewer satisfaction.
This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio, video, graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting, telecommunications and computing. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. To make this approach more attractive, wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum.
ARCHITECTURES AND APPROACHES
ITU-T defines the IPTV architecture1and further classifies it into next generation-network (NGN)-based and non-NGN-based architectures. Here we address non-NGN-based architectures for mobile IPTV services. In future work, we’ll incorporate the NGN IPTV based mobile IPTV approach, which considers the IP-based Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).Figure 1 shows an overall mobile IPTV architecture. In the first stage, a wireless interface enables communication between the access network and the receiver (mobile IPTVterminal). Because IPTV is access agnostic according to ITU-T’s definition, various wireless access networks, such as wireless LAN(WLAN), WiMAX and cellular networks,4can exist. Each wireless technology has its own characteristics, which service providers should carefully consider when deploying mobile IPTV. In the second stage, the wireless section extends to the sender so that both the sender’s and receiver’s devices can be mobile. Moreover, user-created content is becoming more popular in the Internet community; any mobile user can create IPTV content and provide it to other mobile IPTV users. Some of the approaches for mobile IPTV services we’ll discuss in this section are already in use. From the users’ perspective, no big functionality differences exist among the approaches, but the detailed technologies differ.
Figure 2.1 Mobile IPTV Architecture.
TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO MOBILE IPTV
3.1 Mobile TV plus IP
This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio, video, graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting, telecommunications and computing. Using traditional digital broadcast networks, mobile TV plus IP delivers IP-based audio, video, graphics, and other broadband data to mobile users.5 This approach aims to build an environment in which stable broadcasting facilities and content combine with diverse Internet based services. Additionally, mobile TV plus IP uses wide area wireless networks, such as cellular networks, to support interactivity. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. To make this approach more attractive, wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum. In addition, DVB-IPI (IPI: IP Infrastructure) (is an open DVB standard that enables audio/video services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking. DVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional mobile IP based broadcasting protocol specifications over DVB-H. DVB-CBMS already finished Phase I and currently is working in Phase II. WorldDAB Forum is enhancing and extending Eureka 147 to support IP based services.
Although this mobile TV plus IP approach is classified as mobile IPTV, the use of broadcasting networks might cause loss of IP individuality ,such as point-to-point interactive
communication and personalized services.
3.2 IPTV plus Mobile approach
Although many think that “networked TV” will be the future of television, IPTV is currently dominated by Telco giants in an attempt to find a new source of cash-in. IPTV services are originally targeted to fixed terminals such as set-top boxes, however, issues on the requirements for mobility support were raised as an out-growth under the auspices of the Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) trend. The outstanding activities are ATIS in the US, Open IPTV Forum, and ITU-T FG IPTV internationally. The development of Mobile IPTV specification is at an early stage. Currently, ITU-T FG IPTV is collecting requirements regarding mobility and wireless characteristics. ATIS has not shown any interest in mobility support yet. In Open IPTV Forum, mobility service entirely based on IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) which is a set of specification from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users will be forthcoming.
3.3 Cellular approach
Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCAST is working for IP based mobile broadcasting networks. Its goals are to define an end-to-end framework for mobile broadcast and compile the set of necessary enablers. Its features are bearer agnostic, which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can be adopted as its transport means. OMA BCAST, however, is only applicable to mobile terminals up to now and showing interest in expanding its specification to cover fixed terminals in Phase II.
3.4 Internet approach
There are already countless Internet video services worldwide. They are usually termed as Internet TV or Web TV. These are outgrown for a niche entertainment business. With this approach, there can be quite different models developing on the business type and infrastructure used. This approach is open for anybody to play a role in the value chain: anybody can be a content provider, a service provider, or simply a consumer. This resulted in a universe of highly diversified and dynamically independent production. In addition, the openness gives global reach. However this Internet approach has a short coming that the quality of services is not guaranteed since it is based on the best effort service model. However, considering its rapid adaptation to customer needs, this approach may be dominant in the near future.
TECHNICAL OBSTACLES FOR MOBILE IPTV
In addition, Mobile IPTV has at least one wireless interface with a device. A minimum of 2–3 Mbit/s of bandwidth needs to be provided, due to the characteristics of the IPTV service. Wireless technologies for short-range use or control purposes are not fully considered yet. There are many obstacles on the path to the successful launch and widespread use of Mobile IPTV businesses. One group of obstacles is technical and the other business. Since Mobile IPTV assumes at least one wireless link between the source (e.g. stream server) and the destination (e.g. mobile terminal), most of the technical obstacles are related to the usage of the wireless link. As for business perspective, customer needs for watching TV programs on the go seems not to be so high. For the second obstacle, content might be a major player.
4.1 Capability limitation
Most of the mobile terminals have limited capabilities compared to fixed terminals. This mainly ascribes to portability considerations, which lead to small displays, low power processors, and limited storage. Capability limitations implicate very strict requirements that only a restricted set of technologies can be considered as possible Mobile IPTV solutions; light-weightiness is essential. the mobile terminal’s screen size when sending a video stream.
4.2 Bandwidth limitation
Even though the effective bandwidth of wireless links is growing rapidly, it’s not until the 4G wireless network is fully deployed that the wireless link bandwidth becomes broad enough to accommodate High Definition quality video services. Even when the 4G wireless network is available, bandwidth greedy applications will come out: such as Ultra High Definition quality video services. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link, and be short of bandwidth. Mobile IPTV Use Bandwidth Minimum 2-3 Mbps. Although the wireless link’s effective band width is growing rapidly, it won’t be sufficient for mobile IPTV until the 4G wireless network’s full deployment. Only then will the wireless link bandwidth become broad enough to accommodate high-definition video services. Even when the 4G wireless network is available, the bandwidth might not be sufficient if bandwidth-greedy services such as ultra-definition (UD) video emerge and the number of users increases rapidly. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link, and the number of high-bandwidth applications will continue to increase. Therefore, bandwidth-aware solutions are always desirable for mobile IPTV services in the wireless environment.
4.3 Vulnerable wireless link
The wireless link is very vulnerable. Even if mobile terminals are stationary, temporal reflectors and obstacles around the mobile terminals can affect the received signal and cause burst packet losses. Considering the movement of mobile terminals, packets delivered through the wireless link are exposed to a variety of signal degradation such as shadowing, fast/slow fading, etc. Packet losses are intrinsic and inevitable in the wireless link. Even when mobile IPTV terminals are stationary, temporal reflectors and obstacles in the wireless environment can affect the received signal quality and cause burst packet losses. Such quality degradation is intrinsic in the wireless link. So, the mobile IPTV servers and terminals should react adaptively to the wireless link’s varying conditions.
4.4 Coverage implication
The main reason for carrying mobile terminals is to get access to the services any time and anywhere . Because it is practically impossible to deploy wireless networks to cover all geographical areas with no dead spots, services are restricted in some areas. However, by adopting vertical hand-overs (hand-overs between different networks), the coverage issue can be considerably mitigated. The purpose of mobile IPTV devices is to provide anytime, anywhere access to IPTV services. However, it’s virtually impossible to deploy a wireless network that covers all geographical areas with no dead spots. Enabling vertical handover between heterogeneous wireless networks — for example, WiMAX, WLAN, and 4G networks — can resolve service-coverage limitations. Vertical handover occurs when a network node changes the type of connectivity it uses, usually to support node mobility. But, the technical challenges of seamless handover remain, such as how to sustain mobile IPTV services while moving across different wireless networks without any significant performance degradation and how to select the best network among them for mobile IPTV.
4.5 Dynamic environment
The wireless link is highly dynamic compared to the wired link. The characteristics of the wireless can vary due to a variety of causes and the rate of change is very abrupt. For example, vertical handover can change almost everything—the whole path between the sources and the sink, bandwidth, IP address—in a blink. Therefore many solutions devised for the relatively static wired computer network environment may not work properly. Unlike the wired channel’s more static properties ,the wireless channel’s characteristics vary because of the effects of fading, shadowing, reflection ,refraction, scattering, diffraction, and interference. Vertical handover, which changes the media access control and physical layers(MAC/PHY), available bandwidth, and, possibly, IP address, might also greatly affect mobile IPTV service quality. Therefore, because most of the wired network solutions won’t work properly, mobile IPTV should employ wireless-specific and mobility-aware technologies.
4.6 Scalable Video Coding
The scalable video coding (SVC) technology lets the system consider the network’s terminal types and available bandwidth. Although SVC enables scalable representation of video content with high coding efficiency, it’s difficult to perform real-time encoding because of the SVC encoders’ complexity. Additionally, further study is needed on how to best control the SVC rate according to network resource availability.
4.7 QoS and QoE
For high-quality mobile IPTV services, supporting key QoS factors, such as packet loss, bandwidth, delay and jitter, and packet-error ratio, is important. Mobile IPTV delivery systems must be able to handle such factors through careful system design (for example, over-provisioning or use of NGNs), careful traffic control in the network (such as traffic engineering and service differentiation), and optimized buffering and error-correction at the receiver. In particular, reacting quickly to varying conditions in the wireless link is critical .Supporting user-perceived QoE by providing a resource-aware mobile IPTV service is also important — for instance, increasing or decreasing the transmission rate according to the user’s expectation.
4.8 Middleware concern
Middleware is one of the key functions of the IPTV service. By deploying middleware, a service provider can control the usage of IPTV service remotely. Also, middleware acts as a transparent solution for adopting IPTV services on to various and different platforms. So far, there are several well known middleware solutions on a set-top box. It is, however, too heavy to be implemented on a mobile device. By slimming down the existing middleware, these may be able to be applied to Mobile IPTV.
4.9 Business issue
The most significant problem of the Mobile IPTV business (this applies to Mobile TV in the same way) is that the consumer need for watching TV program on the go is not so high. This is mainly because there is limited time for enjoying visual services on the go. This requires Mobile IPTV services to be far more attractive than the consumers’ expectation. Usability is another main obstacle for the success of Mobile IPTV business. Due to the small form factor of mobile devices, it is not possible to adopt fancy User Interface methods. A highly creative and new way of interfacing is required. Watching favourite TV programs live may be the most attractive feature of Mobile IPTV. Currently, customers have many channels to enjoy their favourite TV programs whenever they want. This means the liveness of TV programs become less and less important except for some events such as sports. New killer features are required. The lack of mobile contents frustrates the early adopters of Mobile TV. Contents must be tailored for mobile environments. For example, small display sizes, random and short watching time should be considered. User interface is another obstacle to a successful mobile IPTV business. The small mobile device form hinders development of a fancy user interface. Mobile IPTV growth will require a highly creative and innovative human-machine interface suitable for the mobile device. Watching live TV while mobile is one of mobile IPTV’s most attractive features. So, access to popular real-time TV programs and rich content should be provided. Content tailored for mobile environments, such as small screen size and random and short watching time, is key.
Figure 4.1 Limitation for delivering IPTV contents to Mobile IPTV Devices
MOBILE IPTV STANDARD STATUS
ITU-T FG IPTV is in the progress of developing IPTV services requirements  which describes requirements for the design, the deployment and the operations of IPTV service. This section focuses on ITU-T FG IPTV activities and illustrates what is going on in there since FG IPTV is at the front head of Mobile IPTV standard today. Originally, FG IPTV had to be completed by the middle of 2007, but its activity is extended to the end of 2007 to evaluate the quality of deliverables as per ITU-T SG13 decision. FG IPTV was born in ITUT SG13, NGN (Next Generation Network), to coordinate and promote the development of global IPTV standards taking into account the existing work of the ITU study groups as well as Standards Development Organization (SDOs), For a and Consortia. There are several activities for Mobile IPTV standardization in the market, such as DVB-CBMS,OMA-BCAST, 3GPP-MBMS, WiMAX-MBS, etc. and their efforts and deliverables can be harmonized to provide Mobile IPTV service. ITU-T’s mission is to ensure an efficient and on-time production of high quality standards covering all fields of telecommunications from the high level point of view. Therefore, ITU-T can coordinate respective standard activities as to develop a unified and sophisticated Mobile IPTV standard to the market. For this purpose, a new Question as Mobile IPTV was officially proposed to ITU-T SG13 during April meeting in Geneva. This issue will take place in the next ITU-T SG13 meeting in 2008 to consider how to move this issue forward within ITU-T. This section wraps up what kinds of requirements are included in FG IPTV service requirements  as of today in terms of Mobile IPTV. These requirements shown in Table 1 will be reordered and reorganized after FG is completed. For developing IPTV standard, ITU-T allows FG IPTV to have a new coordination group to take over FG activities from 2008 due to FG expired. Therefore, IPTV Global Standards Initiative (GSI) has been formed newly. IPTV GSI focuses on developing the detailed standards necessary for IPTV deployment to give service providers the means to offer the wide range of services expected in ITU-T.IPTV GSI harmonizes, in collaboration with other bodies, different approaches to IPTV architecture worldwide. Figure 4 shows up the flow of IPTV GSI at this stage.
QoS support is crucial for successful mobile IPTV business. In the mobile environment, mobile IPTV services can frequently suffer from an unreliable network connection and insufficient bandwidth. Thus, service continuity requires an awareness of varying wireless-link conditions, such as shadowing and fading. We propose an efficient signaling scheme to support QoS for seamless mobile IPTV service. The scheme defines a new option in high-layer protocols for carrying link characteristics information (LCI). Ji Zhang and colleagues used the LCI as an extension of TCP Quick-Start to let end nodes quickly adjust their sending rate for ongoing connections according to the link condition. For high-layer protocols for mobile IPTV services, we selected the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) and Real-Time Transport Protocol/Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP). We extended these protocols to provide a reliable means for delivering the LCI information from a mobile IPTV terminal to an IPTV content provider. The IPTV content provider can quickly adjust its sending rate for the ongoing session according to the bandwidth information contained in the LCI option, as Figure illustrates. Our scheme can apply to both horizontal and vertical handovers.
6.1 Using a DCCP LCI Extension
Figure shown below illustrates the procedure for DCCP mobility support for QoS-enabled mobile IPTV. After handover, the mobile IPTV terminal sends a DCCP-Request message with an Attach-Gencon (generalized connection) option to the IPTV content server. The system uses the Gencon To implement the sub protocols that create and update generalized connections .For LCI delivery, we define a new DCCP LCI option included in the option field of the DCCP Request and other related messages. This option can include parameters such as network type, interface type, and bandwidth. The system uses the DCCP LCI option in the DCCP-Request message with the Initiate-Gencon option for opening an early session, and also in the DCCP-Request message with the Attach- Gencon option for handover. The system can also use it in the DCCP-Data message when the wireless-link status changes abruptly. Upon receiving the DCCP-Request message, the IPTV content server extracts the Gencon- IDincluded in the message and prepares for data communication with the mobile IPTV terminal. During this time, the IPTV content server analyzes the mobile IPTV terminal’s network information contained in the LCI option .Based on the LCI option’s content, the IPTV content server can determine the congestion window size that early data communication used since the handover by comparing it with the standard congestion-window size. After data communication begins, the congestion-window size increases continuously until it reaches the optimal size. Using the result from the LCI analysis, the application adjusts the sending rate. For example the application increases the sending rate if the new network’s link status is better than the previous one, which results in increased throughput. The application decreases the sending rate if the new network’s link status is worse than the previous one, which results in reduced packet loss.
Figure 6.1 Link characteristics information (LCI) delivery.
Figure 6.2 Signaling process for LCI delivery using Datagram Congestion Control protocol.
6.1.1 Performance evaluation and comparison.
Evaluated QoS performance in two cases: before and after employing the LCI option. The Linux kernel (version 2.6.16) embodies DCCP, which uses congestion control identifiers (CCIDs) 210 and 3.11 We used CCID 2 and detailed scenarios for performance evaluation and comparison. After a mobile IPTV terminal establishes a communication channel with the IPTV content server using the DCCP protocol, the IPTV content server sends data to the mobile IPTV terminal. After some time, the mobile IPTV device performs the handover to move to a new access network. The types of movement include WLAN to- LAN (the low- and high-bandwidth networks in Figure 2, respectively) and LAN-to-WLAN. We measured the performance in all cases. Figure 4a shows data throughput from a case in which the mobile IPTV terminal moves from a high-bandwidth network to a low-bandwidth network. Data throughput equals the amount of data received for stabilization time divided by stabilization time. As the figure shows, the data throughput measured without using the LCI option is about 1.87 megabits per second, and the data throughput measured using the LCI option is about 6.64 Mbps. Using the LCI, the stabilization time decreases, and the data throughput increases more than three times.
Figure 6.3 comparing data throughput and stabilization time using DCCP.(a) throughput increases and (b) stabilization time decreases
6.2 Using an RTP/RTCP LCI Extension
To provide the mobile IPTV user with seamless services, this approach newly defines the transmission of RTP/RTCP feedback (FB) messages, including the network-link characteristics. We provide QoS support at the application level using the RTCP FB message, which is designed to transport application-defined information .The mobile IPTV terminal notifies the server of its network-link characteristics via the RTCP FB message if either the network-link characteristic is changed without handover or handover occurs to another network (either vertical or horizontal). The mobile IPTV server should adapt the transmission behavior according to the current link condition.
6.2.1 Detailed signaling procedure.
The LCI includes the link characteristics of the current network, where the mobile IPTV terminal is attached, or the new network, where the mobile IPTV terminal will move. The RTCP FB message carries the LCI.LCI transmission involves four general steps. First, using a low-layer (layer 2) triggering event, the mobile IPTV terminal detects the link status on the basis of the number of users in the link and handover occurrence. For instance, the increased number of users might cause increased traffic and therefore reduce the available network bandwidth. Handover to another network might also cause a change in the link characteristics. The system detects these link characteristics at the low layer (layer 2) and delivers the information to the high layer, RTCP, as an event .
Figure 6.4 Signaling process for LCI delivery using Real-Time Transport Protocol.
Next, upon receiving the event, RTCP sends the RTCP FB message containing the LCI to the IPTV content server. In case of handover, the information will be the new network’s link characteristics. Then, upon receiving the RTCP FB message, the IPTV content server prepares to adjust its transmission behavior according to the link characteristics of the network where the mobile IPTV terminal is attached and sends a response to indicate that the preparation is complete .Finally, for the sake of reliable QoS, especially in case of handover, the mobile IPTV terminal moves to another network after receiving a response from the IPTV content server. This can reduce the signaling and data transmission delay because the content server can adjust the sending rate in advance of handover. If the response is delayed, the mobile IPTV terminal performs handover first and then retransmits the RTCP FB message.
6.2.2 Performance evaluation and comparison.
In our implementation, the mobile IPTV terminal and the IPTV content server establish a session using the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). The IPTV content server’s initial transmission rate is unchanged until the mobile IPTV terminal notifies the server of its changed link status. To verify LCI delivery’s usefulness, we measured the following two parameters:
• Packet-loss ratio (%) • = (the number of packets the sender transmits − the number of packets the receiver receives) / the number of packets the sender transmits) × 100.
• Data throughput (bits per second) = (the number of packets the receiver receives ×the number of bits per packet) / the measurement time in seconds).
We measured the packet-loss ratio when the receiver (mobile IPTV terminal) moved from LAN to WLAN, and the data throughput when the receiver moved in the reverse direction — that is, during handover from WLAN to LAN. Because measuring handover performance isn’t this experiment’s focus, we ignored packets lost during handover. We measured the packet-loss ratio and data-throughput parameters 15 times in two cases: handover without notification of LCI and handover after transmitting LCI. Figure 6 shows the measurement results. For RTP/RTCP implementation, we used Vovida SIP-1.5.0, which comprises SIP and RTP/RTCP. In this implementation, the session is established between the sender (IPTV content server) and the receiver (mobile IPTV terminal)through SIP. We added the mobility support function to the existing implementation. With the existing mechanism in which the mobile IPTV terminal doesn’t send its LCI, then packet loss is approximately 40 percent when the terminal moves to WLAN from the higher speed LAN. When the mobile IPTV terminal moves to the higher-speed LAN from WLAN, data throughput is about 4.22 Mbps, which is lower than the available capacity. Our proposed mechanism resolves the problems of high packet loss and low data throughput. As Figure shows, the packet-loss ratio drops to 1.23percent in WLAN, and the data throughput increases to 6.43 Mbps in LAN.
Figure 6.5 Lnk characteristics information delivery value.(a)packet loss ratio using the Real-Time Transport(RTP)and (b)data through put using RTP with and without LCI notification.
Technical issues and work items remain for mobile IPTV standardization. First, although our proposed mechanism, based on DCCP and RTP/RTCP options, works well in the mobile environment, it’s not currently interoperable with systems that implemented the DCCP and RTP/RTCP specifications. Wider use of the LCI option will require its standardization, particularly for DCCP and RTP/RTCP. Second, as mobile IPTV standardization accelerates, the requirements might change. Other more general suggestions for future work include defining a common frame work for obtaining the dynamic network link characteristics information from various mobile IPTV devices. Also, further experiments should compare vertical handover scenarios, such as WiMAX and WLAN, WLAN and cellular, and WiMAX and cellular. Given the link information in the LCI option, the mobile IPTV content server must use a scalable media format, such as H.264 Scalable Extension or MPEG Scalable Video Coding. We used our own scalable solution base on MPEG-4, which is composed of frames.
Mobile IPTV was illustrated above accordance with IPTV ongoing activities. Given the well-known definition of IPTV, IPTV service provider tends to deliver high quality contents as SD or HD to users. It is because IPTV architecture provides QoS guaranteed, stable, reliable and secure IP networks. Otherwise, it is not feasible for IPTV service provider to provide TV likely service to users. It is, however, too many strict requirements to deploy IPTV service over the wireless and mobile networks which have several the wireless network characteristics such as limited bandwidth, vulnerable link condition, insecure path and unreliable communication. Therefore, further technical requirements and concern may need to be studied in conjunction with current IPTV for Mobile IPTV services.
LIST OF MOBILE IPTV TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS IN ITU-TFG
IPTV OUTPUT DOCUMENT
• The IPTV architecture is recommended to support a function to obtain the IPTV Terminal Device capabilities information before delivering content.
• The content management can optionally support request bandwidth and congestion control capabilities.
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended to allow the delivery of IPTV services over different access networks (e.g. cable, optical xDSL , wireless)
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended to allow the delivery of IPTV services to any IPTV Terminal Device (e.g. mobile phone ,PDA, Set Top Box).
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended to adapt dynamically to change in wireless networks characteristics when the service is delivered over a mobile network (e.g. bandwidth, packet loss rate),etc.
• The IPTV Architecture is required to support mechanisms for the delivery and rendering of various profiles of Linear/Broadcast TV content, including both High Definition (HD) and Standard Definition (SD) profiles.
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended to support capabilities for the interoperability and user mobility between different IPTV networks allowing access to IPTV services by the customer either in motion or not.
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended to allow service continuity over different networks.
• The IPTV Architecture is recommended support an IPTV terminal with the capability to choose the desired format of the content if there are multiple formats available.
• The IPTV content is recommended to be delivered in several yet optional versions to be selected according to the capabilities of the IPTV Terminal receiving the content (e.g. access rate, resolution, supported formats, etc.).
• The IPTV Architecture can optionally support signaling capabilities for transmitting bandwidth related information.
• SOOHONG PARK, SEONG-HO JEONG AND CHEOLJU HWANG, “MOBILE IPTV EXPANDING THE VALUE OF IPTV”, THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORKING, PP. 296-301, 2008. (DOI 10.1109/ICN.2008.8)
• SOOHONG PARK, SEONG-HO JEONG AND CHEOLJU HWANG MOBILE IPTV “APPROACHES,CHALLENGES, STANDARDS AND QOS SUPPORT”IEEE MAGAZINE, MAY2009 .
• JINSULKIM,TAI-WONUM RYU,W.BYUNG SUN LEE,“HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS AND TERMINAL-AWARE QOS/QOE-GUARANTEED MOBILE IPTV SERVICE”, IEEE COMMUNICATION MAGAZINE, MAY 2008, VOLUME: 46, ISSUE: 5,110-117.
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31-10-2010, 12:42 PM
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