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28-12-2010, 11:46 AM

.doc   multi point fuel injection system.doc (Size: 729 KB / Downloads: 192)
You must have seen cars with specifications which mention words like MPFI and CRDI or CRDE. To an automotive engineer or enthusiast, it means something, but for a common man, it may not make much sense.
MPFI means – Multi-point Fuel-Injection

The term MPFI is used to specify a technology used in Gasoline/petrol Engines. For Diesel Engines, there is a similar technology called CRDI. MPFI System is a system which uses a small computer to control the Car’s Engine. A Petrol car’s engine usually has three or more cylinders or fuel burning zones. So in case of an MPFI engine, there is one fuel –injector installed near each cylinder, that is why they call it Multi-point (more than one points) Fuel Injection.
In plain words, to burn petrol in an Engine to produce power, Petrol has to be mixed with some air, ignited in a cylinder (also called combustion chamber), which produces energy and runs the engine.
Before MPFI system was discovered, there was a technology called “Carburetor”. Carburetor was one chamber where petrol and air was mixed in a fixed ratio and then sent to cylinders to burn it to produce power. This system is purely a mechanical machine with little or no intelligence. It was not very efficient in burning petrol; it will burn more petrol than needed at times and will produce more pollution. But with the advancement of technology this was about to change.
Based on various inputs from the sensors, the computer in the MPFI system decides what amount of fuel to inject. Thus it makes it fuel efficient as it knows what amount of petrol should go in. To make things more interesting, the system also learns from the drivers driving habits. Modern car’s computers have memory, which will remember your driving style and will behave in a way so that you get the desired power output from engine based on your driving style. For example, if you have a habit of speedy pick-up, car’s computer will remember that and will give you more power at low engine speeds by putting extra petrol, so that you get a good pick-up. It will typically judge this by the amount of pressure you put on accelerator.
So the cars of today are really intelligent, well not as intelligent as drivers but fairly intelligent to keep pollution under control and saving the fuel.


The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:
• power output
• fuel efficiency
• emissions performance
• ability to accommodate alternative fuels
• reliability
• driveability and smooth operation
• initial cost
• maintenance cost
• diagnostic capability
• range of environmental operation
• Engine tuning

History and Development

Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first system laid out on modern lines to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the hot bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Robert Bosch for use on diesel engines.
The first use of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean burn principle; fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke, and then ignited with a spark plug. They are often started on gasoline and then switched to diesel or kerosene. Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Because of its greater immunity to wildly changing g-forces on the engine, the concept was adapted for use in gasoline-powered aircraft during World War II, and direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB 601, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh-82FN (M-82FN) and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29 Superfortress.
The term Mechanical when applied to fuel injection is used to indicate that metering functions of the fuel injection (how the correct amount of fuel for any given situation is determined and delivered) is not achieved electronically but rather through mechanical means alone.
In the 1940s, hot rodder Stuart Hilborn offered mechanical injection for racers, salt cars, and midgets.
One of the first commercial gasoline injection systems was a mechanical system developed by Bosch and introduced in 1952 on the Goliath GP700 and Gutbrod Superior 600. This was basically a high pressure diesel direct-injection pump with an intake throttle valve set up. This system used a normal gasoline fuel pump, to provide fuel to a mechanically driven injection pump, which had separate plungers per injector to deliver a very high injection pressure directly into the combustion chamber.

Another mechanical system, also by Bosch, but injecting the fuel into the port above the intake valve was later used by Porsche from 1969 until 1973 for the 911 production range and until 1975 on the Carrera 3.0 in Europe. Porsche continued using it on its racing cars into the late seventies and early eighties.
Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option, made by General Motors' Rochester Products division, for its 283 V8 engine in 1956 (1957 US model year). This system directed the inducted engine air across a "spoon shaped" plunger that moved in proportion to the air volume. This system was not a "pulse" or intermittent injection, but rather a constant flow system, metering fuel to all cylinders simultaneously from a central "spider" of injection lines. The fuel meter adjusted the amount of flow according to engine speed and load, and included a fuel reservoir, which was similar to a carburetor's float chamber. With its own high-pressure fuel pump driven by a cable from the distributor to the fuel meter, the system supplied the necessary pressure for injection. This was "port" injection, however, in which the injectors are located in the intake manifold, very near the intake valve. The highest performance version of the fuel injected engine was rated at 283 bhp (211.0 kW) from 283 cubic inches (4.6 L). This made it among the early production engines in history to exceed 1 hp/in³ (45.5 kW/L), after Chrysler's Hemi engine and a number of others.
During the 1960s, other mechanical injection systems such as Hilborn were occasionally used on modified American V8 engines in various racing applications such as drag racing, oval racing, and road racing. These racing-derived systems were not suitable for everyday street use, having no provisions for low speed metering or even starting. However they were a favorite in the aforementioned competition trials in which essentially wide-open throttle operation was prevalent.

The first commercial electronic fuel injection (EFI) system was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation and was to be offered by American Motors (AMC) in 1957. A special muscle car model, the Rambler Rebel, showcased AMC's new 327 cu in (5.4 L) engine. The Electrojector was an option and rated at 288 bhp (214.8 kW). With no Venturi effect or heated carburetor (to help vaporize the gasoline) AMC's EFI equipped engine breathed easier with denser cold air to pack more power sooner and it reached peak torque 500 rpm quicker. This was to have been the first production EFI engine, but Electrojector's teething problems meant only pre-production cars were so equipped: thus, very few cars so equipped were ever sold and none were made available to the public. The EFI system in the Rambler was a far more-advanced setup than the mechanical types then appearing on the market and the engines ran fine in warm weather, but suffered hard starting in cooler temperatures.

Chrysler offered Electrojector on the 1958 Chrysler 300D, Dodge D500, Plymouth Fury, and DeSoto Adventurer, arguably the first series-production cars equipped with an EFI system. It was jointly engineered by Chrysler and Bendix. The early electronic components were not equal to the rigors of underhood service, however, and were too slow to keep up with the demands of "on the fly" engine control. Most of the 35 vehicles originally so equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents were subsequently sold to Bosch.
Bosch developed an electronic fuel injection system, called D-Jetronic (D for Druck, German for "pressure"), which was first used on the VW 1600TL/E in 1967. This was a speed/density system, using engine speed and intake manifold air density to calculate "air mass" flow rate and thus fuel requirements. This system was adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citroën, Saab, and Volvo. Lucas licensed the system for production with Jaguar.
Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems for 1974, though some cars (such as the Volvo 164) continued using D-Jetronic for the following several years. The Cadillac Seville was introduced in 1975 with an EFI system made by Bendix and modeled very closely on Bosch's D-Jetronic. L-Jetronic first appeared on the 1974 Porsche 914, and uses a mechanical airflow meter (L for Luft, German for "air") that produces a signal that is proportional to "air volume". This approach required additional sensors to measure the atmospheric pressure and temperature, to ultimately calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was widely adopted on European cars of that period, and a few Japanese models a short time later.
In 1982, Bosch introduced a sensor that directly measures the air mass flow into the engine, on their L-Jetronic system. Bosch called this LH-Jetronic (L for Luftmasse and H for Hitzdraht, German for "air mass" and "hot wire", respectively). The mass air sensor utilizes a heated platinum wire placed in the incoming air flow. The rate of the wire's cooling is proportional to the air mass flowing across the wire. Since the hot wire sensor directly measures air mass, the need for additional temperature and pressure sensors is eliminated. The LH-Jetronic system was also the first fully-digital EFI system, which is now the standard approach. The advent of the digital microprocessor permitted the integration of all power train sub-systems into a single control module.

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11-05-2011, 12:05 PM


.docx   MPFIS.docx (Size: 302.3 KB / Downloads: 79)
The basic idea behind MPFI (Multipoint fuel injection system) technology is to have the proper air fuel ratio in order to meet the modern exhaust emission demands. In addition to above MPFI provides economical fuel consumption because it is electronic controlled system which provides us with better control over mixing and supply of fuel as compared to traditional fuel supply system.
The Multi-Point Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system is an electronically controlled system which combines electronic sequential fuel injection and electronic spark advance systems. Main sub-systems consist of: air induction, fuel delivery, fuel control, emission control, Electronic control Unit (ECU), data sensors and switches. Air induction system includes air cleaner, throttle body, Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) and the Idle Speed Stepper (ISS) motor. Fuel delivery system provides fuel from fuel pump to the fuel control system. Fuel system is composed of an in-tank electric fuel pump, fuel filter and return line. Power is provided to operate fuel pump through a fuel pump relay located on right inner fender panel.
pressure of 31-39 psi (2.1-2.7 kg/cm). In addition to the regulator, fuel system consists of the fuel rail and 4 fuel injectors. On MPI engine, ECU controls EGR/EVAP solenoid operation. The ECU is a digital microprocessor computer. ECU receives input signals from various switches and sensors. ECU then computes fuel injector pulse width ("on" time), spark advance, ignition module dwell, idle speed, canister purge cycles, EGR flow and feedback Control from this information.
Components of MPFI
 Air intake system.
 Fuel delivery & fuel control system.
 Electronic control system.
 Emission control system.
Air intake system
Air is drawn into combustion chamber through air cleaner and intake manifold. Amount of air entering engine is controlled by position of throttle body valve. Throttle body houses throttle position sensor (TPS) and idle speed solenoid (ISS) motor. TPS is an electrical resistor which is connected to throttle valve. TPS transmits a signal to ECU in relation to throttle valve angle. This signal is used in calculations to determine injector pulse width to provide adequate air/fuel mixture.
Fuel delivery & fuel control system
Power to fuel pump relay is supplied from ignition switch when in "ON" or "START" position, at which time the ECU supplies a ground for fuel pump relay. When relay contacts are closed, power is applied to fuel pump. Fuel is drawn through one end of a roller-type electric fuel pump, compressed and forced out opposite end. Pump capacity is greater than maximum engine consumption so that pressure in fuel control system handles actual fuel delivery into the engine. Fuel pressure regulator maintains a constant fuel system is always maintained.
Fuel control system handles actual delivery of fuel to engine. See Fig. 1. Fuel from fuel pump enters fuel rail, injectors and pressure regulator. Based upon a manifold vacuum signal, pressure regulator maintains a constant fuel pressure in fuel system of approximately 31-39 psi (2.1-2.7 kg/cm ) by allowing excess fuel to return to fuel tank.
Fuel injectors are electrically operated solenoid valves which are energized by the ECU. The ECU determines injector pulse width ("on" time) based upon input from the various sensors.
Electronic control system
ECU controls EGR valve and fuel evaporative operation. By energizing the EGR/EVAP solenoid, vacuum is shut off, making this system non-operative. When engine reaches normal operating temperatures, ECU de-energizes solenoid. When de-energized, solenoid allows vacuum to flow to EGR valve. ECU will energize solenoid whenever EGR action is undesirable, during idle, cold engine operation, wide open throttle and rapid acceleration or deceleration.
Electronic control system includes following parts:-
 ECU (Electronic control unit).
 Up-shift indicator.
 Data sensors & switches

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