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Joined: Dec 2008
21-09-2008, 11:42 PM
In January of 2000, Transmeta Corporation introduced the Crusoe processors, an x86-compatible family of solutions that combines strong performance with remarkably low power consumption. As might be expected, a new technology for designing and implementing microprocessors underlies the development of these products. As might not be expected, the new technology is fundamentally software-based: the power savings come from replacing large numbers of transistors with software.
The Crusoe processor solutions consist of a hardware engine logically surrounded by a software layer. The engine is a very long instruction word (VLIW) CPU capable of executing up to four operations in each clock cycle. The VLIW?s native instruction set bears no resemblance to the x86 instruction set; it has been designed purely for fast lowpower implementation using conventional CMOS fabrication. The surrounding software layer gives x86 programs the impression that they are running on x86 hardware.
The software layer is called Code Morphing software because it dynamically ?morphs? x86 instructions into VLIW instructions. The Code Morphing software includes a number of advanced features to achieve good system-level performance. Code Morphing support facilities are also built into the underlying CPUs. In other words, the Transmeta designers have judiciously rendered some functions in hardware and some in software, according to the product design goals and constraints. Transmeta?s Code Morphing technology changes the entire approach to designing microprocessors. Finally, decoupling the hardware design from the system and application software that use it frees hardware designers to evolve and eventually replace their designs without perturbing legacy software..
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Joined: Apr 2012
21-04-2012, 04:38 PM
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Mobility is now starting to grow as an important need in people’s life. The possibility of having a mobile device capable of being used as a phone, personal computer or personal information manager is now real. This demand, accompanied by the last 5 years of severe electronics development, is being satisfied with the improvement of several types of mobile platforms.
There is actually no doubt about that convergence between computing and communication will be a matter of a short period of time. Devices capable of handling digital audio, digital video, multimedia applications, personal information managing applications and wireless communications are requiring a new generation of wireless platforms combining all does elements. 
Multi-core processing has been at the heart of the computing revolution for more than a decade. The transition began with server CPU manufacturers adopting multi-core processor architectures to address growing performance demands, combined with the dramatic increase in power consumption of single core processors running at high frequencies. Multi-core CPUs can operate at lower frequency, often consuming less power, and completing work much faster by running tasks in parallel compared to single core predecessors.
Over the years, multi-core technology transitioned to desktop CPU’s and gaming consoles. Some consoles included as many as eight CPU cores to enable immersive, complex, and realistic gaming environments. Notebooks and laptop PCs then began to integrate multi-core CPUs to further enable high performance computing environments for users on the go.
Learning with technology
Over the past two decades there appear to be a paradigmatic shift away from education and training to learning; from teacher-centred to student-centred education; from rote learning to learning as reflection; and from face-to face to distance and e-learning . One dominant feature of this shift is the innovative application of technology to enhance the delivery of education.
Mobile technologies and systems
The challenges posed by the technical functionalities of mobile devices when used for learning has been addressed by . In a well elaborated discussion, he provides the context and framework for understanding the technical environment and systems within which mobile learning operates addressing both emerging and established systems. The main challenges identified are as follows:
i. Physical size of the screen and screen resolution in terms of pixels.
ii. Number of buttons - push buttons, jogs dials, roller wheels, joy sticks, touch-screens - for navigating through menus and data entry options. 
iii. Text and data entry using handwriting recognition and external add-on keyboards for large amounts of text. 
iv. The CPU and memory. Most current PDAs have a processing speed ranging from 105 – 400MHz and between 21 – 64 MB RAM and do not incorporate disk drives but instead use the RAM. 
Cell processor architecture.
We will here present the first implementation of the Cell, used in the PS3 and the Cell blades. It is basically a chip with one PPC hyper-threaded core called PPE and eight specialized cores called SPEs. The challenge to be solved by the Cell was to put all those cores together on a single chip. This was made possible by the use of a bus with outstanding performance. One can have an idea of the organisation of a Cell chip in Figure 2. It shows the different parts and how the Cell is communicating with the rest of the world, through its memory controllers and input/output controllers.
Mobile technology is among the most widely used technologies used today. It comprises all forms of portable technology, such as cellular phones, laptop computers, palmtops or personal digital assistants (PDAs), global positioning systems (GPS) and wireless card payment terminals.
Mobile technology provides a wide variety of benefits and advantages to its users, the top of which is that a person is no longer confined in a particular place to conduct his or her business, for these transactions can be done while on the road. Mobile technology also allows faster communication, check order availability and working flexibility in real time.
Unlike the past when documents or important records have to be mailed or delivered from door to door, with mobile technology they can be sent and delivered in few minutes. These documents can just be sent in soft copy (hard documents can be scanned first) by means of PDF files and attached in the sender's email address and be sent to the recipient. The same goes with talking to other people across the globe; they can now be reached by means of chatting and video calling through the Internet. 
Tasks, issues and problems can now be checked and fixed online even while a person is on the road, as computer and mobile phone technologies offer remote access capabilities, thus the things going on even at a main computer can be opened as long as there is wireless signal on the place where the person is currently located. Checking orders, stocks and prices can also be conducted, as well as making online payments are already possible. 
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