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13-04-2010, 06:59 PM



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Recently there have been a lot of accidents because of glare due to high intensity head lights. In our everyday life we have found it very difficult to drive the vehicles during the time of sunset. the major cause of accidents being due to disturbance in vision which are mostly physical. It has been found that the so called rods and cones (light sensors present in the retina) are tuned to see the environment in moderate lighting. Both high intensity and very low intensity lighting will result in poor vision. It is also observed that when one particular part of the image received by the eye is very bright, the rods and cones of the eye try to reject all around images around it. This leads to very poor vision even when the surroundings are moderately lighted up.
We have designed a system which would block such point sources of intense light. This system can be manufactured with simple etching techniques or much more efficiently by using, nanotechnology. Thus preventing decreased vision and possible accidents due to glare. Such a system can be effectively manufactured using nanotechnology.
Liquid crystals which have been commonly used in every day devices like calculators, Pdas and cell phones etc.They have a specialized
Ability to filter light when electrically activated i.e.(convert normal light into plane Polarized light). Therefore reducing the light intensity to minimum which passes through..
These liquid crystals require only a few nano amps and few volts for the operation and are very energy efficient as they donâ„¢t generate any heat.
The rate of darkness of LCD is proportional to the amount of the energy input as electricity. So the transparency of the LCD can be adjusted by adjusting the power supply.
An LCD basically consists of liquid crystals sandwiched between polarizing glasses etched with transparent conductors like stannous oxide.
These transparent conductors are arranged in a graph pattern so that every pixel can be exited individually by referring to graph co ordinates.
With the introduction of flexible conductor plastics, lcds can be made in a form of flexible plastic displays or sun films which can be struck on to any surface.
By sticking them on to a transparent surface like a windshield of a car or spectacles we can make any specific pixel on the glass opaque.
So wherever there is a increased intensity of light falling on the glasses from a point source we can directly block the light by referring to the specific co ordinates electrically.
This picture shows an example of the transparent LCD which are available and are currently in use.
LAYER A-this is the layer of glass of the wind shield or spectacles which are to be used.
Layer b-this is the flexible polarized polymer layer which is laminated in direct contact with layer a.
Layer c-this is the layer of transparent conductor which can be made of conductive plastic or stannous oxide.
Layer d-this is the layer of liquid crystals
Layer e-this is the layer of transparent conductor which will determine the shape of the dark pixel produced by the liquid crystal. For ex. the shape of the conductor is a square then the shape of the dark pixel produced by the liquid crystal is also the same.
Layer f-this is another polymer layer. the three intermediate layers C,D and E are sandwiched between B and F.
This picture shows the array of liquid crystals in the LCD. Yellow spots show the pixel of bright light falling on the wind shield.
The bright spots are polarized if electricity is supplied to these crystals as told before. Thus the bright pixels will appear dark as shown in the picture.
These are devices which contain a p and a n junction.
It has been observed that these p-n junctions when exposed to light produce a proportional power output (i.e. when the intensity of the light increases the power output of the cells also increases correspondingly).
With the advent in technology it has been possible for us to make flexible polymer based solar cells. These cells can be etched on to any surface by screen printing techniques.
Coating the above proposed layer of liquid crystal system with the solar cell we get an extra layer as shown in the figure by layer G.
Specialized chemically synthesized material lithium nano titanium has a unique property of getting illuminated when infrared rays fall in on them.
We can paint or screen print this material on to any surface and use this for night vision with the help of an infrared light. The advantage being that the infrared light can penetrate through fog, rain and smog, which means that it s not essential for us to wipe away the rain falling on the windshield or spectacles.
The solar cells in the region facing the light beam will produce corresponding electrical output which is directly fed into the liquid crystals directly below it, thereby producing darkness in the direction of the point source.
This darkness will be proportional to the amount of electricity input from the solar cells which will depend on the amount of light input.
The third layer being screen printed with lithium nano titaniate will get illuminated corresponding to the reflection of infra red rays from the objects around it.
As infrared rays can pass very easily through water or even ink without much deviation there wouldnâ„¢t be need a wiper system to clear of the water or dust.
In our normal windshields used in cars, because of the glare from the lights of cars which come in the opposite, there wonâ„¢t be any clarity of vision. This is shown in the picture. As explained before there are only 2 bright spots but because of the intensity being bright the pupil and retina of our eye contracts and concentrates on these 2 spots to reduce the effect of these spots. This will lead to glare and accidents.
However if we are going to concentrate and see the same situation we could notice the 2 bright spots. This is shown in the picture below. One can see the two bright spots and the other parts of the image are blurred as it occurs when we concentrate on a particular point.
So in our proposed system the windshield consists of liquid crystals in an array as shown before. These liquid crystals are etched with solar cells. So when a bright spot occurs, the light makes the solar cells to produce electricity proportional to its intensity. Thus that part or pixel or crystal in the windshield, plane polarizes the light entering. Thus avoids glare and enables clear vision while driving. The picture below shows that the 2 bright spots in the wind shield have become dark thus the driver wonâ„¢t have any problems in the vision of the road and other vehicles while driving.
The head lights can be made to transmit IR rays which would pass through smog or mist and will get reflected by any obstacles like stones, railings or vehicles and will fall on the wind shield. The wind shield can be screen printed or painted with chemical called lithium nano titanium which has a unique property of illuminating when IR rays fall on it. This is shown in the picture below as how the night vision technology is useful during the time of mist when there is zero visibility. The green traces of the vehicles and the other obstacles can be seen in the windshield even during adverse climatic conditions.
This system can be used in windshields of all the vehicles and can also be implemented in spectacles. Thus this system is useful for the riders of both two wheelers and four wheelers. This is a very efficient and cost effective system that can save many lives from accidents.
This system will help all the divers to have a better vision while driving after sunset and during adverse climatic conditions. Thus tackling the major problem of glare due to high beam lights , this system can help the drivers to have a smooth and safe drive.
¢ T. J. Sluckin, D. A. Dunmur and H. Stegemeyer (2007). Crystals That Flow - classic papers from the history of liquid crystals. London: Taylor & Francis.
¢ Pictures taken from and google images.
¢ PageGrant.html
¢ magazine electronics for you dated 28th feb 2009 at page no 53
¢ serpentis666/eyes.html
¢ windshield/Ercim News/enw51/bielikova.html
¢ Retrieved 06-06-2009.
¢ Joseph A. Castellano (2005). Liquid Gold: The History of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry. World Scientific Publishing.
¢ Dierking, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. (2007). Textures of Nanochemicals.
¢ Collings, P.J. and Hird, M (2007). Introduction to Night vision technology, Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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13-10-2010, 04:00 PM

.doc   6)NANOTECHNOLOGY IN SOLAR CELL.doc (Size: 386.5 KB / Downloads: 70)
This article is presented by:
Girish N. Chaple
Tushar P. Uplanchiwar
Ashvini D. Kapale

Current solar power technology has little chance to compete with fossil fuels or large electric grids. Today’s solar cells are simply not efficient enough and are currently too expensive to manufacture for large-scale electricity generation. The emergence of semiconductor nanocrystals As the building blocks of nanotech has opened up new ways toutilize them in text generation solar cells. However, potential advancements innanotechnology may open the door to the production of cheaper and slightly more efficient solar cells. This paper made comparisons between conventional solar cells and solar cells made up of nanotechnology working process, cost, efficiency. It also focus on different application of revolutionize the electronics industry, to provide electricity for rural areas.
Nanotechnology might be able to increase the efficiency of solar cells, but the most promising application of nanotechnology is the reduction of manufacturing cost. Chemists at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered a way to make cheap plastic solar cells that could be painted on almost any surface. These new plastic solar cells achieve efficiencies of only 1.7 percent; however, Paul Alivisatos, a professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley states, "This technology has the potential to do a lot better. There is a pretty clear path for us to take to make this perform much better”(Ref. 5). Improvements such as this could make it possible to manufacture inexpensive solar cells with the same efficiency as current technology. Since the manufacturing cost of conventional solar cells is one of the biggest drawbacks, this new technology could have some impressive effects on our daily lives. Although this new technology is only capable of supplying low power devices with sufficient energy, its implications on society would still be tremendous. It would help preserve the environment, decrease soldiers carrying loads, provide electricity for rural areas, and have a wide array of commercial applications due to its wireless capabilities.

2. Working of Conventional solar cells

Before introducing new solar products which use nanotechnology, it is necessary to explain the basic process that a normal solar cell uses. Conventional solar cells are called photovoltaic cells. these cells are made out of semiconducting material, usually silicon. When light hits the cells, they absorb energy though photons. This absorbed energy knocks out electrons in the silicon, allowing them to flow. by adding different impurities to the silicon such as phosphorus or boron, an electric field can be established. This electric field band gap energy then it will pass through. If it has more energy than the band gap, then that acts as a diode because it only allows electrons to flow in one direction (Ref. 1). Consequently, the end result is a current of electrons, better known to us as electricity.


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