NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier seminar or presentation report
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Imagine a supercomputer no bigger than a human cell. Imagine a four-person, surface-to-orbit spacecraft no larger or more expensive than the family car. Imagine attaining immortality by drinking a medicine. These are just a few products expected from Nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing or, more simply, building things one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms; Nanotechnology proposes the construction of novel molecular devices possessing extraordinary properties. The trick is to manipulate atoms Individually and place them exactly where needed to produce the desired Structure.
The goal of early nanotechnology is to produce the first nano-sized robot Arm capable of manipulating atoms and molecules into a useful product or Copies of itself. Nanotechnology will arrive with the development of the first "Universal Assembler" that has the ability to build with single atoms anything one's software defines. This paper deals with the various possible applications of nanotechnology and the process involved.
The industrial revolution, electricity, computers, Internet and now the next big thing is Nanotechnology. Technically Nanotechnology is defined as an anticipated manufacturing technique by which one can be given thorough and inexpensive control over the structure of matter. These structures are known as nanostructures. The term Nanotechnology was first introduced by Richard Feynman in 1959 and K Eric Drexler popularized it in 1986 in the book ËœEngines of Creationâ„¢.
It is also defined as the ability by which we can arrange atoms by given each its place and thus forms the structure in nanometer scale. Nanotechnology deals with matter at atomic levels. The term nano is derived from Greek word dwarf. Here it refers to one billionth of a meter or (10-9).
The central thesis of Nanotechnology is that almost all chemically stable structures that can be specified can also built. Nanotechnology puts the power of creation in human hands.
Nanostructures must be assembled from some building blocks. These fundamental building blocks are created from atoms of 91 naturally occurring elements. It is inefficient to start with individual atoms due to the slowness and less strength of materials. Usually nanostructures are built, starting with larger building blocks or molecules as components.
Nanostructures are new semi molecular building blocks to assemble Nanostructures.Two of these Nanostructures are Nanotubes & Nanorods that can be made out of silicon, other semiconductors, metals, or even insulators. These Nanorods are made using clever solution chemistry methods, but they can then self assemble into larger Nanoscale structures.
Nanotubes and Nanowires
Graphite is used as a lubricant and in pencils. It is formed out of sheets of carbon atoms linked together hexagonally like chicken wire. Nanoscientists are very interested in them because when rolled into tubes they exhibit some amazing properties. These cylinders of graphite are called carbon Nanotubes.When the roll is only one sheet of carbon atoms thick they are called single walled carbon Nanotubes. Nanotubes are the first nanomaterials engineered at the molecular level, and they exhibit physical and chemical properties that are truly breathtaking.
Nanotubes show tensile strength greater than 60 times to high-grade steel. Nanotubes are not only strong but they are also very light and flexible. They are used in aeroplane design.
Nanotubes show excellent electrical properties. Scientists tested Nanotubes and found that they behaved like superconductors. Current theory holds that they can act as either superconductors or semiconductors based depending on the exact proportions of the tube and which materials other than carbon are introduced into the tube matrix.
Not all Nanotubes are manufactured out of carbon. Silicon Nanotubes are also common though Nanotubes of silicon are called as Nanowires.
Nanotube and Nanowire research are hot topics both for science and industry. IBM have already used nanotubes to craft usable transistors with properties exceeding those of their pure silicon cousins and some nanotubes based logic gates have been produced.
TOOLS TO MAKE NANOSTRUCTURESÂ¦.
There are mainly two approaches for the development of Nanostructures. They are:
Top-down approach is an engineering approach for the construction of Nanoscopic devices. Here we take a large structure and divide it into smaller structures iteratively. Bottom-Up approach deals with building up a Nanostructure by starting from a single atom.
Scanning probe instruments
Creating structures at Nanoscale required them to be manipulated at Nanoscale.For these various instruments were used .The scanning probe instruments form the basis of these. Scanning probe instruments cannot only be used to see Nanostructure but also to manipulate them. The principle is used as dragging finger. Just as we scratch a soft surface we can modify the structure. Similarly with the tip of the scanning probe we manipulate the structure by dragging the tip above the surface.
Scanning probes are used to demonstrate and test some fundamental scientific concepts ranging through structural chemistry, electrical interactions and magnetic behaviors.
Scanning probe surface assembly is inherently very elegant, but it suffers three limitations:
It is relatively expensive
It is relatively slow.
It cannot satisfy mass demand.
The word lithography originally referred to making objects from stones. A lithograph is an image that is produced by carving a pattern on the stone, inking the stone and then pushing the inked stone onto the paper.
Nanoscale lithography really canâ„¢t use visible light because the wavelength of visible light is at least 400 nanometers, so structures smaller than that are difficult to make directly using it. This is one of the reasons that continuing MoirÃƒÂ©â„¢s law into the nanoscale will Require entirely new preparation methods.
Dip Pen Nanolithography
One way to construct arbitrary structures on surfaces is to write them in exactly the same way that we write ink lines using a fountain pen. To make such lines at the nanoscale it is necessary to have a nanopen. Fortunately AFM tips are ideal nanopens. Dip pen nanolithography is named after the old-fashioned dip pen that was used in schoolrooms in the 19th century. The principle of DPN is shown in the figure.
In DPN a reservoir of Ëœinkâ„¢ (atoms or molecules) is stored on the top of the scanning probe tip, which is manipulated across the surface, leaving lines and patterns behind. Using this technique any complex structure can be realized because AFM tips are relatively easy to manupulate. This fact makes DPN the technique of choice for creating new and complex structures in small volumes the disadvantage of this technique is that it is very slow.
We mentioned that current light based industrial lithography is limited to creating features no smaller than the wavelength used. Even though we can in principle get around this restriction by using light of smaller wavelengths, this solution can generate other problems. Smaller-wavelength light has higher energy, so it can have nasty side effects like blowing the feature we are trying to create right off the surface.
An alternate way of getting around the problem is to use electrons instead of light. This E-beam lithography can be used to make structures at the nanoscale. Figure shows two electrodes that are made using E-beam lithography to align platinum nanowires. The structure lying across the nanoscale electrodes is a single molecule, a carbon nanotube.
E-beam lithography also has applications in current microelectronics manufacturing and is one approach that will be used to keep Mooreâ„¢s law on track until size-dependent properties truly assert themselves.
Nanosphere Liftoff Lithography
If marbles are placed together on a board as tightly as possible, they will form a tight group with each marble surrounded by six others. If this array was spray-painted from the top and then the marbles were tipped off the board. The paint would appear as a set of painted dots each shaped like a triangle with concave edges. Now if the marbles are nanoscale marbles, so are the painted dots.
The technique is called nanosphere liftoff lithography. Importantly, this liftoff nanolithography, unlike DPN or scanning probe but like nanostamp, is parallel. Many nanosphers can be placed on the surface, so that regular arrays of many dots can be prepared.
The problems with most of the techniques for assembling nanostructures that we have seen so far is that are too munch like work. It is glorious if we could just mix chemicals together and get nanostructures by letting the molecules sort themselves out.
One approach to nanofabrication attempts to do exactly this. It is called self-asseembly.The idea behind self-assembly is that molecules will always seek the lowest energy level available to them. If bonding to an adjacent molecule accomplishes this, they will bond. If reorienting their physical positions does the trick, then they will reorient. The forces involved in self-assembly are generally weaker than the bonding forces that hold molecules together.
They correspond to weaker aspects of Coloumbic interactions and are found in many places throughout nature. In self-assembly, the nano builder introduces particular atoms or molecules onto a surface or onto a preconstructed nanostructure. The molecules then align themselves into particular positions, sometimes forming weak bonds and sometimes forming strong covalent ones, inorder to minimize the total energy. One of the huge advantages of such assembly is that large structures can be prepared in this way, so it is not necessary to tailor individually the specific nanostructures.
Self-assembly is not limited to electronics applications. Self-assembled structures can be used for something as mundane as protecting a surface against corrosion or making a surface slippery, sticky, wet, or dry. Self-assembly is probably the most important of the nanoscale fabrication techniques because of its generality, its ability to produce structures at different length scales, and its low cost.
Nanoscale Crystal Growth
Crystal growth is another sort of self-assembly. Crystals like salt that are made of ions are called ionic crystals. Those made of atoms are called atomic crystals, and those made of molecules are called molecular crystals. So salt is an ionic crystal and sugar is a molecular crystal.
Crystal growth is partly art, partly science. Crystals can be grown from solution using seed crystals, which involves putting a small crystal into the presence of more of its component materials and allowing those components to mimic the pattern of the small crystal or seed. Silicon boules, the blocks used for making microchips, are made or Ëœdrawnâ„¢ in this way.
Polymers are very large molecules. They can be upward of millions atoms in size, made by repetitive formation of the bond from one small molecular unit to the next. Polymerization is a very commonly used scheme for making nanoscale materials and even much larger ones-epoxy adhesives work by making extended polymers upon mixing the two components of the epoxy. Controlled polymerization, in which one manometer at a time is added to the next, is very important for specific elegant structures.
TOOLS FOR MEASURING THE PROPERTIES OF NANOSTUCTURES
Scanning Probe Instruments
Some of the first tools to help launch the nanoscience revolution were the so-called scanning probe instruments. The idea is a simple one: if you rub your finger along a surface, it is easy to distinguish velvet from steel or wood from tar. The different materials exert different forces on your finger as you drag it along the different surfaces. In these experiments your finger acts like a force measurement structure. It is easy to slide across a satin sheet than across warm tar because the warm tar exerts a stronger force dragging back the finger. This is the idea of the scanning force microscope, one of the common types of scanning probe.
In scanning probe measurements, the probe, also called a tip, slides along a surface in the same way your finger does. The probe is of nanoscale dimensions, often only a single atom in size where it scans the target. As the probe slides, it can measure several different properties, each of which corresponds to a different scanning probe measurement. For example, in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), electronics are used to measure the force exerted on the probe tip as it moves along the surface.
In Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), the amount of electric current flowing between a scanning tip and a surface is measured. Depending on the way the measurement is done, STM can be used either to test the local geometry or the local electrical conducting characteristics.
In Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). The tip that scans across the surface is magnetic. It is used to sense the local magnetic structure on the surface. The MFM tip works in a similar way to the reading head on a hard disk drive or audio cassette player.
Other types of scanning microscopyâ„¢s also exist. They are referred to as scanning probe microscopyâ„¢s because all are based on the general idea of the STM.In all of them, the important idea is that a nanoscale tip that slides or scans over the surface is used to investigate nanoscale structure by measuring forces, currents, magnetic drag, chemical identity, or other specific properties.
Spectroscopy refers to shining light of a specific color on a sample and observing the absorbtion, scattering or other properties under those conditions. Spectroscopy is a much older, more general t than scanning probes microscopy and it offers many complementary insights.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or MRI is another type of Spectroscopy that may be familiar from its medical applications. Many sorts of Spectroscopy using different energies of light are used in the analysis of nanostructures.
Visible light cannot be used for the spectroscopy analysis of nanostructures because the wavelength of light is between 400nm and 900nm.So light of lesser wavelength is used for analysis. Spectroscopy is of great importance for characterising nanostructure en masse, but most types of Spectroscopy do not tell us about structures on the nanoscale of nanometers.
Electrochemistry deals with how the chemical processes can be changed by the application of electrical currents, and how electric currents can be generated from chemical reactions. The most common Electrochemistry devices are batteries that produce energy from chemical reactions. The opposite process is seen in electroplating, wherein metals are made to form on surfaces because positively charged metal ions absorb electrons from the current flowing through the surface to be neutral plated and become neural metals.
Electrochemistry is broadly used in the manufacturing of nanostructure, but it can also be used in their analysis. The nature of the surface atoms in an array can be measured directly using Electrochemistry, and advanced electrochemical technique scanning are often used both to construct and to investigate nanostructures.
These methods are based on the use of electrons rather than light to examine the structure and behavior of the material. There are different types of Electron Microscopy, but they are all based on the same general idea. Electrons are accelerated passed through samples. As the electrons encounter nuclei and other electrons, they scatter. By collecting the electrons we can construct an image that describes where the particles were that scattered the electrons did not make it through. This is called Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
TEM images can have resolution sufficient to see individual atoms, but samples must often be stained before they can be imaged. Additionally TEM can only measure physical structure, not forces like those from magnetic or electric fields. Still, Electron Microscopy has many uses and is broadly used in nanostructure analysis and interpretation.
With the development of Nanotechnology it expects to find applications in various fields. The various applications of Nanotechnology are:
Nanotechnology is focusing on project and implimentations, which can be implemented in bettering our lives. Pervasive computing is an area where a lot of Nanotechnology project and implimentations are currently active. If we want to design a chip to fit into our fingertip controlling a music system then solution lies with Nanotechnology.
While making a microprocessor we handle big groups of semiconductor molecules and structure them into the form we need. This form of handling of matter produces severe limitations as to how small these circuits can be made. Present day lithographic technologies are at 0.13 microns. After 0.13 microns it is very difficult to etch the circuits precisely and effectively on the silicon substrate. This is where Nanotechnology steps in. Nanotechnology offers convenience to bulk technology.
Computing giant IBM has come up with a new kind of memory using a technology called ËœMillipede Technologyâ„¢ which makes use of an array of AFM probes to make marks on a polymer surface for storing data. Each tip writes a bit of 50nm on the polymer, which stores data.
Todayâ„¢s best storage devices are capable of storing data up to 2Giga bits per square cm where as Nanotechnology increases the memory to 80Giga bits per square cm using a single AFM tip. The main advantage of using such technology, other than the small sizes, is the power consumption.
It is another major area, which will be affected by Nanotechnology. A nanotube is one such innovation, which can change almost all the areas that we are familiar with. The advantage of using nanotubes is that it is possible to control the way these crystals are developed for applications. Electrical and other properties of materials made using nanotubes can be made to fit precise specifications.
Scientists have begun to mix and match the attractive properties of certain chemicals to produce materials and fabrics that are stronger or more resistant. One company has already reengineered cotton with an outer structure resistant to wrinkles and stains. Nanotubes are also innovations of material technology, which can suit precise mechanical and electrical properties.
With the development of Nanotechnology we can even replace operations. The concept used here is ËœMicro encapsulationâ„¢ a Nanotechnology technique, which will help doctors to control precisely the rate at which medicine, are supplied to patient body. One of the major medicinal breaks through in the area of Nanotechnology is the discovery of composite structure of carbon called ËœBucky ballsâ„¢ or C60 molecules. Bucky balls were discovered by Richard Smalley.The main advantage of using bucky balls are that they are extremely small (1nm long) and non-toxic. These spherical particles are very smooth. The body easily excretes them, which make them perfect as drug delivery mechanisms.
Using bucky balls medicines could be delivered to the body orally and then the body eliminates it without any side effects .It is possible to attach the needed drugs on the bucky balls. This is much easier and effective than the conventional capsule approach. In capsules a mixture of drugs is delivered into the body, a major part of which is eliminated by the body.
Another exciting property that Nanotechnology presents is the ability to have minute machines traveling inside our body protecting us from the inside.
These nanodoctors will be able to find and repair damage at the cellular level. For this to be possible molecular assemblers with better capabilities than the current STM are needed. Nanorobots are also similar to Nanodoctors.
The concept of Nanotechnology powered has a long way to go before it can become a reality. This technology is mainly aimed to treat cancer cells and sometimes even suggest cures.
Instead of burning features on to a Si chip nanolectronics are built atom by atom through carefully controlled chemical reactions that will eventually allow for faster information processing. Nanoelectronics will be able to down size transistors producing tera scale integrated chips containing more than a trillion transistors.
This is a novel light source system that uses LED to produce a pulse of 50pico sec to 2nano sec between wavelength of 370nm and 660nm.Today nanoled emits blue, red, UV, amber light.
Applications of Nano LED
Illumination: It is highly efficient than conventional light build, it consumes only 15 watts compared to traditional traffic lights which consume 150 watts and so can be used for traffic lights which are expected to burn for more than a decade continuously. More over they are compact, have low power consumption and low heat.
Replacement of Flash lamps: Flash lamps which are heavier and cost more will be replaced by Nano LED in their applications because of their low cost and portability.
Sensors: Sensors are highly sensitive systems that can be used to warn of presence of chemicals in air or water. Nano LED is more flexible than conventional sensors because the chemical substance can alter the surface structure of LED.
In Computing and electronic devices: Further miniaturization in circuits is done to increase processing power and speed of devices. It can be used in Nanodevices where Ultra fast clocks are required for faster computation and for running the device at rates greater than 1GHz.
Optical Devices: Nano LED based on silicon is used in telecommunication industry for long and medium range data transmission via glass optical fibres by conducting pulses of laser light.
Scientist are just beginning to explore and manipulate the inner workings of an atomic universe using Nanotechnology, the crucial convergence of biology, chemistry and electronics that is poised to revolutionize science.
In future with the invention of Robotic arm Nanotechnology will evolve into reality. The applications of Nanotechnology in future are expected to be in the areas of:
Many of the concepts that Nanotechnology presents may look impossible now but they may not be so far away. Nanotechnology is nearer than we can think. The Nano storm will catch us quietly. The only difference being that it will come in a silent subdued manner much like how we used and embraced artificial fibres over the years without knowing it & it will make a tremendous impact on our lives.
Nanotechnology â€œ The Next Big Idea By Mark Ratner
Digit November 2001
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. NANOSTRUCTURE 2
3. TOOLS TO MAKE NANOSTRUCTURES 5
4. TOOLS FOR MEASURING THE PROPERTIES OF NANOSTUCTURES 13
5. APPLICATIONS 17
6. FUTURE APPLICATIONS 23
7. CONCLUSION 24
8. REFERENCES 25
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31-01-2010, 12:41 PM
Nanotechnology-Engendering an Era of Industrial RevolutionSeminar.pdf (Size: 368.53 KB / Downloads: 444)
Nanotechnology: Engendering an Era of Industrial Revolution
A technology stepping into every aspect of our lines,
powerful enough to make things easier and
impossible which hitherto was unimaginable. These
things include desktop manufacturing cellular
repairs, artificial intelligence, inexpensive space
travel, abundant energy and environmental
restoration, ie radically changing the whole economic
and political systems. This is the Nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials,
devices and systems through manipulation of
miniscule matter, manipulation of matter at the
atomic or nonoscale (i.e one billionth of meter).
The semiconductors industry is edging closer to the
world of non technology where components are
miniastured to the point of individual molecules and
atones this world alone automatic contention of
consumer goods with traditional labour like a Xerox
ml/c produces unlimited retyping of the original
information. The shotgun marriage of chemistry and
engineering called is ushering in the era of selfreplicating
machinery and self-assembling
consolatory goods made from cheap raw atoms.
Fig1. Depicts an infrastructure been built by
In Nanotechnology by controlling molecular structure
in material synthesis we have gained inevitable
control over the basis material properties such as
conductivity, strength, relativity, yielding innovative
application ranging from batteries to automotive
materials. By starting with cheap, abundant
compared molecules and processing them with small
high frequency, high productivity m/s it will make
products inexpensive design computes will execute
more instructors per sec than the entire
semiconductor CPUâ„¢s in the world. Talking about
applications Nanotechnology will enable us to do
radical new things in virtually every technological
and scientific areas.
2. The New Era of Nano Computers:
Nanotechnology is all about building working
mechanisms using components. Such as super
computers (bacteria sized) with todayâ„¢s MIPS (Million
instructions per sec) capacity, or super computers in
the size of sugar cube possessing the power of a
billion laptops regular sized desktop model with
power of billions of todayâ„¢s PC and magnetic storage
desks could word 100,000 tones more data than
Computation will then become a property of matter,
computers right be morporated in next generation,
by 2010 we will be aware of our using nanoscale
2.1. Ballistic Sensor Disc:
Nanoscale computers will certain hard disks, which
have sensors, sensitive enough to detect presence or
absence of magnetic field in a microscopic bit of
material. This is done as if the magnetic field is
strong enough to change a sensors electron flow the
bift represents a 1, if not it is 0, the key factor is
making sensors that can read and matter bits in
increasing the magnetic resistance of sensors.
Fig2. The contact between these wires is only a few hundred atoms
tight squeeze keeps electrons from scattering, allowing the sensor to
the minuscule bits that future, super high-capacity disk drives will
Researchers are aiming to make a spin based
computer chip that does all the timing that
conventional chip do but with cost power size and
were viability advantages that come from magnetic
logic with the concept of Spintronics hard disks may
be replaced with plastic memories to open up many
opportunities for new technologies such as flexible
displays and responsive solar cells.
Ohio State University researchers have made nearly
all the moving electrons inside a sample of plastic to
spin in same direction â€œ an effect called spin
polarization that could field plastic memories by
replacing the high/low voltage representation of
boolean ones and zeroâ„¢s with north pole/south pole
respectively. We can construct basic logic gates,
which carry out computations using the spin
This technology will make extremely small chips that
are inexpensive than traditional ICâ„¢s because the
circuits are made from single wires rather than
semiconductor transistors leading to use of cheap
and low power computers. Also because spin states
of electrons remain stable even when power goes off,
such a computer would not have to boot up every
time it is turned on.
2.3 Smart Dust:
These are bottle-cap-shaped micro-machines fitted
with wireless communication devices - that measure
light and temperature, When clustered together, they
automatically create highly flexible, low-power
networks with applications ranging from climatecontrol
systems to entertainment devices that
interact with handheld computers."
fig3. Golem-dust. solar powered mote with bi-directional
communications and sensing
(acceleration and ambient light) 11.7 mm3 total circumscribed volume~
total displaced volume
Engineers also envision other uses for the Smart Dust project and implimentation,
1) Monitoring humidity and temperature to assess
the freshness of foods stored in the refrigerator or
2) Monitoring quadriplegics' eye movements and
facial gestures and to assist them in operating a
wheelchair or using computational devices.
3) Communicating with a handheld computer for
games and other forms of entertainment. A user
could attach the sensors to his or her fingers to
"sculpt" 3D shapes in virtual clay visible on the
device's screen. The same idea could be applied to
playing the piano or communicating in sign
language, with the handheld computer translating
hand gestures into music and speech.
4) Detecting the onset of diseases, such as cancer.
Experiments on humans are expected to begin as
soon as one year from now, with adoption taking
place anywhere from three to 10 years, according to
Smart Dust researchers
3. Medicinal Era brought by Nanotechnology
We can actually say good-bye to cancer diseases;
hospitals no longer will plagues of AIDS or Ebola
strike the human race. Antibiotics will even
decreasing effectiveness, would no longer be staple
of medical industry.
How it will be possible since diseases are caused
largely by damage at molecular level and cellular
level and todayâ„¢s surgical tools at this scale are large
and low, so with NT we will have nano-robots which
will be programmed to perform delicate surgeries.
Fig4.showing an artificial DNA structure built by nano-matters
Autonomous molecular m/c operating in human body
could monitor levels of various compounds and store
the info in internal memory. The molecular m/c can
be filtered out of blood supply and the information
can be analyzed supply and the information can be
analyzed. This is very useful in diagnosis of various
It is also suggested that using NT medical diagnosis
will be transformed and use of nano- robots within
body could provide a defense against invading
viruses. This technology could be used in particular
application when considering immune sys. as this to
combat immune deficiency diseases live HIV/AIDS.
There is also speculation that nano-robots would
show on even reverse the aging process and life
expectancy could increase significantly.
In near future we will be acquainted with notions like:
Cell Pharmacology: Delivery of drugs by medical
nano-machines to exact location in the body.
Cell Surgery: Modifying cellular structures using
Ribosome: Naturally occurring molecular machine
that manufactures proteins according to instructions
derived from cellâ„¢s genes.
Nanomedicine: Bunch of non -replicating
nanorobots with a specified medical task such as
cleaning and closing a would and many more.
Reciprocytes: Mechanical Artificial RBC: A blood
borne spherical 1 Micron diamonded 1000 atm
pressure vessel with active pumping powered by
endogenous serum glucose, able to delver 236 times
more oxygen to tissues per unit volume than national
red cells and to manage carbonic acidity.
Microbivore Artificial WBC: This will destroy
microbiological agent causing disease found in
human bloodstream using a digest and discharge
Fig 4.Showing artificial
These are objects formed of intelligent polymorphic
substances, having typically an octet truss. Itâ„¢s a
simple extension of nanotechnology, based on tiny
self-replicating robots. The robots are called Foglets
and the substance they form is Utility Fog.
Fig5. shows us individual foglet & then the whole Utility Fog.
4. Nanotechnology & International Security:
The possible applications of Nanotechnology to
advanced weaponry are fertile ground for fantasy. It
is obvious that 3-D assembly of nano- structures in
bulk can yield much better versions of most
conventional weapons e.g. guns can be made lighter,
easy more ammunition, fire self guided bullets,
incorporate multispectral gun sights or even fire
themselves when an enemy is detected.
Aerospace hardware would be far lighter and higher
performance, built with minimal or no metal, it would
be such harder to spot radar.Embedded computer
would allow remote activation of any weapon and
more compact power handling would allow greatly
improved robotics.Nuclear weapons can be credited
to prevent major wars since their inventions. Nuclear
weapons have high long term cost of use that would
be much lower with nanotech weapons.Nuclear
weapons require massive research effort and
industrial development, which can be tracked more
easily than nanotech weapons. Greater uncertainty
of capabilities of the adversary less response time to
an attack and better targeted destruction of enemyâ„¢s
resources during an attack all make nanotech arm
races less stable. Nanotech weapons would be
extremely powerful and could lead to a dangerously
to an arm race. Also unless nanotech is tightly
controlled the number of nanotech nations in the
world could be such higher than the number of
nuclear nations increasing the chance of a regional
5.Nanotechnology and Environment :
Nano technology has the potential to substantially
benefit environment through pollution prevention,
treatment and remediation. Auborne nano robots can
be programmed to rebuild the removed from water
sources and oil spills can be cleaned up instantly. Our
dependence an non-renewable sources would
diminish with nano-technology. Many resources can
be developed by nano-machines.
Fig6. Nanotectnology making transortation easy.
However use of NT is scaled up emissions to
environment may also increase and perhaps a whole
new class of toxins or other environment problems
may be created.
6. Basis of Economy: A Strong possibility:
The purchaser of manufactured product today is
paying for its design, raw materials, the labour and
capital of manufacturing, transportations storage and
sales. If nano-factories can produce a wide variety of
product when and where they are wanted most of
this efforts will become unnecessary.
Thus, what we are seeing is the segment of a
revolution caused by our ability to work on same
scale as nature, Nano-technology will afford every
aspect of our lives from the medicines we use power
of our computers the energy supplies we require, the
food we eat, the cars we drive, the building we live
in, the clothes we wear.
Nanotechnology with all its challenges and
opportunities is an unavoidable part of our future.
The researches are filled with optimums and products
are filled with optimum and products based on this
technology are beginning to make their mark.
The extent to which non-technology will impact our
lives only depends on times of human in genuinely.
Humanity will be faced with a power accelerated
social reduction as a result of nano-technology.
More powerful industrial revolution capable of
bringing wealth, health and education to every
person on this planet is just around the corner. Along
with the development of nanotechnology comes the
necessary to develop reasonable guidelines
procedures and laws in order to protect humanity
from new forms of terror, runaway inanities misuse
RICHARD FEYMANNâ„¢S BOIGRAPHY
Ralph C. Merkle SELF REPLICATNG SYSTEMS AND
LOW COST MANUFACTURING.
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01-02-2010, 11:58 AM
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01-02-2010, 08:57 PM
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30-12-2010, 04:45 PM
Nanotech-final paper.doc (Size: 207 KB / Downloads: 131)
Nanotechnology is regarded world-wide as one of the key technologies of the 21st Century which is defined basically as Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced .The term nanotechnology usually refers to broad collection of most disconnected fields .Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing , is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter. The nanoscale is one billionth
Nanotechnological products and processes hold an enormous economic potential for the markets of the future. The production of ever smaller, faster and more efficient products with acceptable price-to-performance ratio has become for many industrial branches an increasingly important success factor in the international competition. The technological competence in nanotechnology will be a compelling condition to compete successfully with better procedures and products on high technology markets in the future. Due to its interdisciplinary cross section character, nanotechnology will affect broad application fields
Within the ranges of chemistry/materials ,medicine life sciences ,electronics/information technology ,environmental and energy engineering in various ways.
In space technology a high potential for nanotechnological applications is postulated. The increasing commercialisation of manned and unmanned space travel as well as ever more ambitious missions for the scientific investigation of the solar system and far space, requires the development of more efficient, more economical and more resistant space technologies and systems in the future. Nanotechnology could contribute significantly to solutions and technological breakthroughs in this area
Various applications of nanotechnology in space technology appear to be feasible in a short to medium-term time horizon, which could lead to major improvements in the area of lightweight and strong space structures, improved systems and components of energy production and storage, data processing and transmission, sensor technology as well as life support systems. Appropriate research and development project and implimentations have already been performed on various applications of nanotechnology in space technology appear to be feasible in a short to medium-term time horizon, which could lead to major improvements in the area of lightweight and strong space structures, improved systems and components of energy production and storage, data processing and transmission, sensor technology as well as life support systems. Appropriate research and development project and implimentations have already been performed
The first time the idea of nanotechnology was introduced was in 1959, when Richard Feynman, a physicist at Caltech, gave a talk called "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom " and disclosed we can arrange the atoms the way we want; the very atoms, all the way down .Though he never explicitly mentioned "nanotechnology," Feynman suggested that itwill eventually be possible to precisely manipulate atoms and molecules.
Feynman, There's plenty of Room at the Bottom In 1979, Eric Drexler encountered Feynman's talk on atomic manipulation and "nano-factories." The Caltech physicist's ideas inspired Drexler to put these concepts into motion by expanding Feynman's vision of molecular manufacturing with contemporary developments in understanding protein function. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. As a result, though the term was yet to be coined, the field of nanotechnology was created Drexler is credited as being the first person to use the word nanotechnology to describe engineering on the billionth of a meter scale .Drexler presented that if atoms are viewed as small marbles, then molecules are a tight collection of these marbles that "snap" together, depending on their chemical properties. When snapped together in the right way, these molecules could represent normal-scaled tools such as motors and gears. Drexler suggested that these "atomic" tools and machines would operate just as their larger counterparts do. From these principles, he sensationally proclaimed in his book that nanotechnology, through the molecular manufacturing of "universal assemblers," would revolutionize everything from biological science to space travel. Thus, with both his 1981 publication and his 1986 book, Drexler presented nanotechnology as a scientific field that solely revolved around his own expanded vision of Feynman's molecular manufacturing.
Needs of nanotechnology:
Reliable and durable materials are used for the manufacture of space vehicles are crucial for successful exploration missions of long duration in harsh environment .Future crew exploration vehicles ,habitats ,microcrafts , space suits,and other space systems will be constructed using high performance ,smart materials nano materials will be developed that are capable of serving several functions,including tolerating high mechanical stress/strains ,monitoring vehicle conditions as well as storing and delivering electric power.
Also ,high performance materials will be crucial because space resource are ,in particular ,there will be limited need for light weight and low density materials for future space and aeronautics system such as ultra large apertures and solar sails’ and there will be a need for materials with high strength per mass for launch vehicles and human space habitats.
At the nano scale many properties of matter are different from the properties at macro scale .As an example gold nano particles posses entirely different chemical, physical, electrical , magnetic ,and collective properties than bulk gold. The understanding and control of such unique properties enables nanofabrication.
Micro technology implemented devices are large in size but nanotechnology implemented devices enables them to be compressed to such an extent that they behave efficiently and accurately.
Definitions aside, there are two different schools or approaches for “creating” nanotechnology material. These are the “top down” and the “bottom up” approaches. The top down approach involves reducing the structure sizes of microscopic objects to the nanometer scale using machining or etching techniques, the motivation for which is determined by microelectronics where sub-micrometer processes are being developed to move toward nanoelectronics for the next generation of electrical components. The bottom-up approach uses the controlled assembly of atomic and molecular elements to create larger systems. The bottom-up method has led to the development of several self-assembly.
Applcation nanotechnology in space:
Nanotechnology finds different application in space. Nanotubes are used for various application such as satellite protection. Satellites in space will be in harsh environment also subjected directed energy weapons. Nanotubes are used to provide efficient protections to satellites.
Nanotechnology based nanotubes are used in astronaut suits which give protection from HZE particles and radiation.
Nanotechnology is used to improve solar pannels of satellites. Using nanotechnology we can have solar cells for efficient utilisation of solar energy.
Carbon nanotubes are also used in improvement of batteries used in satellites. Electric rocket thrusters that uses a nanoparticle electric propulsion system enables space craft to travel faster with lesser propellant consumption.
Carbon tube nano wires can be used to reduce the sizes and weight satellite because the copper wirings form one fifth of overall weight of satellite Using nanotechnology we can have better sensors , computing system and instrumentation. Nanostructured heat insulating layers for rocket engines by means of Pulsed Laser Deposition.
Carbon-base materials are ideal as molecular building blocks for nanoscale systems because carbon exists in a variety of forms and provides the basic shapes needed to build complex molecular-scale architectures (i.e., planar sheet, rolled-up tubular, helical spring, rectangular hollow box, conical, etc.). One of the structures most commonly identified with nanotechnology is the carbon nanotube. First discovered in 1991, carbon nanotubes have spawned science and engineering research devoted entirely to carbon nanostructures and their applications due in large part to the combination of their structural perfection, small size, high stiffness, high strength, and excellent electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes are tubular structures of carbon, in which each carbon atom is positioned in a lattice that wraps into a hollow pipe with a diameter from a few to tens of nanometers and can be either single-wall or multi-wall. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are
best described as a rolled-up tubular graphene sheet composed of benzene-type hexagonal rings of carbon atoms. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes are multiple concentric single-wall carbon nanotubes. These two structures offer several interesting properties. First, single-wall carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semi-conducting, depending on the chiral vector, or amount of twist, of the lattice structure.35 A carbon nanotube is metallic if electrons can freely move to the conduction band. A semi-conducting carbon nanotube requires additional energy before electrons can move to the conduction band. This has made them a candidate material for potential applications such as nanoscale devices and quantum wires. Researchers have demonstrated working carbon nanotube transistors which are a hundred times smaller than the 130-nanometer transistor gates currently found in computer chips and collections of nanotube transistors working together as simple logic gates.36
Carbon nanotubes conduct electricity better than metals because electrons traveling through carbon nanotubes follow quantum mechanical rules. Electrons exhibit ballistic transport, essentially behaving like a wave traveling through a smooth channel with no atoms to interfere
with their motion. Ballistic electron transport, supported by many studies, is considered one of the reasons that nanotubes exhibit high current density when compared with other materials at similar nanoscale. This has resulted in considerable enthusiasm over the possibility of using carbon instead of silicon in the field of nanoelectronics. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes can pass a very high current density, from 106 to 108 amperes/cm2, without suffering adverse effects. However, long-term stability while operating at these current densities remains a question. As conventional CMOS electronics will soon reach economical and physical limits, nanoelectronic technologies may provide the basis for continued scaling of electronics into the next decade, following Moore’s Law, and may provide the potential for hybrid architectures combined with traditional electronics.40
Nanotechnology could make a major contribution to human space flight as radiation shield. The risks of exposure to space radiation are the most significant factor limiting humans’ ability to participate in long-duration space missions. A lot of research therefore focuses on developing countermeasures to protect astronauts from those risks. To meet the needs for radiation protection as well as other requirements such as low weight and structural stability, spacecraft designers are looking for materials that help them develop multifunctional spacecraft hulls. Advanced nonmaterial’s such as the newly developed, isotopically enriched boron nanotubes could pave the path to future spacecraft with nanosensor-integrated hulls that provide effective radiation shielding as well as energy storage. Space radiation is qualitatively different from the radiation humans encounter on Earth. Once astronauts leave the Earth's protective magnetic field and atmosphere, they become exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of charged atomic particles traveling at close to the speed of light. Highly charged, high-energy particles known as HZE particles pose the greatest risk to humans in space. A long-term exposure to this radiation can lead to DNA damage and cancer. One of the shielding materials under study is boron 10. Scientists have known about the ability of boron 10 to capture neutrons since the 1930s and use it as a radiation shield in geiger counters as well as a shielding layer in nuclear reactors.
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04-01-2011, 05:13 PM
NANO TECHNOLOGY.ppt (Size: 798.5 KB / Downloads: 99)
DEFIITION OF NANO TECH..
Nanotechnology is the study, manipulation and use of matter at an ultra-minute scale.
The prefix 'nano' originates from the Greek word meaning dwarf.
One nanometre is one billionth of a metre or one millionth of a millimetre and is tens of thousands of times smaller than the width of a human hair.
The term nanotechnologies is used to refer to the different potential applications of this technology.
nanometre is s, about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, or 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
The United States' National Nanotechnology InITIATIVE defines it as follows:
"Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of
roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."
HISTORY OF NANO :
-NANO technology is building machines one atom at a time
-first described by Nobel laureate physicist Richard Feynman
-in 1959 he gave a lecture called "There's plenty of room at the bottom" in which he suggested that the laws of physics would allow people to use small to make smaller machines eventually onto the atomic level
In 1981 the first journal article was written about nanotechnology titled “Protein Design as a Pathway to Molecular Manufacturing” in which explains the components of molecular robotics.
WHAT IS HISTORY OF NANO TECHNOLOGY ?
THE scientific community generally attributes the first acknowledgement of the
importance of the nanoscale range to the brilliant Nobel Laureate physicist Richard Feynman
in his famous 1959 lecture “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom” in which he first proposed that the properties of materials and devices at the nanometer range would
present future opportunities. The term reached greater public awareness in 1986 with the publication of “Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology” by Eric Drexler.
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10-01-2011, 05:07 PM
ppt on nano technology.pptx (Size: 284.69 KB / Downloads: 63)
What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.
The Meaning of Nanotechnology
As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology, their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.
Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society.
Nanotechnology not only will allow making many high-quality products at very low cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at the same rapid speed. This unique (outside of biology, that is) ability to reproduce its own means of production is why nanotech is said to be an exponential technology.
The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.
Nanoscale materials are sometimes used in solar cells which combats the cost of traditional Silicon solar cells
Nanotechnology is a term that has grown to cover a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless.
Some nanoparticles have raised concerns about human toxicity or environmental damage. Nanoscale particles may be more chemically active and mobile than larger versions, and may be more persistent in the environment than many molecules
Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
Three are following fundamentals of nano technology
Assembler: A nano-robotic device controlled by an onboard computer that can use available chemicals to manufacture nanoscale products. It has been proposed that advanced designs could communicate, cooperate, and maneuver to build macroscale products. Assemblers are much more complex, and probably less efficient, than fabricators.
Autoproductivity: The ability of a system, under external control, to automatically produce an identical copy of itself.
Convergent assembly: A process of fastening small parts to obtain larger parts, then fastening those to make still larger parts, and so on; convergent assembly can be used to build a product from many, much smaller, components.
Diamondoid: Structures that resemble diamond in a broad sense, strong stiff structures containing dense, three dimensional networks of covalent bonds; diamondoid materials could be as much as 100 to 250 times as strong as titanium, and far lighter.
Fabricator: A small nano-robotic device that can use supplied chemicals to manufacture nanoscale products under external control. Fabricators could work together to build macroscale products by convergent assembly.
Grey goo: The name given to free-range self-replicating miniature machines that could, in theory, run out of control and cause severe damage to the biosphere.
LMNT: An abbreviation for limited molecular nanotechnology; a narrowly specified type of MNT, using only diamondoid reactions; much easier to achieve than general MNT, but with nearly equivalent appeal and impact.
MNT: An abbreviation for molecular nanotechnology; refers to the concept of building complicated machines out of precisely designed molecules. To avoid confusion between this and today's nanoscale technologies, CRN generally favors the term 'molecular manufacturing’.
Macroscale: Larger than nanoscale; often implies a design that humans can directly interact with; too large to be built by a single assembler (one cubic micron of diamond contains 176 billion atoms).
Mechanochemistry: Chemistry accomplished by mechanical systems directly controlling the reactant molecules; the formation or breaking of chemical bonds under direct mechanical control. [See How does 'mechanochemistry' work?]
Micron: One millionth of a meter, or about 1/25,000 of an inch.
Millimeter: One thousandth of a meter, or about 1/26 of an inch.
Molecular manufacturing (MM): The building of complex structures by mechanochemical processes.
Molecular nanotechnology (MNT): The ability to construct shapes, devices, and machines with atomic precision, and to combine them into a wide range of products inexpensively.
Nanofactory: A self-contained macroscale manufacturing system, consisting of many molecular manufacturing systems feeding a convergent assembly system.
Nanomechanical: Being mechanical and very small; for example, a robot that can manipulate single molecules.
Nanometer: One billionth of a meter; approximately the length of three to six atoms placed side-by-side, or the width of a single strand of DNA; the thickness of a human hair is between 50,000 and 100,000 nanometers.
Nanoscale: Significantly smaller than a micron; on the scale of large molecules; capable of interacting with molecules; capable of being built by a single assembler.
SNT: An abbreviation for structural nanotechnology; refers to integration of nanotech features into non-MNT products, also called nanomaterials.
Application area of nanotechnology
nano technology for cleaning water
nano technology for electronic gadgets
nano technology for cancer
nano technology for coating
nano technology for aerospace
nano technology for energy
nano technology for telecommunication and networking
the list is end less
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Medical applications of NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology for bone disease
• Bone related infectious disease like osteomyelitis & prosthesis are of great concern to the modern world.
• These involve the biofilms and are often chronic and painful
• Biofilms are infections whereby bacteria form a robust colony protected by a sticky slime matrix from the body's immune system and are resistant to antibiotic treatment.
• Magnetic nanoparticles can be directed in the presence of a magnetic field to any part of the body, allowing for site-specific drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles have also shown promise to enhance bone cell functions and possibly provide an immediate increase in bone density.
• Tissues suffering from ischemic (tissue injury caused by loss of blood flow) injury might not be able to properly metabolize oxygen.
• Particularly mitochondria will fail in doing so.
• Increased oxygen levels in the presence of nonfunctional or partially functional mitochondria will be ineffective in restoring the tissue.
• . The direct release of ATP, coupled with selective release or absorption of critical metabolites should be effective in restoring cellular function even when mitochondrial function had been compromised. For this nano-materials are used.
A simple method of improving the levels of available oxygen despite reduced blood flow would be to provide an "artificial red blood cell.“
Diameter of the RBCs would be about 100 nanometers
In treatment of CANCER
• By the use of Raman spectroscopy it is possible not only to monitor and detect nanomaterials but also to detect the cancer cells with the help of carbon nanotubes.
• Carbon nanotubes can be inserted into the blood stream or the lymphatic system. It can detect the presence of cancerous tumours.
• It gets associated to the cancerous cells.
• With the help of Raman spectroscopy heat is provided to these nanotubes which kills the cancerous tumour.
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14-03-2011, 10:06 PM
Sreeja S S
(Department of computer application(MCA) ,Mohandas college of Engineering and technology
Nanotechnology.pdf (Size: 147.38 KB / Downloads: 55)
Nanotechnology is engineering and manufacturing at the molecular scale, thereby taking advantage
of the unique properties that exist at that scale. The application of nanotechnology to medicine is called
This paper reviews the study of the different aspects of nanotechnology in curing the different types of
diseases. Nanotechnology is concerned with molecular scale properties and applications of biological nano
structures and as such it sits at the interface between the chemical, biological and the physical sciences.
Applications in the field of medicine are especially promising Areas such as disease diagnosis, drug delivery
and molecular imaging are being intensively researched. The special stress and application is given in this
paper is on the application of nanorobot in medicine.
This paper also proposes the use of nanorobot based on the nanotechnology that will be used for
replacing the exiting surgeries that involves so many risks to the patient. However, no matter how highly
trained the specialists may be, surgery can still be dangerous. So nanorobot is not only the safe but also fast
and better technique to remove the plaque deposited on the internal walls of arteries.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems
at the molecular scale. This covers both current work
and concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the
project and implimentationed ability to construct items from the bottom up,
using techniques and tools being developed today to
make complete, high performance products
2. Nanotechnology in medicine
Nanomedical approaches to drug delivery center on
developing nanoscale particles or molecules to improve
drug bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the
presence of drug molecules where they are needed in the
body and where they will do the most good. Drug
delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at
specific places in the body and over a period of time.
This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting
by nanoengineered devices. It is all about targeting the
molecules and delivering drugs with cell precision. More
than $65 billion are wasted each year due to poor
bioavailability. In vivo imaging is another area where
tools and devices are being developed. Using
nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound
and MRI have a favorable distribution and improved
contrast. The new methods of nanoengineered materials
that are being developed might be effective in treating
illnesses and diseases such as cancer. What
nanoscientists will be able to achieve in the future is
beyond current imagination. This might be accomplished
by self assembled biocompatible nanodevices that will
detect, evaluate, treat and report to the clinical doctor
B. Protein and peptide delivery
Protein and peptides exert multiple biological actions in
human body and they have been identified as showing
great promise for treatment of various diseases and
disorders. These macromolecules are called
biopharmaceuticals. Targeted and/or controlled delivery
of these biopharmaceuticals using nanomaterials like
nanoparticles and Dendrimers is an emerging field called
nanobiopharmaceutics, and these products are called
A schematic illustration showing how nanoparticles or
other cancer drugs might be used to treat cancer.
The small size of nanoparticles endows them with
properties that can be very useful in oncology,
particularly in imaging. Quantum dots (nanoparticles
with quantum confinement properties, such as size-
tunable light emission), when used in conjunction with
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can produce
exceptional images of tumor sites. These nanoparticles
are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one
light source for excitation. This means that the use of
fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast
image and at a lower cost than today's organic dyes used
as contrast media. The downside, however, is that
quantum dots are usually made of quite toxic elements
Another nanoproperty, high surface area to volume ratio,
allows many functional groups to be attached to a
nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain
tumor cells. Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles
(10 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially
accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an
effective lymphatic drainage system). A very exciting
research question is how to make these imaging
nanoparticles do more things for cancer. For instance, is
it possible to manufacture multifunctional nanoparticles
that would detect, image, and then proceed to treat a
tumor? This question is under vigorous investigation; the
answer to which could shape the future of cancer
A promising new cancer treatment that may
one day replace radiation and chemotherapy is edging
closer to human trials. Kanzius RF therapy attaches
microscopic nanoparticles to cancer cells and then
"cooks" tumors inside the body with radio waves that
heat only the nanoparticles and the adjacent (cancerous)
A greenish liquid containing gold-coated nanoshells is
dribbled along the seam. An infrared laser is traced
along the seam, causing the two sides to weld together.
This could solve the difficulties and blood leaks caused
when the surgeon tries to restitch the arteries that have
been cut during a kidney or heart transplant. The flesh
welder could weld the artery perfectly
Tracking movement can help determine how well drugs
are being distributed or how substances are metabolized.
It is difficult to track a small group of cells throughout
the body, so scientists used to dye the cells. These dyes
needed to be excited by light of a certain wavelength in
order for them to light up. While different color dyes
absorb different frequencies of light, there was a need for
as many light sources as cells. A way around this
problem is with luminescent tags. These tags are
quantum dots attached to proteins that penetrate cell
membranes. The dots can be random in size, can be made of bio-inert material, and they demonstrate the
nanoscale property that color is size-dependent. As a
result, sizes are selected so that the frequency of light
used to make a group of quantum dots fluoresce is an
even multiple of the frequency required to make another
group incandesce. Then both groups can be lit with a
single light source.
nanoparticles are promising tools for the advancement of
drug delivery, medical imaging, and as diagnostic
sensors. However, the biodistribution of these
nanoparticles is mostly unknown due to the difficulty in
targeting specific organs in the body. Current research in
the excretory systems of mice, however, shows the
ability of gold composites to selectively target certain
organs based on their size and charge. These composites
are encapsulated by a dendrimer and assigned a specific
charge and size. Positively-charged gold nanoparticles
were found to enter the kidneys while negatively-
charged gold nanoparticles remained in the liver and
spleen. It is suggested that the positive surface charge of
the nanoparticle decreases the rate of osponization of
nanoparticles in the liver, thus affecting the excretory
pathway. Even at a relatively small size of 5 nm ,
though, these particles can become compartmentalized
in the peripheral tissues, and will therefore accumulate
in the body over time. While advancement of research
proves that targeting and distribution can be augmented
by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become an
important next step in further understanding of their
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