Near Field Communication (NFC)
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Near Filed Communication (NFC) is a close range radio communication protocol used for very sensitive applications. It was jointly developed by Sony and Philips. The standard specifies ways to establish P2P(Peer-to-Peer) communication links for data exchange. After the P2P network has been configured, another wireless communication technology, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, can be used for longer range communication or for transfering larger amounts of data. Its development was parallel to RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), but both differ in many ways. NFC offers a very short range as compared to RFID. This is an added advantage in the sense that it requires very little transmission power and cheap transmitters can be used for the purpose. Hence it is very suitable for Smartcard like applications. It can also work in both active and passive modes. NFC works on a frequency range of 13.56 MHz. It offers a baud rate of 106 kbps to 424kbps. The transmission is made from a frequency of 13.56MHz inductively, hence it uses high magnetic field. At a transaction only two participants can be involved - one transmitter (initiator) and one receiver (target). The transmission can be either in active fashion or passive fashion. Both have their own merits and demerits. The NFC transmission runs helping duplex, i.e. that one of the two devices can send only in each case or receive at a time.
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nfc.ppt (Size: 591.5 KB / Downloads: 635)
Near Field Communication (NFC) is based on a short-range wireless connectivity, designed for intuitive, simple and safe interaction between electronic devices. It is a easy to use wireless communication interface for last few centimeters. It is easy to use target selection by simply holding two devices close to each other.
In our daily life NFC will be the contact-less interface that allows people to do intentional interaction with their smart and connected environment in the most convenient way.
WHAT IS NFC?
NFC stands for Near Field Communication. It is a wireless communication technology based upon 13.56 MHz RF-ID. It is designed for read/write transactions with a very short range operating distances up to a few centimeters.
Near-field communications (NFC) combines two established technologies: radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, which are tiny chips with built-in radios and wireless reader that picks up the signals from the radios. The reader when activated emits a short range radio.signal that powers up a microchip on the tag, and allows for reading a small amount of data that can be stored on the tag
In active mode both initiator and target are using their own generated RF field to enable the communication.
TECHNICAL BASIS AND FEATURES
It is intuitive (“touch and start”)
It is suitable for payment/financial applications
It interacts also with battery-less smart devices
It is low cost
Standardized in ISO/IEC 18092 NFCIP-1 (NFC Interface and Protocol - 1)
Based on RF-ID technology at 13,56 MHz
Operating distance typical 10 cm
Data rate today up to 424 kbps (up to 1 Mbps planned)
NFC applications can be split into the following four basic categories:
Touch and Go: Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user needs only to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster.
Touch and Confirm: Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction.
Touch and Connect: Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books.
Touch and Explore: NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. The consumer will be able to explore a device's capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are offered.
Low cost, NFC has very fast and easy configuration and pairing.Instant connection capability.
“Out of the box”
- No special software
- No manual configuration and settings
- No search and pair procedure
- User initiates the process
- Simple data acquisition just by touching
High level of flexibility and adaptability
- Read data from any electrical device (interface dependent)
- Read data from passive RFID tag
In the near future NFC will be the frontrunner technology for data capture, data transfer and access control applications. NFC technology continues to evolve and develop new applications. It is going to bring revolution in mobile communications. Consultants will continue to pitch the blue-sky potential of the technology .There will be a significant spike in NFC activities in future.
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Near field communication
Near field communication.docx (Size: 70.01 KB / Downloads: 27)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article's citation style may be unclear. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (September 2011)
An NFC-enabled mobile phone interacting with a SmartPoster
Near field communication, or NFC, allows for simplified transactions, data exchange, and wireless connections between two devices in proximity to each other, usually by no more than a few centimeters. It is expected to become a widely used system for making payments by smartphone in the United States. Many smartphones currently on the market already contain embedded NFC chips that can send encrypted data a short distance ("near field") to a reader located, for instance, next to a retail cash register. Shoppers who have their credit card information stored in their NFC smartphones can pay for purchases by waving their smartphones near or tapping them on the reader, rather than using the actual credit card. Co-invented by NXP Semiconductors and Sony in 2002, NFC technology is being added to a growing number of mobile handsets to enable mobile payments, as well as many other applications.
Though contactless or proximity cards are in use, their market penetration is limited, and bringing NFC to mobiles and other similar platforms may increase usage. NFC cannot be labeled a ‘new’ technology, as Nokia has been active in this line since 2004. Along with Philips and Sony, it has founded the NFC Forum. Participation of 130 countries in this forum clearly signals that NFC is set to become a way of life in the years to come.
The Near Field Communication Forum (NFC Forum) formed in 2004 promotes sharing, pairing, and transactions between NFC devices and develops and certifies device compliance with NFC standards. A smartphone or tablet with an NFC chip could make a credit card payment or serve as keycard or ID card. NFC devices can also read unpowered NFC tags, for example on a museum or retail display. NFC can share a contact, photo, song, application, or video, or pair Bluetooth devices.
Bluetooth and WiFi Connections
NFC can be used to initiate higher speed wireless connections for expanded content sharing.
• Bluetooth: Instant Bluetooth Pairing can save searching, waiting, and entering codes. Touch the NFC devices together for instant pairing.
• WiFi: Instant WiFi Configuration can configure a device to a WiFi network automatically. Tap an NFC device to an NFC enabled router.
NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require batteries. NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible, provided both devices are powered. A patent licensing program for NFC is currently under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories. A public, platform-independent NFC library is released under the free GNU Lesser General Public License by the name libnfc.
Other standardization bodies
Other standardization bodies that are involved in NFC include:
• ETSI / SCP (Smart Card Platform) to specify the interface between the SIM card and the NFC chipset.
• GlobalPlatform to specify a multi-application architecture of the secure element.
• EMVCo for the impacts on the EMV payment applications
Project trials and full-scale deployments
Several hundred NFC trials have been conducted to date. While NFC trials continue, some firms have moved to full-scale service deployments, spanning either a single country or multiple countries. As a consequence, programs listed below date from 2010 forward and are cited for ease-of-reference. Programs were updated through April 2011. Multi-country deployments include:
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01-06-2012, 04:12 PM
Near Field Communication (NFC)
002 - Security in NFC.pdf (Size: 158.6 KB / Downloads: 30)
NFC stands for Near Field Communication. The specification details of NFC can be found in ISO 18092 . The main characteristic of NFC is that it is a wireless communication interface with a working distance limited to about 10 cm. The interface can operate in several modes. The modes are distinguished whether a device creates its own RF field or whether a device retrieves the power from the RF field generated by another device. If the device generates its own field it is called an active device, otherwise it is called a passive device. Active devices usually have a power supply, passive devices usually don't (e.g. contactless Smart Card). When two devices communicate three different configurations are possible.
It is impossible to give a complete picture of NFC applications as NFC is just an interface. The following sub sections introduce three example applications. These shall be viewed as typical use cases and where chosen to motivate the list of possible threats given in the next section.
This covers all applications, which use NFC to retrieve some data from a passive token. The passive token could be a contactless Smart Card, an RFID label, or a key fob. Also, the token could be physically included in a device without any electric connections to that device.
What is important is that the only interface of the token is the contactless interface. This means it cannot act as a communication link to a device main CPU of a device because it cannot connect to the device main CPU via a contact interface. Let us also assume that the token has rather limited computing power, so it cannot run any complex protocols. The primary use would be to store some data, which can then conveniently be read by an active NFC device. Examples of such data would be a URL stored in a tag of a consumer product or the user guide of such a product. The user could then read the tag and get automatically linked to the support web page of that product. A different example would be to store the configuration data needed to access a WiFi network. New users could then easily configure their laptops to be connected to the network.
Ticketing / Micro Payment
in this example application, the NFC interface is used to transfer some valuable information. The ticket or the micro payment data is stored in a secure device. This could be a contactless Smart Card, but could as well be a mobile phone. When the user wants to perform a payment or use the stored ticket, the user presents the device to a reader, which checks the received information and processes the payment or accepts/rejects the ticket.
In this application example the user device must be able to perform a certain protocol with the reader. A simple read operation will not be sufficient in most cases. Also, the user device is likely to have a second interface which is used to load money or to buy tickets. This second interface can for example be linked to the mobile phone CPU. The ticket data could then be loaded into the mobile phone via the cellular network.
In this application sometimes the term ’Secure NFC’ is used. However, this does not at all mean that the NFC link is somehow secured. In fact the name is rather mis4.
leading. The name just denotes a configuration using an NFC hardware chip in combination with a Smart Card chip. It should be called ’Secure Smart Card and NFC’, but unfortunately the shorter name is used quite often.
In this application the two devices communicating would belong to the same group of devices. An example could be a laptop and a digital camera. The user wants to establish a Bluetooth connection between the two devices to exchange image data. The Bluetooth link is established by bringing the two devices close together and running a given protocol over NFC between the two devices. This makes it obvious for the user which two devices get actually linked and takes away the burden of navigating through menus and selecting the right devices from lists of possible communication partners.
It should be noted that the NFC connection itself in this example is only used to establish the Bluetooth link. Image data is not transferred over NFC because NFC’s bandwidth is simply too small for transferring big amounts of data.
Because NFC is a wireless communication interface it is obvious that eavesdropping is an important issue. When two devices communicate via NFC they use RF waves to talk to each other. An attacker can of course use an antenna to also receive the transmitted signals. Either by experimenting or by literature research the attacker can have the required knowledge on how to extract the transmitted data out of the received RF signal. Also the equipment required to receive the RF signal as well as the equipment to decode the RF signal must be assumed to be available to an attacker as there is no special equipment necessary.
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18-06-2012, 11:14 AM
NEAR-FIELD COMMUNICATIONS.pdf (Size: 865.72 KB / Downloads: 50)
Imagine if your smartphone could
do everything from make contactless
payments with a tap of
your phone to become your hotel
or house key. Away with all your
CVS, Giant, Safeway, and Staples
loyalty cards—let your smartphone
take their place. Does it
seem like something from a Hollywood
movie? Well, reality says
otherwise. A not-so new technology,
near field communication,
is on its way to simplifying our
lives even more.
NFC-enabled mobile devices
stand to benefit most from the
type of technology NFC provides.
Factors such as chip, handset, and
tag manufacturers have slowed
its adoption to this point, but
Android devices that contain NFC
chips are already on the market
and the iPhone 5 is expected to
have built-in NFC capabilities as
Card Emulation Mode
The Card Emulation Mode involves
the NFC device acting as a
NFC tag, similar to the traditional
contactless smart card. When you
make a payment, for example,
you touch your device to a NFC
reader, which receives or reads
the necessary data.
NFC-like technology is not a new
commodity. Think about the ID
badges or key fobs that open
doors. Remember when Master-
Card (PayPass) and ExxonMobil
(Speedpass) implemented their
“pay on the go” mini kiosks? These
are very common examples, but
there are countless more which
breed convenience, synchronization,
and the rapid exchange of
information—all in real-time.
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