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meha gandhi
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27-03-2010, 07:10 PM

seminar surveyer
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30-10-2010, 11:06 AM

M.Y.I. Idris, E.M. Tamil, N.M. Noor, Z. Razak and K.W. Fong

The system implements shortest path algorithm to calculate the shortest distance from the parking berth to the nearest preferred entrance. The system operates by monitoring the availability of the vehicle berth and making the information collected available for patrons and car-park operator. The information gained from the detection sensor and calculation from the shortest path algorithm is used to guide patrons to parking berth. The car-park operators use the sensors’ information to aid in overall management and planning. WSN is chosen since it enables reliable information gathering and measurement to be transmitted through wireless channel without having to install new cabling for network and electricity to reach each sensing device.


With the significant increase in the number of new registered vehicles shown clearly in the statistics provided by the Malaysian Ministry of Transportation, 458, 293 new vehicles was registered in the year 2006 compared to the year 1999 where 296, 716 new vehicles was registered. This makes a drastic increase of approximately 54.5% increase in span of 7 years (MMOT, 2007). Driven by the frustration of the scarcity of parking space in most major cities, an organized and effective car park system is important to ensure smooth flow of traffic and mitigate problems on the road.

Roads in Asia are significantly narrower compared to the West which leads to more problems including traffic congestion (Inaba et al., 2001). A smart parking management system would help in solving such difficulties when patrons take less time to find parking when they reach a parking lot. This also greatly reduces the fuel consumption and reduces the combustion emission (Smith and Roth, 2003).

The emergence of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) which consists of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors has contributed to a wide variety of applications. The ability to provide wireless localized measurement with low power consumption has driven the authors to propose a smart parking system which employ WSN technology. WSN technology will be used to detect parking occupancy and provide information to the proposed system which implements shortest path route calculation. The system will guide patrons to the nearest parking berth to the entrance. Information from the sensor also can be used for performing more complex tasks like statistical sampling.

This study, present current smart parking technology. Then, the proposed system methodology is presented to show how WSN technology, ultrasonic sensors and shortest path algorithm can be integrated to form a smart parking system.


There are five categories of smart parking system which are in common use which consist of parking guidance and information system, transit based information system, smart payment system, E-parking and automated system (Shaheen et al., 2005).

Parking Guidance and Information System (PGI) is a system that uses Variable Message Display (VMS) and other methods including radios and phones to provide information to patrons. These systems can be implemented city wide or restricted within a specific car park and it can provide the patrons with the information about the parking lot or information about the traffic (Sakai et al., 1995). Having similar function like the PGI system, transit based information system provides patrons with information about the traffic as well. The main difference between these two systems is that the transit based information system directs patrons to car park nearest to a public transport ride lots. The main goal of such system is to encourage the public in using public transport by providing them a place to park their vehicle and switch to public transport (Chinrungrueng et al., 2007).

Another type of smart parking system is the smart payment system which uses various types of technologies such as RFID transponder and mobile technology. E-parking is a system whereby information of car park occupancy can be retrieved and parking space reservation can be done via mobile phone, PDA and internet. The automated parking utilizes computer control mechanisms which normally include heavy machines to automatically places vehicle into parking space in according order to save space (Shaheen et al., 2005).


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