Patient Care and Monitoring Systems ppt.
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27-01-2011, 04:17 PM

Patient care

Patient care is the focus of many clinical disciplines
Various disciplines sometimes overlaps
Each has its own primary focus, emphasis, and methods of care delivery
Each discipline’s work is complex
Collaboration among disciplines adds complexity.
In all disciplines, the quality of clinical decisions depends in part on the quality of information available to the decision-maker.

Care Process

Care begins with collecting data and assessing the patient’s current status
Through cognitive processes specific to the discipline:
diagnostic labels are applied,
therapeutic goals are identified with timelines for evaluation, and
therapeutic interventions are selected and implemented
At specified intervals:
patient is reassessed,
effectiveness of care is evaluated, and
therapeutic goals and interventions are continued or adjusted as needed
If the reassessment shows that the patient no longer needs care, services are terminated

Discipline in patient care

Patient care is a multidisciplinary process centered on
the care recipient in the context of the
significant others, and

Information to Support Patient Care

The information for direct patient care is defined in the answers to the following questions:
Who is involved in the care of the patient?
What information does each professional require to make decisions?
From where, when, and in what form does the information come?
What information does each professional generate? Where, when, and in what form is it needed?


The genesis of patient care systems occurred in the mid-1960’s.
One of the first and most successful systems was the Technicon Medical Information System (TMIS), begun in 1965 as a collaborative project and implimentation between Lockheed and El Camino Hospital in Mountain View, California.
TMIS designed to simplify documentation through the use of standard order sets and care plans.
More than three decades later, the technology has moved on.

Recent History

Part of what changed users’ expectations for patient care systems was:
Development and evolution of the HELP system at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Decision support to physicians during the process of care
Managing and storing data
Support nursing care decisions
Aggregate data for research leading to improved patient care.

History of Physiological data measurements

1625 Santorio-measure body temperature with spirit thermomoeter.
Santorio was first to apply a numerical scale to his thermo scope, which later evolved into the thermometer.
Timing pulse with pendulum. Principles were established by Galileo. These results were ignored.
Claudius Galen, was physician to five Roman emperors.
He also understood the value of the pulse in diagnosis.
John Floyer, 1707, acknowledged Galen's skill in identifying various pulse beats, but was appalled that even 1500 years later the doctors were still not using any standard procedure for measuring them.
He said that the pulse should be counted using a watch or a clock and he had a special pulse watch made for timing 60 seconds.
He published his findings in his works called " Physician's Pulse Watch" , but doctors largely ignored Floyer's advice for over a hundred years.

1852 Ludwig Taube Course of patient’s fever measurement
At this time Temperature, pulse rate respiratory rate had become standard vital signs.
Scipione Riva-Rocci introduced the sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff). (4th vital sign).
Scipione Riva-Rocci his fundamental contribution (1896) was the mercury sphygmomanometer, which is easy to use and gives sufficiently reliable results.
This device, the standard instrument for measuring blood pressure, led to many new developments in the therapy of hypertension disease.
Nikolai koroktoff applied the cuff with the stethoscope (developed by Renne Lannec-French Physician) to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

What is blood pressure?

Blood is carried from the heart to all parts of your body in vessels called arteries.
Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of the arteries.
Each time the heart beats (about 60-70 times a minute at rest), it pumps out blood into the arteries.
Your blood pressure is at its highest when the heart beats, pumping the blood.
This is called systolic pressure.
When the heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls.
This is the diastolic pressure.
Blood pressure is always given as these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures.
Both are important.
When the two measurements are written down, the systolic pressure is the first or top number, and the diastolic pressure is the second or bottom number (for example, 120/80).

Harvey Cushing

1900s Harvey Cushing introduced an apparatus to measure blood pressure during operations.
Raised the questions:
Are we collecting too much data?
Are the instruments used in clinical medicine too accurate?
Would not approximated values be just as good?
Cushing answered his own questions by stating that vital-sign measurement should be made routinely and that accuracy was important [Cushing, 1903].

1903 Willem Einthoven devised the string galvanometer
An instrument used to detect, measure, and determine the direction of small electric currents by means of mechanical effects produced by a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field.
to measure ECG (Nobel Prize 1924)
1901, Einthoven invented a new galvanometer for producing electrocardiograms using a fine quartz string coated in silver based on ideas by Deprez and d'Arsonval, who used a wire coil. His "string galvanometer" weighs 600 pounds. Einthoven acknowledged the similar system by Clément Ader (1841-1926), but later, in 1909, calculated that his galvanometer was in fact many thousands of times more sensitive.
Improvement over the capillary galvanometer, and the original galvanometer invented by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger (1779-1857) in Halle in 1820. Einthoven published the first electrocardiogram recorded on a string galvanometer in 1902.
1905, Einthoven began transmitting electrocardiograms from the hospital to his laboratory 1.5 km away via telephone cable.
On March 22nd that year the first telecardiogram was recorded from a healthy and vigorous man and the tall R waves were attributed to his cycling from laboratory to hospital for the recording.


An instrument used in the detection and diagnosis of heart abnormalities that measures electrical potentials on the body surface and generates a record of the electrical currents associated with heart muscle activity. Also called cardiograph.


1950 The ICU’s were established to meet increasing demand for acute and intensive care required by patients with complex disorders.
1963 Day - treatment of post–myocardial-infarction patients in a coronary-care unit reduced mortality by 60 percent.
1968 Maloney - having the nurse record vital signs every few hours was “only to assure regular nurse–patient contact”.
Late ‘60s and early ‘70 bedside monitors built around bouncing balls or conventional oscilloscope.
‘90 Computer-based patient monitors - Systems with:
database functions,
report-generation systems, and
some decision-making capabilities.

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