Pick and Place Robot
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29-06-2010, 12:27 PM

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Pick and Place Robot

Presented By:
A.Sunil Kumar, P. Veera Prasad Reddy, M. Surendra Nath


The aim of this article is to get familiarized with the modern field of robotics and to find the technology know -how. Also here we are using the sophisticated emerging technology -embedded system. Here we have designed a robot arm, controlled by a microcontroller. We choose this deign because it is the most common form of robot we can find anywhere in industries like car assembling, bottling plant, packing section etc. The driver circuits for these motors are to be controlled using 8051 microcontroller with a control key panel. The movement is established using stepper motors. pick and place robots are the small robots using for continuous purpose in the industries then let us go through some thing about pick and place robot by this article .


Robot is any machine that does work on its own, automatically after it is programmed by humans. HISTORY OF ROBOTS:
The first robot's name was Electro and his dog's name was Sparko .They appeared at the New York world's fair in 1939. While plugged in, Elektro could say 77 words and move backwards and forwards.
In1920's, Karl Capek from Czechoslovakia introduced the words first robot on stage.


We are going to design & implement a small model of pick and place robot, which pick and place object any where with in 360degrees and 30 cm diameters around it. The reason for choosing project and implimentation is, the most extensively form of machine is used in most of the industries like car manufacturing, shipyards, assembling machine etc.


Microprocessors and microcontroller are widely used in embedded system products.
An embedded system is a system which is dedicated for a single purpose remains unchanged through out its entire life time. An embedded product uses a microprocessor (or microcontroller) to do one task and one task only.

A stepper motor is a widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. It is used for precise position control. # Increase or decrease the RPM (speed) of it.
To vary the RPM of motor we have to vary the PRF (Pulse Repetition frequency). Number of applied pulses will vary number of rotations and last to change direction we have to change pulse sequence.


The circuit mainly consists of three modules -control system, user interface module & a high voltage driver. A control system is nothing but the microcontroller. It has got the following modules.
1. User Interface Module.
2. Pulse Generator Module.
3. Timing Control Module.
4. Output Module.
When the keys are pressed the current flows directly to the ground due to the low resistive path making no more current available to the port pins pulling it down to low state, so when ever the keys are pressed the corresponding pins are pulled down. So normally every pin are at a high state giving a value of 1 when ever the keys are pressed the pins are to the low state giving the value 0.
This change is constantly monitored to check for any user interaction. The microcontroller constantly monitors port 0 for any change in port value and if it finds any change it generates the appropriate control signals. The stepper motor driver circuit consists of two stages-low power switching stage& high power switching stage. The function of the low power switching stage is to boost up the low power signal output from the micro controller to a high power signal so as to drive the power transistor.
Care should be taken while connecting the circuit to the motor as stepper has got a tendency to produce very high reverse current compared to DC motor.
To protect the circuit for this reverse current we have connected a diode in reverse bias across the coil supply so that whenever reverse current is present this diode will sink it protecting the circuit.


–¡ Materials Handling
–¡ Industrial Robot applications
–¡ Debarring
–¡ Welding
–¡ Handling
–¡ Trimming and Sealing
–¡ Spraying and palletizing

–¡ Coal mining
–¡ Military Operation
–¡ Fire fighting Operation
–¡ Undersea Robots
–¡ Garbage Collection and Waste Disposal Operation.


This robot is used for pick the object in one place and place that objects in required places. Some industrial works are harmful for humans this robot is mainly used for reduce the risk process and consuming time and avoid labors. Human are tired for hard work such as assembly line, material handling etc. this robot does all those things it mainly reduces the manual work our robot is designed at low cost as well as high efficient one.
This project and implimentation is to give the way for providing bigger effective robot for
industrial applications.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
stephy s daniel
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24-10-2010, 01:48 PM

could you plz send me the estimated cost and requirements of this project and implimentation,am working on this project and implimentation
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22-12-2010, 01:23 PM

In this highly developing society automation playing important role to save human efforts in most of the regular and frequently carried works e.g. most of the industrial jobs like welding, painting, assembly, container filling etc. one of the major and most commonly performed work is picking and placing of jobs from source to destination. For this purpose, ‘pick and place robot ‘maybe used.
The pick and place robot is a microcontroller based mechatronic system that detects the object, picks that object from source location and places at desired location. For detection of object, infrared sensors are used which detect presence of object as the transmitter to receiver path for infrared sensor is interrupted by placed object. As soon as robot senses presence of object, it moves towards object, picks it with end effectors, and moves along way gantry and finally place it on destination.
If another object causes interrupt, it again does the same job. Whole process is controlled by micro controller.



This pick and place robot has two main mechanical components:
B] Gantry for moving the arm.
A] Robotic arm and end-effectors.


1. Initially assume the rest position (idle position) of entire system, i.e. state when no object is placed.
2. At this stage, photo detector is having its output high, since receiver of sensor can receive photons from transmitter as no object I in its path to interrupt.
3. As soon as object is placed at the picking platform, the sensor gets interrupted and outputs low. This signal is sent to the microcontroller which is burnt with program which tells what operation is to be performed at this stage.
4. For understanding operation, let us rename the two motors used here. Let the name of gantry motor be M1 and that for end effecter motor is M2.
5. Now as microcontroller detects that object is placed, it moves motor M1 in say clockwise direction for a fixed time due to which whole arm moves towards picking platform.
6. As it reaches there, M1 stops and now motor M2 is started in say clockwise direction to hold the object by closing jaw. This motor also, is on for particular fixed time instant.
7. As M2 gets off, motor M1 is moved again in opposite (here anticlockwise) direction till the time it reaches the placing platform.
8. As it reaches placing platform, the motor M1 stops and M2 is switched ON in opposite (here anticlockwise) direction till it releases object properly on desired place.
9. If after this no object is detected, the robot is in rest position. Otherwise if another object is detected, steps from 3 are repeated till step 8.


I] Microcontroller: 1. PORT 0: (PIN NO. 39- PIN NO. 32): P0.0— P0.7 of the micro controller is connected to the motor driver circuit.
2. Pin no. 9 is RESET pin, which is connected to the reset circuit.
3. Pin no. 9 and 10 of ADC are serial data line (SDA) and serial clock line (SCL) respectively. Both are connected to a positive supply through a pull-up resistor. These pins are connected to the P1.6 & P1.7 of the micro controller.

1. The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-current drivers.TheL293is designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. The L293D is designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both devices are designed to drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping motors, as well as other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications.
2. All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN.
3. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled and their outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge) reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications.
4. A Vcc1 terminal, separate from Vcc2, is provided for the logic inputs to minimize device power dissipation.

1. Bottle filling Plant.
2. Construction works


1. It can be used in Production industry.
2. In mass production.
3. In Automobile Industry
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25-03-2011, 04:56 PM

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Mankind has always strived to give life like qualities to its artifacts in an attempt to find substitutes for himself to carry out his orders and also to work in a hostile environment. The popular concept of a robot is of a machine that looks and works like a human being.
The industry is moving from current state of automation to Robotization, to increase productivity and to deliver uniform quality. The industrial robots of today may not look the least bit like a human being although all the research is directed to provide more and more anthropomorphic and humanlike features and super-human capabilities in these.
One type of robot commonly used in industry is a robotic manipulator or simply a robotic arm. It is an open or closed kinematic chain of rigid links interconnected by movable joints. In some configurations, links can be considered to correspond to human anatomy as waist, upper arm and forearm with joint at shoulder and elbow. At end of arm a wrist joint connects an end effector which may be a tool and its fixture or a gripper or any other device to work.
Here how a pick and place robot can be designed for a workstation where loading and packing of lead batteries is been presented. All the various problems and obstructions for the loading process has been deeply analyzed and been taken into consideration while designing the pick and place robot.

Robotics is the branch of engineering science & Technology related to robots, and their design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition. Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics, and software. Robotics research today is focused on developing systems that exhibit modularity, flexibility, redundancy, fault-tolerance, a general and extensible software environment and seamless connectivity to other machines, some researchers focus on completely automating a manufacturing process or a task, by providing sensor based intelligence to the robot arm, while others try to solidify the analytical foundations on which many of the basic concepts in robotics are built.
In this highly developing society time and man power are critical constrains for completion of task in large scales. The automation is playing important role to save human efforts in most of the regular and frequently carried works. One of the major and most commonly performed works is picking and placing of jobs from source to destination.
Present day industry is increasingly turning towards computer-based automation mainly due to the need for increased productivity and delivery of end products with uniform quality. The inflexibility and generally high cost of hard-automation systems, which have been used for automated manufacturing tasks in the past, have led to a broad based interest in the use of robots capable of performing a variety of manufacturing functions in a flexible environment and at lower costs. The use of Industrial Robots characterizes some of contemporary trends in automation of the manufacturing process. However, present day industrial robots also exhibit a monolithic mechanical structure and closed-system software architecture. They are concentrated on simple repetitive tasks, which tend not to require high precision.
The pick and place robot is a microcontroller based mechatronic system that detects the object, picks that object from source location and places at desired location. For detection of object, infrared sensors are used which detect presence of object as the transmitter to receiver path for infrared sensor is interrupted by placed object.
Robot is a word that is both a coinage by an individual person and a borrowing. It has been in English since 1923 when the Czech writer Karel Capek's play R.U.R. was translated into English and presented in London and New York. R.U.R., published in 1921, is an abbreviation of Rossum's Universal Robots, robot itself comes from Czech robota, "servitude, forced labor," from rab, "slave." The Slavic root behind robota is orb-, from the Indo-European root orbh, referring to separation from one's group or passing out of one sphere of ownership into another. Czech robota is also similar to another German derivative of this root, namely Arbeit, "work”. Arbeit may be descended from a word that meant "slave labor," and later generalized to just "labor."
The various developments in the field of Robotics with the progress in scientific technology have been revealed as follows:
Isaac Asimov conceived the robots as humanoids, devoid of feelings, and used them in a number of stories. His robots were well-designed, fail-safe machines, whose brains were programmed by human beings. Anticipating the dangers and havoc such a device could cause, he postulated rules for their ethical conduct. Robots were required to perform according to three principles known as “Three laws of Robotics”’ which are as valid for real robots as they were for Asimov’s robots and they are:
1. A robot should not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human to be harmed.
2. A robot must obey orders given by humans except when that conflicts with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence unless that conflicts with the First or Second law.
These are very general laws and apply even to other machines and appliances. They are always taken care of in any robot design.
Automation as a technology is concerned with the use of mechanical, electrical, electronic and computer-based control systems to replace human beings with machines, not only for physical work but also for the intelligent information processing. Industrial automation, which started in the eighteenth century as fixed automation has transformed into flexible and programmable automation in the last 15 or 20 years. Computer numerically controlled machine tools, transfer and assembly lines are some examples in this category.
Common people are easily influenced by science fiction and thus imagine a robot as a humanoid that can walk, see, hear, speak, and do the desired work. But the scientific interpretation of science fiction scenario propounds a robot as an automatic machine that is able to interact with and modify the environment in which it operates. Therefore, it is essential to define what constitutes a robot. Different definitions from diverse sources are available for a robot.

The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain. The chain is formed of links, actuators, and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm. Robots used as manipulators have an end effector mounted on the last link. This end effector can be anything from a welding device to a mechanical hand used to manipulate the environment.
At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:
• Pneumatic (compressed gases)
• Hydraulics (compressed liquids)
• Flywheel energy storage
• Organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)
• Still untested energy sources (e.g. Nuclear Fusion reactors)
Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factors. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air.
Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object.
Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.
In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common.
Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process.
Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general purpose manipulator, for example a humanoid hand.
Mechanical Grippers: One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run trough it.
Vacuum Grippers: Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, will often use very simple vacuum grippers. These are very simple astrictive devices, but can hold very large loads provided the pretension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction.
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Pick & Place Robots
 “A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.” (Robot Institute of America)
 Ideal Tasks
Tasks which are:-
 Dangerous
o Space exploration
o chemical spill cleanup
o disarming bombs
o disaster cleanup
 Boring and/or repetitive
o Welding car frames
o part pick and place
o manufacturing parts
 High precision or high speed
o Electronics testing
o Surgery
o precision machining
Automation vs robots
 Automation –Machinery designed to carry out a specific task
o Bottling machine
o Dishwasher
o Paint sprayer
o Robots – machinery designed to carry out a variety of tasks
o Pick and place arms
o Mobile robots
o Computer Numerical Control
o machines
Types of robots
 Pick and place
o Moves items between points
o Continuous path control
o Moves along a programmable path
o Sensory
o Employs sensors for feedback
Continuous path control
 Moves along a specific path
 Uses include welding, cutting, machining parts.
 Uses sensors for feedback
o Closed-loop robots use sensors in conjunction with actuators to gain higheraccuracy – servo motors.
o Uses include mobile robotics, pick andplace with machine vision.
Pick and Place
o Moves items from one point to another
o Does not need to follow a specific path between points
o Uses include loading and unloading machines, placing components on circuit boards, and moving parts off conveyor belts.
 By braking the system down into dedicated modules, like functions in a program, each feature is implemented with maximum efficiency and simplicity.
 Each servo on the robot arm is controlled by it’s own PWM. The PWM module itself produces a 1-bit modulated signal based on a value stored in it’s registers.
 The PWM will not modify the value that defines the pulse width in any way, this is up to the developer to implement via a controller or software driver.
 The keypad hardware is designed to be as simple as possible from a usability point of view, its two tasks being reduced to:
 Detect when a button is pressed and depressed.
 Store current button number value.
 The drivers provide the most basic interaction with the hardware, simply reading or writing a value when requested.
 the drivers would provide some extra functionality, such as changing the register address written in the PWM.
 For example, when we want the arm to move, it is easier to issue a move command that specifies the motor to move, the direction, the speed and the distance to move in one call.
 Parts Transfer
 Bonding and Sealing Robots offer many benefits.
 They perform applications with exceptional consistency and repeatability.
 They remove workers from taxing, tedious, and often dangerous duties.
 Dispensing jobs require materials to be moved from one location to another. The consistent, accurate movements of industrial robots make them well suited for dispensing
Advantages of Dispensing Robots:-
 Precision
 Repeatability
 Work envelope
 Payload capacity
 safety
 Robotic deburring is the material removal process used to take burrs, sharp edges, or fins off metal parts.
 VALUE: Automated deburring cells grind, roll and file metal parts precisely.
 PRODUCTION: The robot can work long hours without fatigue to produce more throughput.
 SPEED: Automation is faster and more efficient than its human counterparts.
 SAVINGS: Deburring robots improve the application so product is created at a faster rate.
 Speed - Pick and place robots allow for faster cycle times.
 Accuracy - Robotic systems are more accurate and consistent than their human counterparts.
 Production - Work cells create more because they perform applications with more accuracy, speed and tirelessness. The consistent output of a robotic system along with quality and repeatability are unmatched
 Reliability - Robots can work 24 hours a day, seven days a week without stopping or tiring.
 Flexibility - Pick and place robots can be reprogrammable and tooling can be interchanged to provide for multiple applications.
 Savings - Managers are realizing the longtermsavings with a pick and place robotic workcell rather than the operation they are currently doing. An increase in output with a material handling robotic system has saved factories money.
 Affordability - With the advancements intechnology, and affordable robotics becoming available at less cost, more pick and place robotic cells are being installed for automation applications.
 Due to limited of its application is confined to few areas.
 If component is not in the reach of robot it take some to reach location and pick object.
 Coal mining
 Military Operation
 Fire fighting Operation
 Undersea Robots
 Garbage Collection and Waste
 Some industrial works are harmful for humans, robots are mainly used for reducing the risk process and time consumption and avoid labour.
 Humans are tired for hard work such as assembly line, material handling etc. So, Pick & Place Robots are the best alternate solution.
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