Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP
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Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a UDP-based network protocol. It is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It consists of a set of standards for network management, including an application layer protocol, a database schema, and a set of data objects.[1]

SNMP is part of the Internet network management architecture. SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems, which describe the system configuration. These variables can then be queried (and sometimes set) by managing applications.

Agenda to be discussed

¢ SNMP Architecture
¢ Goals of Architecture
¢ Motivation
¢ Five basic messages
¢ Message Information Base
¢ Transport Protocol
¢ Tools use SNMP
¢ SNMP advantages/disadvantages

Category: Computer Networks

Submitted By:
Name: L. Manasa
Semester: 7th Semester Telecommunication
Vivekananda Institute of Technology.
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21-04-2011, 10:23 AM

.doc   Simple Network Management Protocol Architecture.doc (Size: 326 KB / Downloads: 83)
The Simple Network Management Protocol is the most widely used protocol for the management of IP-based networks and internets. The original version, now known as SNMPv1, is widely deployed. SNMPv2 adds functionality to the original version but does not address its security limitations; this is a relatively recent standard. An effort is currently underway to develop SNMPv3, which will retain the functional enhancements of SNMPv2 and add powerful privacy and authentication features. This article provides a survey of the version 2 of SNMP, including a discussion of the way in which management information is represented and the protocol functionality with an objective to the find out the exact representation and working of the protocol. This article also presents some basics of network management and also an overview of SNMPV1 and SNMPV3.

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), issued in 1988, was designed to provide an easily implemented, low-overhead foundation for multivendor network management of routers, servers, workstations, and other network resources. The SNMP specification:
• Defines a protocol for exchanging information between one or more management systems and a number of agents
• Provides a framework for formatting and storing management information
• Defines a number of general-purpose management information variables, or objects
The original version of SNMP (now known as SNMPv1) rapidly became the most widely used vendor-independent network management scheme. However, as the protocol gained widespread use, its deficiencies became apparent. These include a lack of manager-to-manager communication, the inability to do bulk data transfer, and a lack of security. All of these deficiencies were addressed in SNMPv2, issued as a set of proposed Internet standards in 1993.
SNMPv2 has not received the acceptance its designers anticipated. While the functional enhancements have been welcome, developers found the security facility for SNMPv2
too complex. Accordingly, the SNMPv2 working group was reactivated to provide a “tune-up” of the SNMPv2 documents. The result of this effort has been one minor success and one major failure. The minor success is the tune-up of the functional
aspects of SNMPv2. The major failure is in the area of security. The working group was unable to resolve the issue, and two competing approaches emerged. With this tune-up,
The functional portion of SNMPv2 progressed from proposed to draft Internet standard status as of 1996. Then, in 1997, work began on SNMPv3, which makes additional minor functional changes and incorporates a new security approach.
This article will provide a survey of SNMPv1 and SNMPv2, and a brief overview of SNMPv3. The article begins with a discussion of basic concepts common to all versions; these concepts define the network management framework that SNMP is designed to support. Then, the operation of SNMPv1 is described. Next, the functional enhancements found in SNMPv2 are discussed. A final section introduces SNMPv3.
Nowadays fast developing information technologies make networks more and more complex. We inevitably face a different challenge that how to contend with an ever broadening array of network resources. Network management is a critical solution to enhance the administrative productivity. It evolves making all the components in a consistent manner, monitoring network activity with an outdated protocol analyzer, coping with a distributed database, auto-polling of network devices, and generating real-time graphical views of network topology changes and traffic. In all network management is a service with very broad range that employs a variety of tools, applications and devices to assist network managers in monitoring and maintaining networks.
According to the definition of Open Systems Interconnect (OSI), the main functions of the network management is FCAPS which is an acronym explained as below:
• Fault management
• Configuration management
• Accounting management
• Performance management
• Security management
The goal of fault management is to detect, log, notify users of, and (to the extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Because faults can cause downtime or unacceptable network degradation, fault management is perhaps the most widely implemented of the ISO network management elements. Fault management deals with the events and traps as they occur on the network, according the related information saved in the Management Information Base to find the wrong point and solve the problems automatically.
Configuration management is perhaps the most important part of the network management because without the ability to manage the configuration of the network we can not realize the real network management. The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. All network software and hardware configuration information should be store in a database which allow the dynamic updating and ease access.
Accounting management help we to measure network-utilization parameters so that individual or group uses on the network can be regulated appropriately.
Performance management is to measure and make available various aspects of network performance to maintain the performance of network at an acceptable level. In the field of network management, there are no functional addresses of systems or applications performance management.
The main field of Security management is to monitor and control the access to network resources according to local guidelines so that sensitive network resources can only be accessed by right users. Most network management application only addresses security applicable to network hardware but not really deal with system security.
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.ppt   SNMP.ppt (Size: 222 KB / Downloads: 73)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNMP Overview
Define mechanism for remote management of network devices (routers, bridges, etc.)
Fundamental principle: all device management done by simple variable value manipulation
standard means for specifying quantities recognized by devices
protocol for requesting, returning, notifying of changes of values
SNMP Message Protocol
Messages use UDP, ports 161 (requests/responses) and 162 (notifications)
Message types:
GetRequest: request values of variables from device
GetNextRequest: request value of variable following the one supplied
GetResponse: return values
SetRequest: instruct device to set values of variables
Trap: from device - notify monitor / manager of value change
SNMP Communities
Define “communities” specifying access to specific variable sets (read-write, read only, none)
Supply community name as “password” in each message
unencrypted in version of SNMP still widely used!!
SNMP Message Encoding
Encode message as byte stream using ASN.1 BER (Abstract Syntax Notation 1 Basic Encoding Rules)
Quantites encoded as Type,Length,Value triples
Subset of basic ASN.1 types used in SNMP: integer, octet string, object identifier (“variable name”), sequence
SNMP-defined types: gauge, counter, IP address, etc.
weirdly encoded!! (see ASN.1 specs)
SNMP SMI (Structure of Management Information)
Variables recognized by device supplied in MIB (Management Information Base)
text file giving variables and data structures defined using ASN.1
standard variable sets often provided as RFC’s
device-specific sets provided by vendors
Management stations parse MIB’s to determine variables available for management
obtain both data structure and management information
Example portion of MIB (from RFC 1213)
ASN.1 Object Identifiers
Variables identified by globally unique strings of digits
name space is hierarchical; tree on next slide
in above, 1 stands for iso, 3 stands for org, 6 stands for dod, 1 stands for internet, 4 stands for private, etc.
Variable names are aliases for digit strings (within MIB)
From previous page: ifNumber ::= { interfaces 1 }
interfaces was previously defined in MIB as, so ifNumber =
Partial ASN.1 Object Identifier Tree (from: ASN.1 Complete, J. Larmouth, Open Systems Solutions, 1999)
Application: GICL SNMP Monitor
Java-based SNMP application
Query devices for available MIB variables
Set desired variable values
Current status
retrieve and display all values from device
automatically build data structures to hold retrieved values
Future work
incorporate MIB information via MIB parser
auto-generate GUI display
implement device discovery
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