Technical presentation on Telecommunications network
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24-09-2010, 06:08 PM

Technical presentation on Telecommunications network

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminals, links and nodes which connect together to enable telecommunication between users of the terminals. Networks may use circuit switching or message switching. Each terminal in the network must have a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space.
The links connect the nodes together and are themselves built upon an underlying transmission network which physically pushes the message across the link.
Examples of telecommunications networks are:
• Computer network
• the Internet Network
• the telephone network
• the global Telex network
• the aeronautical ACARS network

Messages and protocols
Messages are generated by a sending terminal, then pass through the network of links and nodes until they arrive at the destination terminal. It is the job of the intermediate nodes to handle the messages and route them down the correct link toward their final destination.
The messages consist of control (or signaling) and bearer parts which can be sent together or separately. The bearer part is the actual content that the user wishes to transmit (e.g. some encoded speech, or an email) whereas the control part instructs the nodes where and possibly how the message should be routed through the network. A large number of protocols have been developed over the years to specify how each different type of telecommunication network should handle the control and bearer messages to achieve this efficiently..

Telecommunication Network Components
All telecommunication networks are made up of five basic components that are present in each network environment regardless of type or use. These basic components include terminals, telecommunications processors, telecommunications channels, computers, and telecommunications control software.
• Terminals are the starting and stopping points in any telecommunication network environment. Any input or output device that is used to transmit or receive data can be classified as a terminal component.
• Telecommunications processors are support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers by providing a variety of control and support functions. (i.e. convert data from digital to analog and back)
• Telecommunications channels are the way by which data is transmitted and received. Telecommunication channels are created through a variety of media of which the most popular include copper wires and coaxial cables. Fiber-optic cables are increasingly used to bring faster and more robust connections to businesses and homes.
• In a telecommunication environment computers are connected through media to perform their communication assignments.
• Telecommunications control software is present on all networked computers and is responsible for controlling network activities and functionality.
Early networks were built without computers, but late in the 20th century their switching centers were computerized or the networks replaced with computer networks.


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