Training and Development
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06-01-2011, 04:04 PM

An organization either Business or Industrial Enterprises needs many factors for its growth, further development and for its very survival. The most important factors are Capital, Materials, Machineries and Human Resources as the success or failure of any organization depends on the effective combination of these factors. Managing all other factors are comparatively easier than managing Human Resources. The Human Resources are most important and need to be handled carefully. Since all the others factors are handled by the human resources, they have to be trained in a effective manner to utilize the resources at optimal level to get the desired output and thereby to reach the organization goals. The effective combination of all these factors results to way for success.
Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. A person's performance is improved by showing her how to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, a computer, a procedure for creating a product, or a method of providing a service.
Oliver Sheldon says ‘No industry can rendered efficient so long as the fact remains unrecognized that the in principally human – not a mass of machines and technical process but a body of men. If manpower is properly utilized it causes the industry to run at its maximum optimization getting results and also work for as an climax for industrial and group satisfaction in the relation to the work formed. Competitive advantage is therefore depend on the knowledge and skill possessed by employee more than the finance or market structure by organization.
The employee training not only serves the purpose to develop their employers but also safe guard organizational objectives of survival and success through competitive advantages. The training function now popularly called as Human Resource. Development, coordinates the provision of training and development experiences in organization.
In recent years, the scope of Training and Development has broadened from simply providing training programs to facilitating learning throughout the organization in a wide variety of ways. There is increasing recognition that employees can and should learn continuously, and that they can learn from experience and from each other as well as from formally structured training programs. Nevertheless, formal training is still essential for most organizations or teach them how to perform in their initial assignment, to improve the current performance of employees who may not be working as effectively as desired, to prepare employees for future promotions and increased responsibilities. The Computer Application Training and New Employee Training are most popular training topics. Various Management and supervisory skills such as leadership, performance appraisal, interviewing, and problem solving were also commonly taught. Many organization provide ‘Train-the trainer’ courses for superiors or peers who will in turn provide on-the-job training to others. Besides being one of the most important HRM functions, Training and Development is also one of the most expensive.
Training & Development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of learning to improve performance, skills, or knowledge within organizations. In some organizations the term Learning & Development is used instead of Training and Development in order to emphasize the importance of learning for the individual and the organization.It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees.
Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those, which bring about growth in personality.
Training and Development referred to as:
• Acquisition and sharpening of employees capabilities that is required to
perform various obligations, tasks and functions
• Developing the employees capabilities so that they may be able to
discover their potential and exploit them to full their own and
organizational development purpose
• Developing an organizational culture where superior-subordinate
relationship, team work, and collaboration among different sub units are
strong and contribute to organizational wealth, dynamism and pride to
the employees.

Because of the objective of Human Resource Development is to contribute to the organization’s overall goals, training programs should be developed systematically and with the organization’s true needs in mind. Successful training begins with a thorough needs 18 assessment to determine which employees need to be trained and what they need to be trained to do.Allison Rossett and Joseph W. Arwady states”The question is not whether you will solicit this kind of information through needs assessment. It is how much of it you will do and using which tools. The culmination for the assessment phase is a set of objectives specifying the purpose of the training and the competencies required in trainees after they complete the program. This section considers the choice of methods for employees training. With training objectives defined and learning principles in mind, the trainer must be choose appropriate training methods and design the sequence of events in the training program. Perhaps the first decision to be made is whether to conduct the training on the job or away from the job.
In many cases, the decision is to do some of both.
On the job training is conducted at the work site and in the context of the actual job. The vast majority of all industrial training is conducted on the job, often by the trainee’s immediate superior or a nominated peer trainer. On-the job training has several advantages :
• Because of training setting is also the performance setting, the transfer of training to the job is maximized
• The cost of a separate training facility and a full-time trainer are avoided or reduced.
• Trainee motivation remains high because it is obvious to trainees that what they are learning is relevant to the job
• Trainees generally find on-the-job training more valuable than classroom training.
1. Apprenticeship Training: This training is combination of on and off the job training. The department of Labor regulates apprenticeship programs, and often management and a union jointly sponsor apprenticeship training. This training is normally given to artisans, electricians, plumbers, bricklayers etc., the duration is normally vary from 2 to 6 years. Apprenticeship training is carried out under the guidance and intimate supervision of master craftsman or expert worker/supervisor. During apprenticeship training period, the trainees are paid less than that of a qualified worker.
• Workmanship is good
• Immediate returns from training
• Economical, better loyalty
• Feed back is given quickly about the correctives of performance
• It takes times to learn the skill
• Required job knowledge is too complex

2. Job Rotation: In the job rotation, management trainee/employee is made to move fromone function to another at planned intervals. Job rotation is widely used as a management executive development program which makes the employee or management trainee, a multi-tasking individual. It can be done either vertical or horizontal.
3. Coaching and Understanding method: Training under experienced worker they are coached and instructed by skilled co-worker by supervisor by special trainee instructor.
• Excellent for supervisor
• Quick and economical
• Sequences in logical and simple
• Instructions are clear and concise.

4. Outbound Training: The outbound training is conducted in a location specifically designated for training. It may be near the workplace or away from work, at a customized training center or a resort. The purpose of conducting this kind of training away from the work place is to minimized or avoids distractions of the employee from their daily work routine and allows them to devote their full attention the specific subject. Some of the outbound training methods and activities are:
a. Action planning: Often a closing activity asking participants to specify or set goals about exactly what they will do differently back on the job
b. Behavior-modeling training: use a videotape to demonstrate the steps in a supervisory activity such as conducting a disciplinary interview, followed by role played skill practice and feedback
c. Behavioral Simulation: Large-scale multi person role-lay, no computerized business game.
d. Brainstorming: Creative idea-generation exercise in which no criticism is allowed.
e. Business Game: Computerised business simulation that requires participants to make decisions about strategy and investments and then provides financial results based on the decisions.
f. Buzz Group: Small-group discussion of several minutes, duration on an assigned topic
g. Case Study: From a one-paragraph vignette to a fifty-page Harvard-style case.
h. Guided teaching : Drawing from the group the points the lecturer otherwise would makehim or herself
i. Information search : asking trainees to locate the answers to question in the training materials or manuals provided
j. Intergroup exchange: small groups share their ideas of findings with another group
k. Mental imagery: asking participants to close their eyes and visualize or recall something or engage in mental rehearsal of physical or interpersonal skills.
l. Outdoor leadership training: Team activities that may include hiking, rope courses, or other physical challenges along with problem.-solving activities.
m. Self-assessment instrument or quiz. An example is a conflict resolution – style inventory.


1. Classroom lectures: this is the simplest and from the off the job training. This is a best form of instruction when the instruction is to convey information on rules, regulation, policies and procedures.
• Simple and efficient
• Minimum cost
• Minimum time
• Monologues and one way communication
• Large trainees are participants
• Efficiency depends on ability of trainers in the use of correct expression better participation
• Concentration and intent of majority of trainees fade off after short time or so
• No individual attitude is possible with result there is no feed back of assimilation of knowledge.
2. Conference and Seminars and Workshops: This is a formal method of arranging meeting in which individuals confer to discuss points of common interest for enriching their knowledge and skill. This is group activity. It encourages group’s discussion and participation of individuals for seeking clarification and offering explanation and own experience. It is a planned activity with a leader or moderator to guide the proceedings, which is focused on agreed agendas points prefixed during planning stage of such conference.
There are three variables:
• Directed conference
• Training conference
• Seminars and workshops

3. Group discussions and study analysis: case study method was initially introduced by Christopher Lang Dell at Harvard Law School in 1880’s. The principle used is ‘experiences is the best teacher’. Here several empirical structure are examined in detail to find out commonalities to derive general discussion. Based on such studies and group discussion are initiated to derive common lesson. This method has, however limited use of worker but both use for supervisors. In case of workers, areas of importance in this method are that the quality control.
4. Audio-visuals and Film Shows: In order to improve understanding very usual and sometimes is escapable to ‘Demonstrate’ operation of a machine or explain or process. Audio-visual film shows can supplement the efforts lecturing and improve its effectiveness,.
5. Simulation Computer Modeling: A training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near and realistic and possible is called simulation training. Case study, analysis, experiment exercise game playing computer model and vestibule training etc come under this category. When the work environment is artificially created by using computer-programming method well call it ‘computer method’
6. Vestibule Training: In this training, employees are trained of the equipment they are employed, but the training is conducted away from the place of work. In which all necessary equipment and machines required as actual machined ship are duplicated
7. Programme Instruction: Programmed instruction is a stu5rctured method of instruction aided through texts, handouts, book and computer aided instruction. In this case the instruction materials and information is broken down in meaning full unit and arranged in a proper sequenced from logical method of learning packages, the learning ability is tested and evaluated in real time basis
• Materials of learning are broken down into meaning full modules
• Instruction are not key players
• Trainees learn at his/her own pace of learning. Individual difference are taken care of
• No fear of evaluation and criticism
• Active interaction between the learner and the machine
• Immediate feedback is available
• Training can be undertaken at any time and any place
• It is highly flexible and motivated
• Costly method
• Advance topics are untouched
8. T. group Training: ‘T’ stand for training or laboratory training. T group training was originated on 1940’s but only 1960’s it has opened to the industries. This Training has both supporters and opponents. Unlike any other programmers discussed. T group training is concerned with really problem existing within the other group itself.
9. Retraining: technology is advancing at rapid pace. Here obsolesce is a major problem faced by the worker are the introduction of automation for such retraining programme to update their knowledge, which will further make them productivity useful of the organization and restore this confidence.

1. Training Plan: This must be well planned, prescribed and ably executed effective implementation depends to great extend on planning.
2. Organizational objectives: T & D program must meet objectives of the organization
3. Equity and fairness: T and D program must enjoy equal opportunity to drive benefit out of such training and must have equal chance to undergo such training.
4. Application specification: Training content is balanced between theory and practical. It must be ‘Application specification’
5. Upgrading information: T and D program is continuous reviewed at periodic interval as order to make them updated in terms of knowledge and skill.
6. Top Management support: Top management support is essential to make Training and Development effective.
7. Centralization: For economy of effective uniformity and efficiency, centralization of training department is found more common and useful.
8. Motivation – Training and Development have motivation aspects like better career opportunity, individuals & skill development etc.

An effective use of materials, money, machines and human resource is essential for achieving a high level of productivity in the industry. Whereas other resource have limitation, the human resource has unlimited potential. Moreover this is the only activity resource, other being passive. Its quality of human resource through training input is of vital importance.
• Improves communication between group and individual
• Aids in orientation for new employees and taking new jobs throu8gh transfer or promotion
• Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmation action
• Improves interpersonal skill
• Builders cohesiveness in groups
• Provides a good environment for learning, growth and co-ordination.
• Improves labor management relation
• Helps to create better corporate image
• Provides information for further needs in all areas of organization
• Moves a person towards personal goals while improve Human Resource and Organization goals.

Training and Development can help an organization in a number of ways. Ultimately, it is employee knowledge and skill that produce the organization’s product or service. Training facilitates the implementation of strategy by providing employees with the capability to perform their jobs in the manner dictated by the strategy. Training also assists in solving immediate business problems, such as when a team of Manager in an action learning program studies a real problem and recommends a solution. Finally to keep ahead in a highly competitive the turbulent environment, it has been suggested that the training function must foster a continuous learning culture and stimulate managers to reinvent their corporation.
Training enables employees to develop and train within the organization and increase the market value, earning power and job security. It moulds the employee’s attitude and also helps them to achieve better co-operation with the company and greater loyalty to it. The management is benefited in the sense that higher standard of quality are achieved, a satisfactory organization structure is built up, authority can be delegated and stimulus for progress applied to employees.
• To increase productivity of employees or workers
• To improve quality of work and product
• To enhance and update knowledge and skill level of employee in the organization
• To promote better opportunity for the growth and promotion chances of employees and thereby the employability
• To secure better health and safety standard
• To improve quality of life of employees
• To sustain competitive advantage
• To impart new entrants of knowledge and skill
• To build up a sound line of competent efficiency and prepare them as a part of their career progress to occupy more responsible positions
• To impart customer education, help grading skills and knowledge and employees estimate career planning of the company.

Training must be tailored to fit the organization’s strategy and structure. It is seen as pivotal in implementing organization-wide culture-change efforts, such as developing a commitment to customer service, adopting total quality management, or making a transition to self-directed work teams. Pace-setting Human Resource Development departments have moved from simply providing training on demand to solving organizational problems. Trainers see themselves as internal consultants or performance improvement specialists rather than just instructional designers or classroom presenters. Training is only one of the remedies that may be applied by the new breed of Human Resource Development practitioners. In an age of network organizations, alliances, and long-term relationships with just-in-time suppliers, leading companies are finding that they need to train people other than their own employees. Some organization offer quality training to their suppliers to ensure the quality of critical inputs. Organisations with a strong focus on customer service may provide training for purchasers to their product.
1. Shortage of skill: Skilled and knowledge people are always on short supply, alternatively they are too expensive to hire from outside. The best way is to improve the skill and knowledge of the existing employees through Training and Development.
2. Technological Obsolesce: Growth of technology takes place very fast. This will render current technological obsolesces in the near future.
3. Personal Obsolesce: At the time of recruitment employees posses a certain amount of knowledge and skill. As the time passes their knowledge becomes obsolesce unless it is uploaded by proper training. This happens because of changes take place in product methods procurement of better machines.
4. Organization Obsolesce: Modern management has introduced a number of innovative steps in functioning of management like play organizing, controlling to such change are bound to fail and become obsolete, to prevent obsolesce in organization. Employees must be exposed to modern Technology through T & D
5. Increased Productivity: Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance. Increase human performance often directly leads to operational productivity and increase company profits.
6. Coercive Training by Government: In order to provide better employability changes of unemployed youth, certain governments have taken initiatives to mobilize resource available at public/government and private to provide training to outside candidates. One such arrangement is called at “Apprenticeship Training’ conducted by Government of India. A part of expenditure incurred for this by the private sectors is reimbursed by government.
7. Human Capital: The latest thinking is to treat employees as ‘Human Capital’. The expenditure involved in training and development are now being considered as an investment. This is cause in globalization it is the knowledge and skill of employees which determine complete advantages of firm.

Recent changes in the environment of business have made the Training and Development function even more important in helping organization maintain competitiveness and prepare for the future. Technological innovations and the pressure of global competition have changed the ways organizations operate and the skills that their employee need. The tight labor market has increased the importance of training in several ways. First higher employee turnover means that more new employees need training. Second, it has been suggested that frequent and relevant development experiences are an effective way to gain employee loyalty and enhance retention of top-quality staff.

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.doc   Training and Development.doc (Size: 115 KB / Downloads: 103)
Training and Development
HPCL has a full-fledged Corporate Training Department, to augment the learning and development requirements of its officers.
The HR Department's Vision is “Excellence in harnessing the full potential of all employees for becoming a World Class Energy Company”
With this Vision in focus, the Corporate Training Department's vision is to “Create value through enhanced competencies and be a strategic partner to business by enabling employees realize their full potential through innovative and progressive learning initiatives”.
• Improve the performance of Employees in their respective assignments
• Enhance competencies to take up higher responsibilities
• Strengthen the Leadership Pipeline
• Bring cultural change from Command & Control to Team based structure
• Leverage technology in human resources development
• Facilitate learning in the organization and build a "Learning Organization"
The specific training needs of individual employees are identified through Competency Mapping Exercises. The Training Department interacts with all Business Units/functions to identify and design training programs to cater to these needs. These programs enable employees to enhance their skills and realize their full potential.
Training Policy
The Training Policy at HPCL provides broad directions to guide the learning solutions and initiatives.
• Management Staff
o Entry level: Samavesh - (Induction/ orientation Training) facilitates a new employee to build a sense of belongingness.
o Supervisory level: Employee is equipped with function specific inputs and job related technical skills.
o Managerial Level: Employee is exposed with the principles of Management which will help blend theory with practice, with focus on leadership development.
o All training initiatives are planned in order to address new needs required by change in the market scenario.
• Non-Management Staff
o Trainings with focus on Safety at locations, Skills relating to job requirement - (technical, computer operations, team spirit etc.)
Identifying Training Needs
• Individual Level: Mainly through recommendation from the Performance Appraisal System.
• Functional / Departmental Level: Customized Training programs are developed for the departments in consultation with the SBU/Functions.
• Organizational Level: Individual Development Plan obtained from the Competency mapping exercise is used to provide specific Training to bridge the observed the employee skill gaps.
• Other Training Plans for enhancement of the officers' competencies are scheduled.
Training Plans: In-Company Programs
The In-company programs are conducted through internal faculty, external faculty and external courses. Focus is given to the development of core internal faculty members, who will effectively train employees at different levels of the Corporation
HP Management Development Institute, (HPMDI) Nigdi
HPCL has a full-fledged, well equipped Training Institute at Nigdi, Pune, standing testimony to the value that HPCL places on training. Away from distractions, it is the “Temple of learning” by virtue of its perfect learning ambience. HPMDI is equipped with the best infrastructure conducive for effective learning. It is also having adequate recreational facilities to keep the employees occupied before / after learning hours.
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Training and Development

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As man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for training became an essential ingredient in the march of civilization. Whether our ancestors stumbled upon or invented these facts of civilization is relatively little significance what is more important is that man had the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastering circumstances which was done by signs and words. Through these devices the development process called training was administered.


An inevitable consequence of change is the need to learn. Changes may be result of the introduction of new technology of new working practices or of the general development and changing aspirations of people. Such changes often require people to learn new knowledge and skills and company this with changes in attitudes. For this training is used which is concerned with helping people to learn quickly and effectively. It requires clearly defined outcome and also affective learning conditions.


The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization . In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.

Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.

Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.

Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.

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to get information about the topic "mba project and implimentation topics on training and development" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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Training And Development

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“Training is the process of altering employee behaviour and attitudes in a way that increase the probability of goal attainment.”

Features of Training

Training objectives are tied to organization’s business objectives.
Training is modular so it can be adapted to workplace schedules.
Training is tailored to trainee needs and learning styles.
Training structure allows employees to learn at their own pace.
Trainees are provided regular, ongoing feedback concerning their progress while in the training programme.

Responsible for Training

Top Mgmt – Frames the Training policy
HR Dept – plans, establishes and evaluates
Supervisors – implement and apply development procedure
Employees – provide feedback, revision and suggestions
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.ppt   TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.ppt (Size: 728 KB / Downloads: 26)

Training & development
Represents ongoing investment in employees & realizes employees are assets
Importance of training & development
Rapid technological changes cause skill obsolescence
Redesign of work brings need for new skills
Mergers & acquisitions have increased need for integrating employees into different cultures
Employees are moving between employers more often, necessitating training
Globalization of business requires new knowledge & skills

Benefits of Training & Development

Individual employee
Increased employee marketability
Increased employee employability security
Improved bottom line, efficiency & profitability
Increased flexibility in employees who can assume different & varied responsibilities
Reduced layers of management
Makes employees more accountable for results

Setting Training Objectives

Align/match identified training needs with training objectives
Define objectives in specific, measurable terms
Desired employee behaviors
Results expected to follow from such behaviors
One source of information for setting objectives
Performance deficiency data contained in performance management system

Design & Delivery

Critical training design issues
Interference from & difficulty of overcoming prior training, learning, habits
Transfer of newly learned skills back to job
Choice of training environment approximating or simulating actual working conditions
Organizational environment supportive of training & development


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