WIN-wireless intelligent network full report
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Wireless telecommunications can be divided into two broad categories: mobile communications and fixed wireless communications. The mobile communications market requires mobility or non-tethered communications. The goal of mobility is anytime, anywhere communications. Mobile communications technology must be able to allow roaming - the ability to provide service to a mobile phone users while outside their home system. On the other hand, fixed wireless is simply an alternative to wired communications.
The intelligent network (IN) is an architectural concept that enables the real-time execution of network services and customer applications in a distributed environment consisting of interconnected computers and switching systems. Thus the operator services are automated in INs. These automated services provide directory assistance and is used to provide telephone numbers, addressing information, and so on to the customer. While there are various proprietary-based mobile intelligent network (IN) technologies, the standards based technologies are often of most value to the mobile network operator and their customers. These standards based technologies are referred to as Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN). Wireless Intelligent network is developed to drive intelligent network capabilities such as service independence, separation of basic switching functions from service and application functions and independence of applications from lower-level communication details into wireless networks. The primary weapon for empowering providers to deliver distinctive services with enhanced flexibility is Wireless Intelligent Networks (WINs).
Wireless intelligent network (WIN) is a concept being developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Standards Committee TR45.2. The WIN standards protocol enables a graceful evolution to an IN without making current network infrastructure obsolete.
Service differentiation and streamlined infrastructure are key factors to winning the battle of competition as customers expand and become more sophisticated and the wireless service becomes more of a commodity. To wireless carriers and service providers, this means leveraging equipment, systems and customer service initiatives across all services and markets. Wireless providers who are first-to-market with customers-oriented services will have an immense advantage in securing dominant market share. One of the vital solutions for this highly competitive and increasingly demanding market is to build a sophisticated Wireless Intelligent Network infrastructure that can flexibly support existing and new services. This approach can reduce the load on the wireless switches.
The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriersâ„¢ deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN contains elements that are foreign to the wireline network.
WIN, borrowing the concept of AIN, is viewed to bring competitive edges in terms of:
Holistic approach to service deployment
Mobility services beyond wireline AIN
Reduced time for service deployment
Multiple vendor expertise
Computerized service creation and implementation tools.
However commercial AIN services have not proven successful. There have been doubts that AIN might only theoretically address the carrierâ„¢s needs.
Today's wireless subscribers are much more sophisticated telecommunications users than they were five years ago. No longer satisfied with just completing a clear call, today's subscribers demand innovative ways to use the wireless phone. They want multiple services that allow them to handle or select incoming calls in a variety of ways.
Enhanced services are very important to wireless customers. They have come to expect, for instance, services such as caller ID and voice messaging bundled in the package when they buy and activate a cellular or personal communications service (PCS) phone. Whether prepaid, voice/data messaging, Internet surfing, or location-sensitive billing, enhanced services will become an important differentiator in an already crowded, competitive service-provider market. Enhanced services will also entice potentially new subscribers to sign up for service and will drive up airtime through increased usage of PCS or cellular services. As the wireless market becomes increasingly competitive, rapid deployment of enhanced services becomes critical to a successful wireless strategy.
Intelligent network (IN) solutions have revolutionized wireline networks. Rapid creation and deployment of services has become the hallmark of a wireline network based on IN concepts. Wireless intelligent network (WIN) will bring those same successful strategies into the wireless networks.
The evolution of wireless networks to a WIN concept of service deployment delivers the following advantages, similar to the IN benefits reaped by wireline providers:
Â¢ multivendor product offerings that foster competition
Â¢ uniform services to subscribers across service areas
Â¢ efficient network utilization
Â¢ service creation and deployment
An intelligent network (IN) is a service-independent telecommunications network. That is, intelligence is taken out of the switch and placed in computer nodes that are distributed throughout the network. This provides the network operator with the means to develop and control services more efficiently. New capabilities can be rapidly introduced into the network. Once introduced, services are easily customized to meet individual customer's needs. Many of the desirable properties of the modern IN architecture are based on three major principles of independence:
1. Service independence (meaning that a wide variety of services can be composed using a set of common building blocks),
2. Separation of basic switching functions from service and application functions
3. Independence of applications from lower-level communication details.
As the IN evolves, service providers will be faced with many opportunities and challenges. While the IN provides a network capability to meet the ever-changing needs of customers, network intelligence is becoming increasingly distributed and complicated. For example, third-party service providers will be interconnecting with traditional operating company networks. Local number portability (LNP) presents many issues that can only be resolved in an IN environment to meet government mandates. Also, as competition grows with companies offering telephone services previously denied to them, the IN provides a solution to meet the challenge.
1. Network Evolution
1.1. Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)
Prior to the mid-1960s, network operators met with switch vendors, discussed the types of services customers required, negotiated the switching features that provided the services, and finally agreed upon a generic release date for feature availability. After this, the network operator planned for the deployment of the generic feature/service in the switching network fabric.
This process was compounded for the network operator with switching systems from multiple vendors. So, a customer in one end of a city, county, or state may not have had the same service offerings as a person in another part of the area.
1.2. Stored Program Control (SPC)
In the mid-1960s, stored program control (SPC) switching systems were introduced. SPC was a major step forward because now service logic was programmable where, in the past, the service logic was hardwired. As a result, it was now easier to introduce new services. Nevertheless, this service logic concept was not modular.
1.3. Common Channel Signaling Network (CCSN)
The network took a major leap forward in the mid-1970s with the introduction of the common channel signaling network (CCSN), or SS7 network for short. Signaling system number 7 (SS7) is the protocol that runs over the CCSN. The SS7 network consists of packet data links and packet data switching systems called signaling transfer points (STPs). The SS7 network separates the call setup information and talk path from the common trunk that runs between switching systems.
1.4. Common Channel Signaling
SS7 technology frees up trunk circuits between switching systems for the actual calls. The SS7 network enabled the introduction of new services, such as caller ID. Caller ID provides the calling party's telephone number, which is transmitted over the SS7 network.
Figure 1. Common Channel Signaling
The SS7 network was designed before the IN concept was introduced. However, telephone operators realized that there were many advantages to implementing and using SS7 network capabilities.
1.5. The Introduction of IN
Telcordia Technologies developed the concept of Intelligent Network 1 (IN/1), shown in Figure 2, that met the following requirements.
1. Rapid deployment of services in the network
2. Vendor independence and standard interfaces
3. Opportunities to offer services for increased network usage
Figure 2. Intelligent Network 1 (IN/1)
The introduction of the IN/1 marked the first time that service logic was external to switching systems and located in databases called service control points (SCPs). With the introduction of the SCP concept, new operations and management systems became necessary to support service creation, testing, and provisioning. In the above figure, note the term "service-specific management systems" under the box labeled "service management system." This means that the software-defined hooks or triggers are specific to the associated service. For example, an 800 service has an 800-type trigger at the switching system, an 800-service database at the SCP, and an 800-service management system to support the 800 SCP. In this service-specific environment, the 800-service set of capabilities cannot be used for other services (e.g., 900 service). Although the service logic is external to the switching system, it is still service specific.
Figure 3. AIN Architecture
At first glance, Figure 3 looks similar to Figure 2. However, there is one fundamental difference. Notice the wording "service-independent management systems" under the box labeled "service management system." Now, following the IN/1 800 service-specific example, the AIN service-independent software has a three-digit trigger capability that can be used to provide a range of three-digit services (800, 900, XXX, etc.) as opposed to 800 service-specific logic. Likewise, the SCP service logic and the service management system are service-independent, not service specific. AIN is a service-independent network capability!
2. Benefits of Intelligent Networks
The main benefit of intelligent networks is the ability to improve existing services and develop new sources of revenue. To meet these objectives, providers require the ability to accomplish the following:
2.1. Introduce new services rapidly
IN provides the capability to provision new services or modify existing services throughout the network with physical intervention.
2.2. Provide service customization
Service providers require the ability to change the service logic rapidly and efficiently. Customers are also demanding control of their own services to meet their individual needs.
2.3. Establish vendor independence
A major criterion for service providers is that the software must be developed quickly and inexpensively. To accomplish this, suppliers must integrate commercially available software to create the applications required by service providers.
2.4. Create open interfaces
Open interfaces allow service providers to introduce network elements quickly for individualized customer services. AIN technology uses the embedded base of stored program-controlled switching systems and the SS7 network. The AIN technology also allows for the separation of service-specific functions and data from other network resources. This feature reduces the dependency on switching system vendors for software development and delivery schedules. Service providers have more freedom to create and customize services.
The SCP contains programmable service-independent capabilities (or service logic) that is under the control of service providers. The SCP also contains service-specific data that allows service providers and their customers to customize services. AIN is a logical technology, which can help service providers meet local number portability. AIN LNP solutions are so flexible that AIN provides service without the burden of costly network additions to the service providers.
WIN services are related to AIN services. AIN was first introduced for the wireline industry in late 1980â„¢s. The best known AIN application is the "800 service" which opened the door to a host of new services offered on a platform other than the switch. WIN, enhancing the AIN concept with the mobility management aspect of wireless communication, will offer services consistent with what wireline AIN offers. Furthermore, WIN still needs to address:
Â¢ Personal and terminal mobility,
Â¢ Internetwork handoff,
Â¢ Fraud prevention and detection.
WIN services are typically provided by an IP, SCP or SN. It requires customer database processing, and is HLR dependent. Standards have compiled WIN services as listed below:
Billing: Advice of Time and Charges, Automatic Reverse Charging, Reverse Charging, Advice of Charging
Call Routing: Personal Communications Service, Party Line/Group Ringing, Hunt Groups
Custom Calling Call Trace, Customer Originated Trace, Screening List Editing Procedure
Incoming Call Calling Management: Name Identification Presentation, Incoming Call Screening, Distinctive Alerting/Call Waiting Selective Call Rejection, In Camp-on coming Number Translation, Selective Call Forwarding, Executive Override, Connected Number Identification Presentation
Outgoing Call Management: Voice Controlled Ser Outgoing Call Barring vices, Automatic Callback Closed User Group, Hot Line, Automatic Recall
Enhanced services are increasing in popularity. At this point, various carriers within different serving areas are implementing them using available IN protocols and concepts. As WIN standards are implemented, the same enhanced services will be applicable across serving areas so that wireless users will have a more consistent interface for seamless use while roaming. These WIN standards, which are under development, will make wireless services really successful. Enhanced services are now limited in scope and are not transparent across networks. With standards in place, more wireless carriers will offer more of these services.
1. Hands-Free, Voice-Controlled Services
Voice-controlled services employ voice-recognition technology to allow the wireless user to control features and services using spoken commands, names, and numbers. There are two main types of automatic speech recognition (ASR). Speaker-dependent requires specific spoken phrases unique to an individual user. Each user is required to train the ASR system by recording samples of each specific phrase. The other is speaker-independent ASR, which requires the use of specific spoken phrases that are independent of the speaker. The individual user need not train the system.
2. Voice Controlled Dialing (VCD)
VCD allows a subscriber to originate calls by dialing digits using spoken commands instead of the keypad. VCD may be used during call origination or during the call itself.
3. Voice-Controlled Feature Control (VCFC)
VCFC permits a calling party to call a special VCFC directory number, identify the calling party as an authorized subscriber with a mobile directory number and personal identification number (PIN), and specify feature operations via one or more feature-control strings. This service is similar to remote feature control (RFC) except that the subscriber is allowed to dial feature-control digits or commands using spoken words and phrases instead of keypad digits.
4. Voice-Based User Identification (VUI)
VUI permits a subscriber to place restrictions on access to services by using VUI to validate the identity of the speaker. VUI employs a form of ASR technology to validate the identity of the speaker rather than determine what was said by the speaker. VUI requires that the subscriber register the service by training the ASR system by recording a word or phrase. When a user attempts to access a service, the ASR system prompts the user to say the special phrase.
5. Incoming Call-Restriction/Control
Incoming calls to a subscriber may be given one of the following termination treatments: the call is terminated normally to the subscriber with normal or distinctive alerting; it is forwarded to voice mail or to another number; it is routed to a subscriber-specific announcement; or it is blocked. These kinds of services help subscribers control incoming calls and their monthly airtime bills. From a marketing standpoint, they entice cost-conscious customers who might not want unlimited access from callers.
Figure 4. WIN Based Incoming Call Screening
For incoming call screening the following steps are followed according to figure 4
1. Call is routed to Home MSC of called subscriber
2. Call hits Mobile Termination Trigger at Home MSC, which then interacts with subscriberâ„¢s HLR, using LocReq, to obtain Subscriberâ„¢s profile [with WIN triggers info. & associated SCP address(es)]
3. Call hits Advanced Termination Trigger in Home MSC
4. MSC sends Analyzed Information message to SCP
5. SCP performs Incoming Call Screening (ICS) & determines call should be
6. forwarded to subscriberâ„¢s Voicemail (VMS)
7. SCP responds to MSC with subscriberâ„¢s VMS number as routing information
8. MSC routes call to VMS
6. Calling Name Presentation (CNAP)
CNAP provides the name identification of the calling party (e.g., personal name, company name, restricted, not available) to the called subscriber. The calling name information (CNA) is derived from the calling number information (CNI), which is generally provided to the terminating network as part of the basic call setup. Optionally, the date and time of the call may be provided to the called subscriber.
7. Password Call Acceptance (PCA)
PCA is a call-screening feature that allows a subscriber to limit incoming calls to only those calling parties who are able to provide a valid password (a series of digits). Calls from parties who cannot provide a valid password will be given call refusal while PCA is active.
8. Selective Call Acceptance (SCA)
SCA is a call-screening service that allows a subscriber to receive incoming calls only from parties, whose calling party numbers (CPNs) are in an SCA screening list. Calls without a CPN will be given call-refusal treatment while SCA is active.
9. Short Message Service (SMS)
SMS provides the ability to deliver short messages as a packet of data between two service users, known as short message entities (SMEs). SMS incorporated into PCS networks allows for simultaneous paging and voice. Among its applications are paging via wireless phone screens and voice-mail notification.
10. Speech-to-Text Conversion (STC)
STC permits a calling party to create a short alphanumeric message by speaking to an ASR device that will perform speech-to-text conversion. The short message may then be distributed by any means available such as short message delivery.
11. Billing, Prepaid Cellular
Prepaid cellular can take a number of forms. One might be a debit card; one might be a connection to a smart card. These services allow customers to pay before they call and not be billed later. As the subscriber has already paid for the service, the carrier is not burdened with the risk or overhead of payment collection.
WIN approach is considered to be a complete solution to prepaid service. In this approach a prepaid service control point (P-SCP) communicates with the MSC through an SS7 signaling network. Several WIN triggers are defined. At prepaid call setup and call holding time, the MSC encounters WIN triggers at different stages, which remotely instruct the P-SCP to carry out decisions about how that call should be processed based on prepaid applications. All billing information for a prepaid customer is stored in the P-SCP. The mobile network may need extra SS& links to accommodate signaling traffic generated by the WI N prepaid mechanism.
WIN CALL ORGANISATION
Figure 5 illustrates WIN call organization with the following steps:
1. The prepaid customer initiates a call by dialing the called partyâ„¢s telephone
Figure 5. WIN prepaid Call Organisation
2. The MSC encounters the WIN call setup trigger. The call setup process is suspended, and a prepaid call request message is sent to the P-SCP. The message includes the MSISDN, location information of the MS, and called partyâ„¢s telephone number. The P-SCP determines whether the customer can make the call by querying its database. Based on threshold processing parameters defined in the prepaid billing system, the P-SCP may deny or accept the call. Assume that the call is accepted.
3. The P-SCP instructs the MSC to establish an integrated service digital network (ISDN) (voice) link to the intelligent peripheral (IP). The IP is a node that contains functions and resources, such as voice announcements or dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) digit collect capabilities, needed to exchange information with an end user.
4. The P-SCP instructs the IP to provide the prepaid with an account status notification, such as account balance and the charging rate of the call to be maid.
5. The P-SCP asks the MSC to resume the call setup procedure, and the call is eventually connected. The P-SCP starts a count-down timer. The amount of credit decremented (from the current balance) is derived from carrier-defined threshold parameters, the rate plan, destination and time/date dependency.
6. The call terminates when either the balance depletes or the call completes. If the count the count-down timer ends before the customer terminates the call, the P-SCP instructs the MSC to terminate the call. In normal call completion this step does not exist.
7. Once the call is terminated, the MSC encounters a WIN call release trigger, which sends a disconnect message to the P-SCP indicating the time at which the call is completed.
8. The P-SCP rates the completed call and updates the customerâ„¢s prepaid balance accordingly. Then it sends the current balance and cost of the call to the MSC. The MSC release the call.
In the above procedure, step 3 and 4 are optional.
WIN call termination
For calling-party-pay billing, which is exercised in Taiwan, call termination to a prepaid customer is exactly the same as that for postpaid call termination. For called-party-pay billing, the message flow of a WIN prepaid call termination is illustrated in figure 6.
Figure 6.Prepaid Call Termination in IN
1. The calling party dials the prepaid customerâ„¢s MSISDN.
2. The call is forwarded to the gateway MSC (GMSC) of the prepaid MSISDN.
3. The P-SCP determines whether the prepaid customer is eligible to receive the call. Assume that the call is accepted. The P-SCP asks the MSC to resume the call setup procedure.
4. Following the GSM standard mobile station roaming number(MSRN) retrieval and call setup procedures[5,6,], the call is eventually connected. The P-SCP monitors the prepaid customerâ„¢s balance as described in step of the prepaid call origination procedure.
For the called-party billing, the call release procedure for prepaid call termination is exactly the same as that for prepaid call organization.
WIN Prepaid Charging
The message flow in WIN prepaid charging is illustrated in figure 7. A prepaid customer initiates the recharging procedure by dialing a specific number.
Figure 7.WIN prepaid recharging
The MSC encounters the WIN trigger, and a query message is sent to the P-SCP. The message includes the MSISDN of the prepaid phone and related information.
1. The P-SCP instructs the MSC to establish a voice channel to the IP.
2. The P-SCP interacts with the IP to play an announcement and ask the prepaid customer to enter a PIN number and related information for recharging. Then the P-SCP checks the validity of the voucher.
3. After credit update, the P-SCP asks the IP to play a new balance announcement. Then it instructs the MSC to disconnect the IP. The MSC releases the call, and the procedure is completed.
FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF A WIN
The WIN mirrors the wireline IN mode. But the distinction between the wireless and wireline network is that many of the wireless call activities are associated with movement, not just the actual phone call. In the WIN, more call-associated pieces of information are communicated between the MSC and the SCP or HLR. The WIN moves service control away from the MSC and up to a higher element in the network, usually the SCP (see Figure 8).
1.1. MSC as service switching point (SSP)â€In the IN, the SSP is the switching function portion of the network. The mobile switching center (MSC) provides this function in the WIN.
1.2. Service control point (SCP)â€This device provides a centralized element in the network that controls service delivery to subscribers. High-level services can be moved away from the MSC and controlled at this higher level in the network. It is cost-effective because the MSC becomes more efficient, does not waste cycles processing new services, and simplifies new service development.
1.3. Intelligent peripheral (IP)â€The IP gets information directly from the subscriber, be it credit-card information, a PIN, or voice-activated information. The peripheral gets information, translates it to data, and hands it off to another element in the networkâ€like the SCPâ€for analysis and control.
1.4. Signal transfer point (STP)â€ This is a packet switch in the signaling network that handles distribution of control signals between different elements in the network such as MSCs and HLRs or MSCs and SCPs. The advantage of an STP is that it concentrates link traffic for the network. It can also provide advanced address capabilities such as global title translation and gateway screening.
Figure 8. Components of a WIN
1.5. Location registersâ€These are used to supplement MSCs with information about the subscriber. The number of subscribers that the switch supports changes as roamers move in and subscribers move to other switches. The database of active subscribers changes very dynamically. Each MSC cannot have the database for all potential users of that switch. The following location registers help to get around that problem:
1.6. Visitor location register (VLR)â€Within an MSC there is a VLR that maintains the subscriber information for visitors or roamers to that MSC. Every MSC or group of MSCs will have a VLR.
1.7. Home location register (HLR)â€Information on roamers is obtained from that subscriber's HLR. Each subscriber is associated with a single HLR, which retains the subscriber's record. When the subscriber roams to another switch, the VLR queries the subscriber's home HLR to get information about that subscriber. When a phone call goes to a subscriber's MSC, the MSC recognizes that the subscriber is roaming and asks the HLR for the subscriber's location. The HLR will communicate that information to the VLR and relay a temporary location number received from the visited system. In the WIN architecture, the HLR is usually a network element such as an SCP.
2. WIN call model
The WIN call model enables the network to handle new triggers (which are decision points in a call) and new transaction capability application part (TCAP) messages.
3. Distributed Functional Model
Figure 9 depicts the Distributed Functional Model with computational objects, called functional entities (FEs), and their relationships in the context of the WIN standard. A grouping of actions across one or more FEs, when coordinated by communication flows, provides the required WIN service execution. This functional model is non-service specific and does not imply any limitations regarding physical implementations or distribution of functions to physical platforms. It represents essentially the viewpoint of a network designer. In this figure, it is assumed that some functional entities have links to other entities of their own type (it is the case for SCF, CCF, ACF, and RACF). The roles of the FEs are summarized below.
Â¢ Authentication Control Function (ACF): provides the service logic and service data function for authentication, voice privacy and signaling message encryption.
Â¢ Call Control Function (CCF): provides the basic switching capabilities available in any switching system, including call and service processing and control.
Â¢ Location Registration Functions (LRFV and LRFH): provide the service logic and service data function to manage the mobility aspects for wireless users. They are respectively associated to the VLR and HLR network entities.
Â¢ Mobile Station Access Control Function (MACF): stores subscriber data and dynamically associates system resources with a particular set of call instance data.
Figure 9. Wireless Distributed Functional Model
Â¢ Radio Access Control Function (RACF): provides the service logic and service data functionality specifically related to radio link.
Â¢ Radio Control Function (RCF): provides the radio port and radio control.
Â¢ Radio Terminal Function (RTF): interface that provides network call control functions to wireless users.
Â¢ Service Control Function (SCF): commands call control functions in the processing of WIN provided and custom service requests.
Â¢ Service Creation Entity Function (SCEF): provides the capability for the creation, verification, and testing on WIN services.
Â¢ Service Data Function (SDF): contains customer and network data for real-time access by the SCF in the execution of WIN-provided services.
Â¢ Service Management Access Function (SMAF): provides the human interface to service management functions.
Â¢ Service Management Function (SMF): provides overall service management functionality for the network. The SMF may interact with any or all of the other FEs to perform service provisioning, monitoring, testing, and subscriber data management functions.
Â¢ Service Switching Function (SSF): associated with CCF and provides the set of functions and the recognition of triggers for interaction between the CCF and SCF.
Â¢ Specialized Resource Function (SRF): provides the specialized resources required for the execution of WIN-provided services (e.g., digit receivers, announcements, conference bridges, etc.).
The FEs related to wireless access mobility (ACF, LRFV, LRFH, MACF, RACF, RCF and RTF in Figure 9) were added in WIN, as they are not part of the original IN.
4. A Stand-Alone HLR: The First Step in a WIN Strategy
The Home Location Register (HLR) lets subscribers roam without service interruption and enables subscribersâ„¢ profile of services to follow them outside of their home market. As subscriber bases grow and technology changes, networks can be expanded easily and cost-effectively with a stand-alone HLR. When a provider migrates to a stand-alone HLR, taking it off the MSC and putting it on an IN network node, the MSC can be dedicated to efficient call processing (see Figure 10). The complexity of the network is then significantly reduced.
There are two reasons for making the HLR a network element: MSCs are switches containing a certain amount of processing power. An HLR performs computation, not switching. When the HLR is taken out of the MSC to be a network entity, more processing power is freed up in the MSC for telephone callsâ€its primary function. To provision an MSC with subscribers (if each one has its own built-in HLR), it is necessary to put the data in each one, and each one has a different look and feel. With a unified HLR platform, there is only one provisioning mechanism for the HLR database with a standard protocol.
Figure 10. A Stand-Alone HLR
Moving to a stand-alone HLR is the first step in a WIN services strategy. Implementing an IN strategy today makes sense, even if roaming standards are not ubiquitous. When IN architecture is implemented, the network is automatically set up for interoperability with other services and other networks as the WIN standards come into play. There are several other advantages of INâ€œbased centralized service control, including the following:
Â¢ Reduced delivery time for services
Â¢ Reduced costs for service deployment
Â¢ Flexibility that makes elements such as fraud control and specialized services more easily deployed
Â¢ Reduced network component costs
As the HLR becomes a separate element in the network, it starts to look more like an SCP. The SCP and HLR functions merge, and an SCP/HLR in the network is the next logical step (see Figure 11).
Figure 11. An SCP/HLR
5. The Current Status of WIN Standards
The movement to develop a WIN strategy was originally triggered by wireless network operators under the auspices of the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA). They developed a set of requirements calling for industry standards that defined new network architecture incorporating the service flexibility of INs with the mobility aspects of wireless networks.
The first phase of WIN standards was published in 1999 and established the fundamental call models and operations required to support this flexible service architecture. Many service providers currently implement WIN Phase 1 in their networks. Examples of WIN Phase 1 services are calling name presentation and restriction, call screening, and voice-control services.
Nearing completion are WIN Phase-2 standards that provide both additional service capabilities for wireless operators as well as greater harmonization of network capabilities and operations with emerging third-generation network requirements. WIN Phase 2 includes MSC triggers for an IN prepaid solution.
WIN Phase 3 is currently in requirements review by the WIN standards group. This phase incorporates enhancements to support location-based services. These requirements are based on four service drivers: location-based charging, fleet and asset management service, enhanced call routing service, and location-based information service.
ACCELERATING WIN STANDARDS THROUGH FORMAL TECHNIQUES
WIN is a wireless standard which is dynamic in nature, continuously evolving to meet subscriber requirements with ever shorter intervals for standards development. The current time lines at which a new version of the specification is to be completed to the needed level of precision, quality and completeness, cannot be accomplished using existing specification techniques.
A key assumption is that future standards works must apply techniques that can be automated. The use of formal documentation techniques using commercial tools will shorten the standards development cycle, introduce a formal test methodology and assist in rapid validation and verification, harmonization and evolution of ANSI-41/WIN standards. The use of documentation techniques which can be machine processed and verified will not only shorten standard development cycles but also provide an opportunity that does not currently exist to test logic and protocol design during the standard development phase. The major specification techniques are SDL (Specification and Description Language), MSC (Message Sequence Chart), ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax notation Language), TTCN (Tree and Tabular Combined Notation) and UCM (Use Case Maps).
WIN DEPLOYMENT CRITERIA AND PRACTICES
Former AIN specifications and practices did not explicitly address benefits to carriers and customers in quantitative terms. This paper suggests that a satisfactory WIN for carriers to implement should meet the following criteria:
1. Feature Development Time < 3 months
2. Feature Customization Time < 1 month
3. Automated Customer Service and Provisioning Interface
4. Automated Billing Interface
5. Automated Network Management Interface
6. Availability of the associated Self-paced Sales Training Program
7. Service Roll-out Time < 3 years
8. Customer Base Penetration > 1.5%
WIN WITH WAP
The WAP and the Wireless IN Infrastructures can be linked together to provide wireless subscribers better services. The linkage is by a WAP / Wireless Service Gateway which enables WAP servers to access information and capabilities residing in the wireless network. It also enables the Wireless network to provide enriched services to the subscriber by using WAP capabilities. The Gateway can be part of the WTA function in the WAP Server.
* WAP can be synergistically combined with WIN to provide converged voice/data services
- Use information in PLMN (e.g., location information) to enhance WAP services
- Use WAP data capabilities to enhance WIN services
* WAP with WIN can enrich the user experience
- Customized services
- User-friendly services
STATUS OF WIN PRODUCTS
There are three attributes for WIN products:
1. Ability to distribute control during call processing
2. Ability to customize features quickly
3. Ability to network based on standard protocols.
The first attribute hinges on client-server technology where call processing software can be cost effectively implemented in popular PC platforms and interprocessor communication can be invoked with triggers. The second attribute hinges on software tools that foster reuse of software modules in executing various features. The third attribute concerns standard layer interfaces and communication protocols. The interface between the application layer and the platform layer, between the platform layer and the device driver can be developed based on a standard programming interface to allow products to plug and play. The communication between various elements of WIN can be based on Signaling System 7, TCP/IP, or X.25.There are plenty of products that can fit in the IP, SCP, or SN category. However, none of them satisfies these attributes fully.
The CTIA WIN Subtask Group has identified three triggers as the first step for the MSC to evolve into the WIN. These triggers are for origination, termination and mid-call handling. Most MSCs are not equipped with the three WIN triggers at the present. Some vendors will choose to implement partial capabilities next year. Corresponding messages for the IP, SCP, and SN are also being defined within TR45.2.
In general, products are available for limited feature capability. Justification of WIN based on limited service is not warranted. What is warranted is infrastructure improvement based on the principles of WIN.
THE PRACTICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WIN
One of the characteristics with the WIN approach lies in the fact that the business process works in parallel with technical development at the onset of the service design. This can be almost viewed as a by-product of rather than the main stream WIN technology. The business process is loosely coupled with IP, SCP or SN, however, it can be facilitated by SCE and SMS, though not in the sense of high power workstations with UNIX operating system and object-oriented programming tools. The real business process has to be observed which consists of marketing, operations, and customer care personnel. These people normally have a PC with commercial software tools that consist of spreadsheet, view graph maker, word processor, e-mail and forms at best. There is a huge gap between the tools that these people depend on and those provided by the WIN products. WIN products take advantage of computer processing power while assuming that software, system and process issues are resolved automatically. At the present, WIN products do not contain the critical elements to allow carriers to proceed easily.
The WIN concept in general can be used as a catalyst to stimulate infrastructure improvements. Until the proper infrastructure is established, it is not justifiable to expect WIN services to generate significant revenue. A strategically oriented carrier would view the investment in business and operation restructure a necessity in overall competitiveness, not specifically against WIN feature revenue return.
In the mean time, suppliers of WIN technology elements should observe the service deployment process within the carriersâ„¢ environment. The true requirements of WIN products based on the criteria identified in section 4 form the basis for a realistic WIN product development.
DYNAMIC QUEUE MANAGEMENT MECHANISM IN WIN ENVIRONMENT
Dynamic Queue Manager is an applied call queuing service in the Service Control Point (SCP). In case of wireless IN service subscribers, HLR handles the supplementary service registration flags to notify the queue manager of the corresponding service subscriberâ„¢s mobility. The dynamic queue manager handles the queue size to Increase call completion rates for service enhancements in WIN environment. To accommodate large volumes of simultaneous calls to a single service number which has physically service subscriberâ„¢s terminals on a certain terminals on a certain time, the queue manager enables a service user encountering busy subscribers to have the call completed when they become available, without having to make a new call attempt.
The global service logic to support the overall service processing for the queue service feature applied service enhancement is decomposed into appropriate service independent building block (SIB) chains. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) role as service switching points for wireless networks. HLR has service registration flags for each mobile subscriber to notify SCP of the subscriberâ„¢s mobility with the other information about the service profile. Moreover, SCP has a queue manager as one of resource manager as one of resource managers, which manages queue according to regional groups of the subscribers.
When a service user makes a call attempt the originating MSC passes the corresponding initialDP operation to the SCP, then the SCP runs Translate Data SIB which finds an appropriate party using the service userâ„¢s Location Information-Log Start SIB in the SCP directs the MSCo to log the call information using Call Information Request. At the first operation should be informed.
1. Subscriberâ„¢s Call Status Update
When initially registering the service, HLR sets the service registration flag in the service profile of the corresponding subscriber. The flag indicates whether the service has been registered or not. HLR sends the service profile including the flag to VLR when the Location Updating process is performed. The call status information of the only wireless service subscriber marked by the flag can be reported to SCP. It thus appears that the overhead of transmission data between systems is alleviated by avoiding all the subscribers from doing such a thing. When a terminal becomes idle, the status of the terminal is changed to idle in Phone Status Table. Using the GroupID of the terminal, the status of queue is examined in Group Information Table. If there are calls waiting in Queue, the service logic is informed of the fact that resources can be allocated. In addition, the status of the terminal in Phone Status Table is changed to busy.
2. Subscriber Location Update
1. HLR passes PhoneID, new roaming LAI and MscID to the Queue Manager in SCP.
2. After the Queue Manager obtains MscID from the phoneID in Phone Status Table, it gets the service number. If new roaming MscID is the same as the current MscID is the same as the current MscID, then ends Location Update process, else goes to 3.
3. The service number (servnum) obtained in 2 and the new roaming MscID is used to get the corresponding GroupID from service number/groupID Table.
4. If the groupID obtained in 3 is different from the current groupID in Phone Status Table, the groupID for the phoneID is changed.
5. The number of terminals for the previous groupID in group information table is decreased, and an appropriate queue size for this group is gained from queue size table. Besides, the number of terminals for the new roaming groupID is incremented, and an appropriate queue size for this new group is gained from queue size table, too.
6. The changes to groupID/phone number list are applied.
3. Subscriber Activation/ Inactivation
The process for changes to inactive status is as follows:
1. When HLR notifies the queue manager of the fact that the status of the service subscriberâ„¢s terminal has changed to inactive, the PStatus value in phone status table is changed to inactive.
2. The PhoneCnt for the group that the terminal belongs to is decreased and the queue size is changed by using queue size table.
3. The MscID and groupID for the terminal in phone status table is changed to null.
The processes for changes to active status are as follows
1. When HLR notifies the queue manager of the fact that the status of the service subscriberâ„¢s terminal has changed to inactive, the PStatus value in phone status table is changed to inactive.
2. The MscID that the terminal belongs to and the service number are used to obtain groupID the terminal belongs to from service number/groupID table.
3. The group ID obtained from 2 is updated in phone status table, PhoneCnt for the relevant group in group information table is incremented, and the queue size is changed, referring to Queue Size Table.
4. Subscriberâ„¢s Information Update
The service providers can change the size of group taking into their network capability account. In addition, the service subscriber can change the group information when a new subscriberâ„¢s terminal number is allocated, or one of the previous number is deregistered. This can be done by notifying the service provider of the fact, or a subscriber can directly change the information through network. The service provider can determine the service drop rate Cd so that the service quality for each subscriber can be controlled. Even service subscriber, if available, can do it through the strict authentication procedure.
5. Management of Queue Size
Queue size table stores the size of the service drop rate, Cd according to the number of terminals in the group. The Queue Manager determines the values of records in the Queue Size Table using the queuing theory to calculate the appropriate values. The service provider can make the reasonable Queue Size Table according to the number of service terminals in the group by taking account of Cd. Once Cd is determined by the service provider, the Queue Manager determines the size of queue as the number of service terminals, which can be changed dynamically in the WIN environment.
The established service infrastructure in the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is known as Wireless Intelligent Networks (WIN). The basis behind Intelligent Networks is separating service intelligence from the switching and calls control functions of telecommunication networks and centralizing it. Specialized resource capabilities, such as text-to-speech conversion, can also be centralized for greater efficiency and cost savings. The centralized intelligent network elements could be used for many different purposes, such as for providing value-added services or for subscriber mobility management. By changing the logic in such a network element, the provider could offer new services to all customers ubiquitously in a service area. Services could be deployed and modified quickly by upgrading the logic in the central elements rather than upgrading each of the switching elements. Furthermore, by standardizing the interfaces for communicating between the elements, one could mix and match elements from various network equipment vendors, thus providing flexibility and deployment choices to the service providers and carriers.
As often happens with elegant engineering solutions, they automatically solve additional problems that they were not originally intended to address. WIN has solved at least two such problems: opening of networks and multi-standard (not simply multi-vendor) compatibility.
1. Introduction : 1
2. Intelligent Network(IN) : 3
3. WIN Services : 8
4. WIN Call Organisation : 14
5. Functional Components of WIN : 17
6. Accelerating WIN Standards through Formal Techniques. : 24
7. WIN Deployment Criteria and Practices : 25
8. WIN with WAP : 25
9. Status of WIN Products : 26
10. The Practical Requirements for WIN : 27
11. Dynamic Queue Management Mechanism in WIN Environment : 28
12. Conclusion : 32
13. Reference : 33
I express my sincere thanks to Prof. M.N Agnisarman Namboothiri (Head of the Department, Computer Science and Engineering, MESCE),
Mr. Zainul Abid (Staff incharge) for their kind co-operation for presenting the seminar and presentation.
I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for their
co-operation and encouragement.
Roshni Baby Rose
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