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31-03-2010, 08:31 PM

WiMAX for Broadband Wireless Access

Presented By:
Karim M. El Defrawy
What is WiMAX
802.16 Introduction
802.16 MAC Highlights
802.16 Reference Model
MAC Convergence Sub-Layer (CS)
MAC Common Part Sub-Layer (CPS)
MAC Privacy Sub-Layer (PS)
What is WiMAX?
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the common name associated to the IEEE 802.16a/REVd/e


These standards are issued by the IEEE 802.16 subgroup that originally covered the Wireless Local Loop technologies

with radio spectrum from 10 to 66 GHz.
IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction
IEEE 802.16 (2001)
Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System MAC and PHY Specifications for 10 “ 66 GHZ (LoS)
One PHY: Single Carrier
Connection-oriented, TDM/TDMA MAC, QoS, Privacy

IEEE 802.16a (January 2003)
Amendment to 802.16, MAC Modifications and Additional PHY Specifications for 2 “ 11 GHz (NLoS)
Three PHYs: OFDM, OFDMA, Single Carrier
Additional MAC functions: OFDM and OFDMA PHY support, Mesh topology support, ARQ

IEEE 802.16d (July 2004)
Combines both IEEE 802.16 and 802.16a
Some modifications to the MAC and PHY

IEEE 802.16e (2005?)
Amendment to 802.16-2004
MAC Modifications for limited mobility

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction
IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction
IEEE 802.16 MAC -- Highlights
WirelessMAN: Point-to-Multipoint and optional mesh topology
Multiple Access: DL TDM & TDMA, UL TDMA;UL OFDMA & TDMA, DL OFDMA & TDMA (Optional)
PHY considerations that affect the MAC
Adaptive burst profiles (Modulation and FEC) on both DL and UL
Protocol-independent core (ATM, IP, Ethernet)
Flexible QoS offering (CBR, rt-VBR, nrt-VBR, BE)
Strong security support
Reference Model
Adaptive PHY
Adaptive Burst Profiles
Burst profile: Modulation and FEC
On DL, multiple SSs can associate the same DL burst
On UL, SS transmits in an given time slot with a specific burst
Dynamically assigned according to link conditions
Burst by burst
Trade-off capacity vs. robustness in real time
Duplex Scheme Support
The duplex scheme is Usually specified by regulatory bodies, e.g., FCC
Time-Division Duplex (TDD)
Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel
Dynamic asymmetry
does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)
Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)
Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels
Full Duplexing (FDX): can Tx and Rx simultaneously;
Half-duplexing (HDX) SSs supported (low cost)
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ OFDM PHY TDD Frame Structure
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ OFDM PHY FDD Frame Structure
FDD MAPs Time Relevance
IEEE 802.16 MAC addressing and Identifiers
SS has 48-bit IEEE MAC address
BS has 48-bit base station ID
Not a MAC address
24-bit operator indicator
16-bit connection ID (CID)
32-bit service flow ID (SFID)
16-bit security association ID (SAID)
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ Convergence Sub-Layer (CS)
ATM Convergence Sub-Layer:
Support for VP/VC switched connections
Support for end-to-end signaling of dynamically created connections
ATM header suppression
Full QoS support

Packet Convergence Sub-Layer:
Initial support for Ethernet, VLAN, IPv4, and IPv6
Payload header suppression
Full QoS support
IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CS “ Packet Convergence Sub-Layer
Classification: mapping the higher layer PDUs (Protocol Data Units) into appropriate MAC connections
Payload header suppression (optional)
MAC SDU (Service Data Unit), i.e, CS PDU, formatting
IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS “ MAC PDU Format
IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS -- Three Types of MAC PDUs
HT = 0
Payloads are MAC SDUs/segments, i.e., data from upper layer (CS PDUs)
Transmitted on data connections
Management MAC PDUs
HT =0
Payloads are MAC management messages or IP packets encapsulated in MAC CS PDUs
Transmitted on management connections
HT =1; and no payload, i.e., just a Header

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS “ Data Packet Encapsulations
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS -- MAC Management Connections
Each SS has 3 management connections in each direction:
Basic Connection:
short and time-urgent MAC management messages
MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads
Primary Management connection:
longer and more delay tolerant MAC mgmt messages
MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads
Secondary Management Connection:
Standard based mgmt messages, e.g., DHCP, SNMP, ¦etc
IP packets based CS PDU as MAC PDU payload

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ MAC Management Messages
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ MAC PDU Transmission
MAC PDUs are transmitted in PHY Bursts
The PHY burst can contain multiple FEC blocks
MAC PDUs may span FEC block boundaries
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ MAC PDU Concatenation
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ MAC PDU Fragmentation
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ MAC PDU Packing
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS QoS
Three components of 802.16 QoS
Service flow QoS scheduling
Dynamic service establishment
Two-phase activation model (admit first, then activate)
Service Flow
A unidirectional MAC-layer transport service characterized by a set of QoS parameters, e.g., latency, jitter, and

throughput assurances
Identified by a 32-bit SFID (Service Flow ID)
Three types of service flows
Provisioned: controlled by network management system
Admitted: the required resources reserved by BS, but not active
Active: the required resources committed by the BS

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Uplink Service Classes
UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services
rtPS: Real-time Polling Services
nrtPS: Non-real-time Polling Services
BE: Best Effort

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Uplink Services: UGS
UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services
For CBR or CBR-like services, e.g., T1/E1.
The BS scheduler offers fixed size UL BW grants on a real-time periodic basis.
The SS does not need to send any explicit UL BW req.

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Uplink Services: rtPS
rtPS: Real-time Polling Services
For rt-VBR-like services, e.g., MPEG video.
The BS scheduler offers real-time, periodic, UL BW request opportunities.
The SS uses the offered UL BW req. opportunity to specify the desired UL BW grant.
The SS cannot use contention-based BW req.
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Uplink Services: nrtPS
nrtPS: non-real-time polling services
For nrt-VBR-like services, such as, bandwidth-intensive file transfer.
The BS scheduler shall provide timely (on a order of a second or less) UL BW request opportunities.
The SS can use contention-based BW req. opportunities to send BW req.
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Uplink Services: BE
BE: Best Effort
For best-effort traffic, e.g., HTTP, SMTP.
The SS uses the contention-based BW request opportunities.

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Bandwidth Grant
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ BW Request/Grant Mechanisms
Implicit requests (UGS): No actual requests
BW request messages, i.e., BW req. header
Sends in either a contention-based BW req. slot or a regular UL allocation for the SS;he special B
Requests up to 32 KB with a single message Request
Incremental or aggregate, as indicated by MAC header“
Piggybacked request (for non-UGS services only)
Presented in Grant Management (GM) sub-header in a data MAC PDU of the same UL connection
is always incremental
Up to 32 KB per request for the CID
Poll-Me bit
Presented in the GM sub-header on a UGS connection
request a bandwidth req. opportunity for non-UGS services
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS -- Contention UL Access
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS UL Sub-Frame Structure
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Ranging
Ranging is a process of acquiring the correct timing offset, and PHY parameters, such as, Tx power level, frequency

offset, etc. so that the SS can communicate with the BS correctly.
BS performs measurements and feedback.
SS performs necessary adjustments.
Two types of Ranging:
Initial ranging: for a new SS to join the system
Periodic ranging (also called maintenance ranging): dynamically maintain a good RF link.
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ CPS “ Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)
A Layer-2 sliding-window based flow control mechanism.
Per connection basis.
Only effective to non-real-time applications.
Uses a 11-bit sequence number field.
Uses CRC-32 checksum of MAC PDU to check data errors.
Maintain the same fragmentation structure for Retransmission.
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ Privacy Sub-layer (PS)
Two Major Functions:
Secures over-the-air transmissions
Protects from theft of service
Two component protocols:
Data encryption protocol
A client/server model based Key management protocol (Privacy Key Management, or PKM)

IEEE 802.16 MAC “ PS -- Security Associations
A set of privacy information, e.g., encryption keys, used encryption algorithm
Three types of Security Associations (SAs)
Primary SA: established during initial registration
Static SA: provisioned within the BS
Dynamic SA: dynamically created on the fly
Identified by a 16-bit SAID
Connections are mapped to SAs
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ PS -- Multi-level Keys and Their Usage
Public Key
Contained in X.509 digital certificate
Issued by SS manufacturers
Used to encrypt AK
Authorization Key (AK)
Provided by BS to SS at authorization
Used to derive KEK
Key Encryption Key (KEK)
Derived from AK
Used to encrypt TEK
Traffic Encryption Key (TEK)
Provided by BS to SS at key exchange
Used to encrypt traffic data payload
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ PS -- Data Encryption
Use DES (Data Encryption Standard) in CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode with IV (Initialization Vector).
CBC IV is calculated from
IV parameter in TEK keying info; and
PHY synchronization field in DL-MAP.
Only MAC PDU payload (including sub-headers) is encrypted.
MAC PDU headers are unencrypted.
Management messages are unencrypted.
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ one big item is out of scope


Questions ??

Alcatel White Paper: WiMAX, making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality
Intel White Paper: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless
WiMAX Forum: http://www.wimaxforum.com
IEEE 802.16 MAC “ commonly used terms
BS “ Base Station
SS “ Subscriber Station, (i.e., CPE)
DL “ Downlink, i.e. from BS to SS
UL “ Uplink, i.e. from SS to BS
FDD “ Frequency Division Duplex
TDD “ Time Division Duplex
TDMA “ Time Division Multiple Access
TDM “ Time Division Multiplexing
OFDM “ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
QoS “ Quality of Service

read more
Why WiMAX?

WiMAX covers a couple of different frequency ranges. Basically, the IEEE 802.16 standard addresses frequencies from 10GHz to 66GHz. The 802.16a specification, which is an extension of IEEE802.16, covers bands in the 2GHz-to-11GHz range. WiMAX has a range of up to 30 miles with a typical cell radius of 4“6 miles.

WiMAX's channel sizes range from 1.5 to 20MHz as well, and offer a WiMAX-based network the flexibility to support a variety of data transmitting rates such as T1 (1.5Mbps) and higher data transmitting rates of up to 70Mbps on a single channel that can support thousands of users. This flexibility allows WiMAX to adapt to the available spectrum and channel widths in different countries or licensed to different service providers.

WiMAX supports ATM, IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, and VLAN services. So, it can provide a rich choice of service possibilities to voice and data network service providers. In addition, WiMAX provides an ideal wireless backhaul technology to connect 802.11 wireless LANs and commercial hotspots with the Internet.

The WiMAX-based solution is set up and deployed like cellular systems using base stations that service a radius of several miles/kilometers. The most typical WiMAX-based architecture includes a base station mounted on a building and is responsible for communicating on a point to multi-point basis with subscriber stations located in business offices and homes. The customer premise equipment (CPE) will connect the base station to a customer as well; the signal of voice and data is then routed through standard Ethernet cable either directly to a single computer, or to an 802.11 hot spot or a wired Ethernet LAN.

WiMAX-based solutions include many other advantages, such as robust security features, good QoS (Quality of Service), and mesh and smart antenna technology that will allow better utilization of the spectrum resources. Also, the WiMAX-based voice service can work on either traditional Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) voice or IP-based Voice, also known as Voice over IP (VoIP).

WiMAX Connectivity and Solutions

WiMAX allows equipment vendors to create many different types of IEEE802.16-based products, including various configurations of base stations and customer premise equipment (CPE). WiMAX also allows the services provider to deliver many types of wireless access services. The WiMAX can be used on a variety of wireless broadband connections and solutions:

"Last Mile" Broadband Access Solution”Metropolitan-Area Networks (MAN) connections to home and business office, especially in those areas that were not served by cable or DSL or in areas where the local telephone company may need a long time to deploy broadband service. The WiMAX-based wireless solution makes it possible for the service provider to scale-up or scale-down service levels in short times with the client request.
Backhaul networks for cellular base stations, bypassing the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN); the cellular service providers can look to wireless backhaul as a more cost-effective alternative. The robust WiMAX technology makes it a nice choice for backhaul for enterprises such as hotspots as well as point-to-point backhaul solutions.
Backhaul enterprise connections to the Internet for WiFi hotspots. It will allow users to connect to a wireless Internet service provider even when they roam outside their home or business office.
A variety of new business services by wireless Internet service provider.

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.ppt   WiMAX for Broadband Wireless Access.ppt (Size: 744.5 KB / Downloads: 442)
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.pdf   WIMAX.pdf (Size: 511.72 KB / Downloads: 328)

Imagine a single wireless technology that can:
• make portable Internet a reality by extending public WLAN hotspots to
metropolitan area coverage for mobile data-centric service delivery,
• connect enterprises and residential users in urban and suburban
environments where access to copper plant is difficult,
• bridge the digital divide by delivering broadband in low-density areas.
Thanks to its innovative technology, WiMAX will offer broadband wireless
access at data rates of multiple Mbit/s to the end-user and within a range of
several kilometers. The same radio technology will also offer high-speed
data services to all nomadic terminals (laptops, PDAs, etc.) with an
optimized trade off between throughput and coverage. Ultimately it will
enable the "Portable Internet" usage replicating on the move the same user
experience as at home or at the office.
Given its huge benefits, WiMAX will develop as a powerful radio access
solution with many integration synergies in mobile or fixed network
architecture. WiMAX will also enable end-users to benefit from an "Always
Best Connected" experience when accessing their applications via the best
available network, at home, on the pause, or on the move. WiMAX
particularly fits in Alcatel's vision for a User-Centric Broadband World in
full complementarity with the other broadband access technologies: from
ADSL to UMTS and their evolutions towards higher speed and data

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Two technologies for delivering broadbandwireless Internet access services:”3G” VS.”WiFi”. The former, 3G, refers to the collection of third generation mobile technologies that are designed to allow mobile operators to offer integrated data and voice services over mobile networks .The latter, WiFi, refers to the 802.11b wireless Ethernet standard that was designed to support wireless LANs. Although the two technologies reflect fundamentally different service, industry and architectural design goals, origins and philosophies, each has recently attracted a lot of attention as candidates for the dominant platform for providing broadband wireless access to the Internet. It remains an open question as to the extent to which these two technologies are in competition or, perhaps, may be complementary. If they are viewed as in competition, then the triumph of one at the expense of the other would be likely to have profound implications for the evolution of the wireless internet and structure of the service provider industry.
It covers the topic how "3G" & "WiFi" works. It also includes the difference between two different technology. It also covers the how's the new technology "3G" works, how's it better from "WiFi" . It's disadvantages and many more.
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.ppt   FINAL Wimax - Copy.ppt (Size: 729.5 KB / Downloads: 170)

Pramendra kumar
M.Tech ,
Digital communication
MANIT Bhopal

Current Internet access technologies
Some Wireless Standards
IEEE 802.16 standards
Fundamental technologies in Wimax
Relationship With Other Wireless Technologies
Wimax system part
Wimax access method
Usage Areas

Current Internet access technologies


Some Wireless Standards
DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications)
IEEE 802.11
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the common name associated to the IEEE 802.16a/e standards.
These standards are issued by the IEEE 802.16 subgroup that originally covered the Wireless Local Loop technologies with radio spectrum from 10 to 66 GHz.
Faster than broadband service
70 megabits per second
Much wider coverage than WiFi
30-mile radius from base station
Line-of-sight not needed between user and base station

IEEE 802.16 standards
802.16.1 (10-66 GHz, line-of-sight, up to 134Mbit/s)
802.16.2 (minimizing interference between coexisting WMANs)
802.16a (2-11 Ghz, Mesh, non-line-of-sight)
802.16b (5-6 Ghz)
802.16c (detailed system profiles)
802.16d (fixed wirelessMAN)
P802.16e (Mobile Wireless MAN)

Fundamental technologies in Wimax





WiMAX access method
An Internet service provider sets up a WiMAX base station.
You would buy a WiMAX-enabled computer or upgrade your old computer to add WiMAX capability.
You would receive a special encryption code that would give you access to the base station.
The base station would beam data from the Internet to your computer
If you have a home network, the WiMAX base station would send data to a WiMAX-enabled router, which would then send the data to the different computers on your network

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.ppt   WiMAX (2).ppt (Size: 81 KB / Downloads: 108)
WiMAX: Broadband Wireless Access
 802.16 Standards Development
 Use wireless links with microwave or millimeter wave radios
o 10-66 GHz
o 802.16a extension to 2-11 GHz
 Use licensed spectrum (unlicensed too in 802.16a)
Metropolitan in scale
 Provide public network service to fee-paying customers
 Point-to-multipoint architecture with rooftop or tower-mounted antennas
 802.16 Standards Development
 Provide efficient transport of heterogeneous traffic supporting QoS
 Capable of broadband transmissions (2-75 Mbps)
o Accommodate both continuous and bursty traffic
Mobile extensions: 802.16e
 IEEE 802.16 Protocol Architecture
 Protocol Architecture
 Physical layer functions:
o Encoding/decoding of signals
o Preamble generation/removal
o Bit transmission/reception
 Medium access control layer functions:
o On transmission, assemble data into a frame with address and error detection fields
o On reception, disassemble frame, and perform address recognition and error detection
o Govern access to the wireless transmission medium
Protocol Architecture
 Convergence layer functions:
o Encapsulate PDU framing of upper layers into native 802.16 MAC/PHY frames
o Map upper layer’s addresses into 802.16 addresses
o Translate upper layer QoS parameters into native 802.16 MAC format
o Adapt time dependencies of upper layer traffic into equivalent MAC service
 IEEE 802.16 Services
Digital audio/video multicast
 Digital telephony
 Internet protocol
 Bridged LAN
 Back-haul
 Frame relay
 Burst Profiles
 Each subscriber station negotiates a burst profile with the base station
 Burst profiles decided based on QoS needs and channel conditions
o Harsher environment demands more robust profiles
o Favorable environment allows efficient profiles
 IEEE 802.16.1 Frame Format
Header - protocol control information
o Downlink header – used by the base station
o Uplink header – used by the subscriber to convey bandwidth management needs to base station
o Bandwidth request header – used by subscriber to request additional bandwidth
 Payload – either higher-level data or a MAC control message
 CRC – error-detecting code
 Physical Layer: Uplink
 Stations transmit in in their assigned allocation specified in an initial map
 Uplink sub-frame may also contain contention-based allocations for initial system access
 Uses a DAMA-TDMA technique
 Error correction uses Reed-Solomon codes
 Modulation scheme based on QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM
 Physical Layer: Downlink
 Continuous downstream mode
o For continuous transmission (audio/video)
o Simple TDM scheme is used for channel access
o Frequency division duplex (FDD)
 Burst downstream mode
o For bursty transmission (IP-based traffic)
o DAMA-TDMA scheme for channel access
o FDD with adaptive modulation, frequency shift division duplexing (FSDD), time division duplexing (TDD)
Medium Access Control (MAC)
 Connection-oriented
o All services inherently connectionless mapped to a connection
 Connections referenced using a 16-bit connection identifier (CID)
 Management channels and transport channels for contracted services
 Radio Link Control
 Power control and paging
Transition among burst profiles
 Downlink burst profile change
o Subscriber station monitors downlink quality
o Requests a new profile
o Granted if base station judges possible
 Uplink profile change
o Base station monitors the uplink signal quality
o Specifies the new profile’s usage code when granting subscriber bandwidth in a frame
Bandwidth Requests & Grants
 Two kinds of subscribers
o Grant per connection (GPC)
o Grant per subscriber (GPSS)
 Both classes request bandwidth per connection for QoS guarantees
 For GPC, bandwidth explicitly guaranteed to connection
 For GPSS, bandwidth aggregated into a single grant for SS
Requesting Bandwidth
 Unsolicited grants
o No need to request bandwidth for services that generate fixed units of data periodically
o Negotiated at connection setup time
 Send a bandwidth request MAC packet
 Piggyback request within MAC data packet
 Polling by base station
MAC Management Messages
 Uplink and downlink channel descriptor
 Uplink and downlink access definition
 Ranging request and response
 Registration request, response and acknowledge
 Privacy key management request and response
 Dynamic service addition request, response and acknowledge
 Dynamic service change request, response, and acknowledge
 Dynamic service deletion request and response
 Multicast polling assignment request and response
 Downlink data grant type request
 ARQ acknowledgment
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.ppt   DEEPI.ppt (Size: 957.5 KB / Downloads: 74)
Introduction to WiMax and Broadband Access Technologies
What is WiMax?
WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL.
The technology is specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., as the IEEE 802.16 standard.
WiMax Technology
WiMAX provides fixed, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight (LOS) with a base station.
WiMAX provides Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) upto 30 miles(50 km) for fixed stations and 3-10 miles(5-15 km) for mobile stations.
Why is it Interesting?
Each station can provide 75 MBps download speed which can cover the entire city easily. Just imagine how it will be if DSL is going to cover everything with wires!!
They are low cost because they are wireless.
Scalability, as extra channels and base stations can be added incrementally as bandwidth demand grows.
Support for both voice and video as well as Internet data.
Wi-Fi: The Predecessor of WiMax
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a set of technologies that are based on the IEEE 802.11a,b, and g standards.
Wi-Fi is considered to be one of the first widely deployed fixed broadband wireless networks.
The Wi-Fi architecture consists of a base station that wireless hosts connect to in order to access network resources.
As long as the users remain within 300 feet(91.44m) of the fixed wireless access point, they can maintain broadband wireless connectivity.
Wi-Fi Standards
Strengths of Wi-Fi
Easy to install.
Cost of rolling out this wireless solution is low.
Users are able to be mobile for up to 300 feet(91.44m) from the access point.
Weaknesses of Wi-Fi
Limited level of mobility.
Designed technically for short-range operations(30-100m) and basically an indoors technology.
Security is a concern.
Relation of Wi-Fi and WiMax
WiMax eliminates the constraints of Wi-Fi.
Unlike Wi-Fi, WiMax is intended to work outdoors over long distances.
WiMax is a more complex technology and has to handle issues of importance such as NLOS.
WiMax Standards
WiMAX Transmitter and Receiver
How WiMAX works
Service Types
WiMax can provide 2 forms of wireless service:
- Non-LOS, Wi-Fi sort of service, where a small antenna on a computer connects to the tower. Uses lower frequency range (2 to 11 GHz).

- LOS, where a fixed antenna points straight at the WiMax tower from a rooftop or pole. The LOS connection is stronger and more stable, so it is able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Uses higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz.
WiMAX Architecture
WiMax Spectrum
Broad Operating Range
There are 3 spectrum bands for global deployment:
Unlicensed 5 GHz: Includes bands between 5.25 and 5.85 GHz.
Licensed 3.5 GHz: Bands between 3.4 and 3.6 GHz
Licensed 2.5 GHz: The bands between 2.5 and 2.6 GHz have been allocated in the US, Mexico, Brazil and in some SEA countries.
Technical Similarities and Differences Between Licensed and License-Exempt Bands
Both solutions are based on IEEE 802.16-2004 standard, which uses OFDM in the physical (PHY) layer.
For creating bi-directional channels for uplink and downlink, licensed solutions use FDD while license exempt solutions use TDD.
Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
Scope of 802 standards
PHY Layer Features of IEEE 802.16-2004
PHY Layer Features of IEEE 802.16-2004(Continued)
MAC Layer Features of IEEE 802.16-2004
MAC Layer Features of IEEE 802.16-2004 (Continued)
IEEE 802.16e-2005 Standard
Ratified in December, 2005
It is an extension of the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard
It covers MAC and PHY layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands(2.5-2.6GHZ).
It will enable a mobile user to keep their connection while moving at vehicular speed (75-93 miles/h).
WiMax Mobility Issues
Device availability is a major issue
- Market introduction may be delayed
- High initial costs will limit adoption growth
- Many mobile operators have invested heavily in 3G systems.
Current demand for WiMax is mostly for fixed services.
WiMax Applications
WiMax supports the applications:
Multi-player Interactive Gaming.
Streaming Media.
Web Browsing and Instant Messaging.
Media Content Downloads.
WiMax Advantages
Being wireless there is no cluttering around.
Each station can provide 75 MBps download speed which can cover the entire city easily.
It removes the problem of maintaining wires and their connection which has shortcomings when it gets damaged somewhere.
WiMax Disadvantages
Bad weather conditions such as rain could interrupt the signal.
 WiMAX is a very power-consuming technology.
High installation and operational cost.
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