automatic vehicle locator full report
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computer science technology
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24-01-2010, 09:39 PM

.pdf   automatic vehicle locator full report.pdf (Size: 124.19 KB / Downloads: 1,034)
Is your car or a vehicle stolen or is it not visible in the thickest

snow or is one among the several cars present? Do you wa nt to know the

arrival of the bus for which you are waiting? Are your children going

alone in a vehicle and you want to track their moments? Does your cargo

consists of costly load and want to protect them? Do you want to keep

track of your little playing kids about where they are?
ANS: Automatic Vehicle Locator. This Paper gives us a novel approach of

using certain GPS technology in tracking not only vehicles, but even

children and to protect precious goods. So this technology has gained a

lot of importance in the recent years. This paper tells us how this

technology works, its applications. It is still under research and

development stage.
1. AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR Automatic vehicle location (AVL) is a

computer -based vehicle tracking system. For transit, the actual real

-time position of each vehicle is determined and relayed to a control

center. Actual position determination and relay techniques vary,

depending on the needs of the transit system and the technologies

employed. Transit agencies often incorporate other advanced system

features in conjunction with AVL system implementation. Simple AVL

systems include: computer -aided dispatch software, mobile data

terminals, emergency alarms, and digital communications. More sophist

icated AVL Systems may integrate: real-time passenger information,

automatic passenger counters, and automated fare payment systems. Other

components that may be integrated with AVL systems include automatic

stop annunciation, automated destination signs, Vehicle component

monitoring, and Traffic signal priority. AVL technology allows improved

schedule adherence and timed transfers, more accessible passenger

information, increased availability of data for transit management and

planning, efficiency/productivity improvements in transit services .
2. What is AVL technology? Automated Vehicle Locator (AVL) systems use

satellite and land communications to display each vehicle's location,

status, heading, and speed on the computer's screen. AVL systems use

one of four types of navigation technology, or may combine two of these

technologies to compensate for inevitable shortcomings of any one

technology. The four principal technologies employed for AVL systems

are: 1. Global Positioning System
2. Dead-Reckoning System
3. Signpost/Odometer Systems 4. Radio Navigation/Location
3. TRACKING SYSTEMS There are two types of tracking systems. 3.1.

PASSIVE TRACKING: The Passive Tracking System modality refers to stand

-alone GPS Receivers, which store data for further process. Passive

systems are typically limited to vehicle tracking only. When a Passive

Tracking Device is installed in a vehicle, the location, time, velocity

and heading data is usually stored in the unit or transferred to a

handheld device and downloaded from the vehicle when the vehicle

returns to their base station. 3.2. REAL TIME TRACKING Real Time

Tracking Systems are based on mobile stand-alone terminals which

combine GPS and GSM technology to determinate and transmit their

position. A two-way wireless communication link connects the unit with

the control center at all times. A portable GPS tracking device can be

used as an emergency cellular phone with speed dialing for two -way

voice communication. It can silently call any emergency number in the

world for immediate assistance. The emergency silent call feature also

provides a digitized voice message which can report the time, date,

speed, heading, and location of a person in distress. Figure1. GPS

Receiver The AVL tracking system consists of a GPS receiver inside the

vehicle and a communications link betwee n the vehicle and the control

Center as well as pc -based tracking software for dispatch. The

communication system is usually a cellular network similar to the one

used by cellular phone. Currently all kind of communications networks

permit Real-Time Tracking for mobile assets.

The GPS satellites locate the transit vehicles by sending out GPS

signals to be picked up by vehicles GPS UNITS. The GPS unit in the

vehicle absorbs the signals and gives radio signals to the RADIO

system. Figure2. A GPS Based AVL System 4.2. RADIO SYSTEM The RADIO

systems receive the vehicle GEO - LOCATION coordinates and transmits th

is radio signals to communication center.
4.3. COMMUNICATION CENTER The communication center receives this

information and uses it to determine the location of transit vehicle

and sends this to dispatch stations and other stations for further

analysis of the information either through wire line or wireless

4.4. DISPATCH SECTION The dispatch section uses the vehicle information

to help maintain transit schedules and provide operational support to

the drivers.
4.5. CUSTOMER ASSISTANCE UNIT The customer assistance

planning/scheduling operations analysis unit also receives the vehicle

location information through wire line or wireless network. This

section use vehicle location map to help maintain transit schedules to

analyze and provide traffic information for other road way driver.

Figure3. Working of a GPS based AVL

many possibilities for transit interface with highway and traffic

organizations or transportation management centers. Opportunities

include: providing transit buses with traffic signal priority;

obtaining traffic congestion data at the dispatch center to allow

rerouting of buses or informing customers of delay; incorporating

transit information in traveler information systems; developing multi

-application electronic payment systems; using buses to automatically

communicat e traffic speed; and reporting of roadway incidents by

transit vehicle operators. 6. MORE ABOUT GPS
6.1. Use of Differential GPS For AVL systems which do require more

accurate positions, differential GPS can be employed. These systems

normally employ the transmission of correction information to the GPS

receiver; this correction information has corrections for each

satellite in view. This is done because each satellite has its own

error; the error in GPS is not simply an X-Y error which will be the

same for all receivers. The error on any two given receivers will only

be the same if those receivers are using the SAME satellites. This

canâ„¢t normally be guaranteed as satellites may be obscured at one

location, making the error slightly different for two receivers. 6.2.

GPS Antennas The best position for any antenna is generally as high as

possible with the best unrestricted view. 6.3. GPS Satellites The

global positioning system (GPS) was specifically engineered so that at

least four of the 24 sat ellites would be positioned on the horizon at

all times. There are six different orbiting patterns that the GPS

satellites follow, making a complete trip around the earth every 12

hours. The information regarding the location of the transit vehicle is

calculated by TRILATERATION method. With this information, the

receivers can, by a process similar to triangulation, tell the user the

exact location in latitude, longitude, and sometimes altitude too .

Figure4. GPS Satellites
6.4. MAPPING At any control station, data is normally required to be

viewed on a map. Maps allow a tangible, understandable view of a

vehicles location, and will also allow operators to apply local

7. DATA TRANSFER The two most common methods of transmitting vehicle

location data to dispatch are through polling and exception reporting

via wireless communications. Many agencies use a combination.
8. BENEFITS The most extensive and rigorous research into the benefits

of AVL has found that this technology has lead t o significant transit

firm productivity gains (whether output is measured by Passenger Miles

or Vehicle Revenue Miles). Benefits have been documented to varying

degrees for all of the following categories.
8.1. Operations: Increases transit rider ship. Reduced need for

additional road supervisors and manual data entry. 8.2. Communications:

Improved communications between supervisors, dispatchers, and operators

and reduced voice radio traffic. 8.3. Passenger Information: Provides

capability to inform passengers of predicted bus arrival times thus

enhancing the quality of transit service and allowing travelers to make

better travel decisions. 8.4. Scheduling and Planning: Provides more

complete and accurate data for scheduling and planning. Aids in

effective bus stop placement (when combined with a G.I.S. database and

automatic passenger counters). 8.5. Safety and Security: Enhances the

security of the driver and traveler (particularly when coupled with

silent alarm technology). 9. USES 1. Vehicle location display in real-

time. 2. Recording of arrival and departure times (proof of delivery

etc). 3. Monitoring of driving practices (speed). 4. Alerts if vehicle

leaves or enters a defined area . 10. APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS

10.1. In Military It is clear how useful this technology would be for

the Armed Forces. Before small GPS receivers were available, troops in

the field depended on the same technology for generations: the compass,

sextant, maps and hand calculations. Radios and reconnaissance aircraft

wer e great leaps, but a GPS calculates position in real time, down to

three foot accuracy! 10.2. Geo-Caching This is for people who have

liking towards searching hidden things or participating in scavenger

hunts. With GPS, comes the new twist: geo-caching. Geo-catchers hide a

little treasure in a box public place, for example, a shoe box with a

used book inside, taped under the seat of a bus stop. They then go to

geo-caching websites and post simple latitude and longitude, to as much

accuracy as they like. Then other geo-catchers search for these boxes

with their GPS data. The fun is looking for a strange box in what could

be an area with a 25 -foot radius. When the successful geo-catcher

finds the box, he or she keeps the little treasure and replaces it with

another, for the next searcher. 10.3. Track Anything Parents always

worry about their teenage kids, especially after they start driving.

Auto shops have started offering installation of small, hidden GPS

receivers in kidsâ„¢ cars. Parents can then use simple computer software

and have their kidsâ„¢ movements plotted on a map. Many parents donâ„¢t

even tell the kids about this Ëœlittle extraâ„¢. Figure5. Track anything

10.4. In Cargo Some containers of cargo are more valuable than others.

A small GPS receiver inside the cargo can know exactly where it is, how

far it is from the destination, and where to find even it if it is

stolen. Figure6. GPS in Cargo 10.5. Child Tracking Of topical interest

at this time is Ëœchild trackingâ„¢, giving the possibility for children

to wear or carry some sort of GPS/GSM tracker. Such a device could

provide valuable information if a child is abducted or lost. Signals

could be sent from the tracker every few minutes to a central site so

that a record is kept of the childâ„¢s loca tion, or just sent when a

Ëœpanic buttonâ„¢ was pressed by the child. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ch/Automatic_v


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20-10-2010, 01:03 PM

.pdf   Humphreys.pdf (Size: 1.45 MB / Downloads: 184)
The Automated Tracking Of Vehicles and
Pedestrians In CCTV For Use In The
Detection Of Novel Behaviour

James Anthony Humphreys
Project Supervisors: A. Hunter, N. Holliman

1.1 The growth of CCTV surveillance
In the past decade, the use of CCTV surveillance has grown enormously. It is
now estimated that there are over 4 million cameras scattered throughout the
UK1. Those living in London are likely to be caught on CCTV camera 300
times a day. The UK is now often said to be the most surveillance oriented
country in the world – it has the highest ratio of cameras to people anywhere
in the world. These cameras cover both public areas such city centres, car
parks, areas that are prone to crime, and private areas such as shops and
nightclubs. The proliferation of CCTV surveillance is due partly to the falling
costs of the hardware and partly to the sentiment on the part of the public
that there is a greater need for security on the streets. The effects of CCTV
on crime figures are debatable, as found in a report by Phillips[21], which
provides examples of strong reductions in crime, mixed results and negligible
effects. However, in a study of the effects of CCTV in town centres, Brown[5]
found that areas of Newcastle in which CCTV had been installed reported
1Source: Liberty at
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