biodiesel full report
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The potential for Biodiesel availability is limited to roughly 2% of the current diesel fuel consumption. The present cost of Biodiesel is 2 to 3 times higher than diesel. Higher taxes on diesel fuel or tax incentives for Biodiesel, to eliminate this price differential, do not seem feasible at this time. Hence Biodiesel must find uses in markets where its positive attributes may support its higher cost and preferable in the form of lower level blends in diesel in ordered to minimize the incremental cost.
Besides the monetary incentives, the government policy and regulations can also help a fuel to find markets. If the federal and provincial governments in India impose stringent emissions regulations in underground mines, marinas, and other environmentally sensitive areas, it would certainly help Biodiesel to enter these markets even at its current higher cost efforts should be made to include Biodiesel as an alternative fuel under the Indian Alternative Fuels Act.
1. Due to higher density of Jatropha oil, the atomization in combustion becomes difficult.
2. Poor volatility accounts for improper vaporization and ignition incapability. This also cause thermal cracking resulting in heavy smoke emissions and carbon deposits in the engine.
3. The presence of wax contents in the oil causes formation of gum in the combustion chamber
4. Increased in emission of NOx with jatropha oil.
The emission results with the Biodiesel was satisfactory for CO, CO2, and SO. NOx is one of the main contributors to smog and acid rain. Burning fossil fuels again produces them. Nitrogen oxides react to form smog. Smog is high dose harms humans by causing breathing difficulty for asthmatics, coughs n children and general illness of the respiratory system. Since NOx causes these kinds of problems, to reduce it the EGR was implemented in the diesel engine.
¢ The Trans-esterification process.
¢ Program was developed using Visual Basic for caring out all the performance and volumetric test.
¢ Engine modification for EGR was made.
¢ The performance tests and the heat balance tests have been carried out to compare the various blends and their performance with each other with was carried out for the following
o Without any engine modification.
o With implementation of EGR.
¢ A comparison study between the performance of the various blends and the emission with EGR and without EGR is also presented.
Comparative performance of diesel engine was conducted using:
1. Diesel oil (HSD)
2. Blends of HSD and Bio diesel from Jatropha curcas (25% BD, 50% BD,75%BD)
3. Hundred percent bio diesel
The project and implimentation was carried out in four major steps which include the transesterification of the jatropha oil, formulation of program using Visual Basic for performance test, modification of engine with EGR and conducting various tests using various blends of Biodiesel.
The raw oil was purchased from Rural Action Community Action Center (RCAC), Muthur. The main plantation was located at Kanisolai, maatukadai, kudumudi road, muthur.10 litters of raw jatropha oil were bought from this plant. RCAC has official agreement with Indian railways, thus oil was sold to us unofficial at a cost of Rs.80 / litter.

The trans-etherification process is carried out in order to reduce the viscosity of the oil by removing the fatty acid present in it.100ml mixture of NAOH and methanol is take in a burette and added to the raw jatropha oil with a constant interval of 30min. during addition of the mixture the temperature should be maintained between 50°C - 60°C. If the temperature exceeds beyond this limit the oil could catch fire since methanol ignites at very low temperature.

Trans-Esterification Process
When all the mixture of methanol and NAOH is added to the raw jatropha oil it is allowed to settle in the container for 10hrs. After this there will clear separation on glycerol and the ester which is the required oil (Biodiesel)

Electrical Centrifuge for Separating Oil and Glycerol

The final test which proves that the oil is undergone good Trans - esterification is by its golden colour formation and the smell which should not have any occurrence of the alcohol used in process. The picture below shows the difference between raw jatropha oil and trans- esterified oil.
External EGR, using piping to route the exhaust gas to the intake system where it is inducted into the succeeding cycles, has emerged as the preferred current approach. This methodology was followed in our project and implimentation.
The engine exhaust and intake manifold was modified so as to enhance the EGR set. The constraints involved in the fabrication of EGR are as follows:
¢ Effective cooling has to be enforced for good performance of EGR since gas at 500-600°C can™t be let into engine.
¢ Effective throttling has to be maintained so as to allow required gas inside the cylinder.
¢ The exhaust has to be modified and the following condition has to be acquired, so as to use the AVL 437C Smoke meter.
o The temperature at the position of measurement should be maintained between 200 - 250°C
o The pressure at the position of measurement should be maintained between 60-75mm of manometer.
o Exhaust gas should be taken at an angle of 135° so as to have accurate readings.
1. The room temperature was noted down first.
2. Required quantities of blends were prepared according to their ratios by volume.
3. The fuel in the fuel tank, the supply of cooling water, level of lubricant in the sump as indicated by the dipstick and no load on the engine were checked before starting the engine.
4. The engine was started and allowed to run at no load for about 10 minutes to warm up and attain steady state. The speed of the engine was measured using a tachometer and it was adjusted to the rated speed of 1500 rpm by adjusting the governor connected to the fuel pump.
5. The fuel was then supplied from the burette by opening the metering valve. By noting the change in level of fuel in the burette, the time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption was noted using a stop watch.
6. The desired cooling water flow rate was obtained by adjusting the valve and was kept constant throughout the experiment.
7. The inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water are noted. The temperature of the exhaust gas was noted.
8. The full load of the engine was distributing equally so as to run at least five trials during the test from zero load (0 amps) to full load (12 amps). The set up readings were taken and tabulated.
9. The emissions are measured using the Flue gas analyzer, AVL 437C Smoke meter for all the combinations of biodiesel with HSD.
10. The manometer readings are also noted.
11. All the above readings were taken for various loads with applying and without applying EGR.
Electrical loading arrangement was used for loading the engine. All parameters relating to the engine performance were observed from the reading. Such parameter as,
1. Brake power
2. Fuel consumption rate, Specific fuel consumption
3. Fuel power
4. Brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency
5. Brake and indicated mean effective pressure.
After, the experimental part of the project and implimentation was completed, the calculations were carried out and various graphs were drawn so as to discuss and arrive at specified result. From the analysis of graphs the conclusion were made.

From the above results, it is the following can be interpreted:
¢ The mechanical efficiency was better with Biodiesel with the increase in EGR and also with the increase in the percentage of Biodiesel.
¢ The specific fuel consumption of Biodiesel and the petroleum diesel reduced with the EGR both in 50% and as well as in 100% EGR.
¢ The brake thermal efficiency was best for the 50% EGR and very similar to the brake thermal efficiency of the HSD.

The emission of NOX got reduced drastically with implementation of EGR. The above graphs clearly state the reduction of NOX.
The emission of CO got reduced drastically with Biodiesel.With the implementation of EGR the emissions of Biodiesel almost remained same and but the NOX emission got reduced drastically which was the only disadvantage faced in the implementation of Biodiesel. The emission of NOX reduced to 0.05%.
During full throttle of EGR and with full load the engine struggled to run using petroleum diesel and which made to stop the engine. But with 100% Biodiesel the engine ran without any trouble
From the above results the following can be interpreted:
¢ The mechanical efficiency of the engine while using Biodiesel is more than the conventional petroleum diesel. When the percentage of Biodiesel increases the mechanical efficiency also increases simultaneously. With EGR, the mechanical efficiency is maximum.
¢ No considerable change in the value of the torque was noticed. The torque remained almost the same for all the blends irrespective of EGR.
¢ Other performance characteristics of the diesel engine running with Biodiesel almost remained same with the implementation of EGR.
¢ The emission of NOX came down drastically. The emission was reduced to 0.5% of original emission using Biodiesel and with petroleum diesel.
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.ppt   bio-diesel.ppt (Size: 406 KB / Downloads: 718)


RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: Energy sources from which power can be derived again & again ie; a journey to Infinity are termed as Renewable Energy Sources.

It is a concept being implemented globally to combat the crisis of running out of oil reserves looming over us
Sources of Bio-diesel
Biodiesel can be derived from various plants such as soy, rap seed, sunflower and more recently jatropha.
About Jatropha
Jatropha is a bush that grows in regions around the Equator, in areas that are too arid for other plantations. The Southern and Central regions of India provide an apt climate for Jatropha cultivation.

The bio-fuel industry and market is still in its infancy but is likely to become a major global industry sector in 5 to 10 years, providing solution to global strategic issues like sustainable development, energy security, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Advantages of Jatropha
It is not eaten by animals and is a vigorous, drought and pest resistant plant and when planted as a fence repels rodents and the oil has medicinal applications.
A valuable export product at the world trade market.
It is Biodegradable
Can be Domestically grown
Low emissions
No engine modifications required

Bio-diesel is Safer than gasoline
It is less flammable than gasoline
Bio-diesel is Non-toxic
Can be blended in any proportion with petroleum
diesel fuel
High cetane number and excellent lubricity
Very high flashpoint (>300°F)
Can be made from waste restaurant oils and
animal fats

Disadvantages of Jatropha

Lower energy content
6-9% less energy per unit volume for B100
Effect of B2 “ B10 on power less than 1%
Soybean oil-based biodiesel will start to crystallize at
around 0°C
Biodiesel is less oxidatively stable than petroleum diesel
Old fuel can become acidic and form sediment and varnish
There is limited supply of Bio-diesel
Cost is high and is feedstock sensitive
“Government subsidies allow biodiesel to compete with petroleum fuel
India: from Wastelands to Plantations
The Jatropha plantations are found in the wastelands of Central and Southern India
The 3 Constituents of Bio-diesel
Oil : The primary ingredient is oil or fat.This will be waste vegetable oil for the average producer at home, which may be collected for free in most restaurants.One can, of course, grow rapeseed or Jathropa and crush it for oil.
ALCOHOL:The most commonly used alcohol for the production of biodiesel is methanol.
Methanol scores above the others due to its easy availability from molasses from the sugarcane industry
KATALYSATOR:The last constituent is the Catalyst. Both KOH (potassium hydroxide, caustic potash) and NaOH (Sodium hydroxide, caustic soda) may be used.
The advantage of KOH is that the residual glycerine is much less toxic than when NaOH is used.
How to Make Biodiesel?
Biodiesel forms due to a chemical reaction called transesterification, meaning that glycerol in the oil is substituted by an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In --our case we use Methanol and NaOH (caustic soda) or KOH (caustic potash).
Vegetable oils + ROH Biodiesel + Glycerin

Why do we need Bio-diessel

Biodiesel's plus-points are obvious:
It is biodegradable. Biodiesel is 98% degraded while diesel fuel is degraded only 40% at the end of 28 days
It decreases soot-emission by 50%.
Schematic Diagram of IC engine converted to run on Bio-diesel
Biodiesel- the Lifeline of the Future
In addition, the exhaust emissions of sulphur oxides and sulphates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are essentially eliminated compared to diesel.
Can Biodiesel help mitigate Global Warming ?
Biodiesel reduces net CO2 emissions by 78 percent compared to petroleum diesel. This is due to biodieselâ„¢s closed carbon cycle. The CO2 released into the atmosphere when biodiesel is burned is recycled by growing plants, which are later processed into fuel
Success Stories
"We have fully run Delhi-Amritsar Shatabadi Express on biodiesel. Now we plan to test biodiesel in automobiles. We have identified three depots in Rewari for plying Haryana roadways buses on the blended fuel says IOCL Chairman Mr.SARTHAK BEHURIA.
Bio-diesel processing cost in India is almost one-third of that in European countries and the US, says C. S. Jadhav, director (marketing) Nandan Biomatrix. Extracting bio-diesel in Europe costs around 0.799 euro while it costs between Rs 15 and Rs 17 in India, Jadhav added. Another successful attempt to use bio-diesel is taking place at Tata Motors in Pune where it is running 43 of its 150 bus fleet on 10% bio-diesel.
Business Strategies 4 Economic boost
With its vast wastelands, and the global community increasingly rooting for alternate fuels, India could well become the global sourcing hub for both feedstock and processed bio-diesel. The industry is expected to be a $2-billion revenue earner within the next three years.
If project and implimentationions of Petroleum ministry and Planning Commission get translated, India would attain a 20% mix of bio-diesel in all diesel run vehicles that will not only bring down the high dependability on crude oil import and create better environment but will also create 11 million jobs in the rural area.
India imports more than 70 per cent of its crude petroleum needs.
Biodiesel fuel as an alternative to petroleum based fuel
diesel fuel has many advantages
Fuel cost still plays a major role
Source material can affect biodiesel fuel properties substantially
While CO, HC and PM emissions are
reduced, NOx emissions may increase in some engines
Biodiesel shows some advantages over diesel fuel when Low Temperature Combustion

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This article is presented by:
Dan Anderson, Derek Masterson, Bill McDonald and Larry Sullivan
Crown Iron Works Company
Industrial Biodiesel Plant Design and Engineering: Practical Experience

The biodiesel process itself is more than just a chemical reaction. The practical aspects of how to turn an ordinary reaction in to a large full-scale industrial plant are of utmost importance. It has been proven that bench top reactions and equipment often to not properly scale up to full processing plant size, and biodiesel is no exception. Concerns for the feedstock such as fatty acid content, fatty acid profile, phosphorus, sulfur, moisture, and other various qualities are evaluated along with the overall cost of not taking time to tightly control these specifications. Biodiesel product specifications are also discussed, along with the variances in specifications from location to location and the significant differences of each. The importance of how to label or market the biodiesel is also a concern for all involved, as the media can quickly turn a small error into a worldwide embarrassment for the biodiesel community. Although the intent of making biodiesel is not to make glycerine, the glycerine component and its treatment are an important economic decision that will affect the overall profitability of the facility. This paper includes information learned during the recent construction of the largest US plant dedicated to biodiesel production. INTRODUCTION
The processes and production of biodiesel (methyl ester) from vegetable oil and animal fat feedstocks remain a strong growth market in the United States and Canada as well as the European Union. Currently, the U.S. and Canada methyl ester capacity is 200 million GPY (US gallons per year), or 700,000 MTPY (metric tons per year), and the Europeans are nearing 573 million GPY (2 million MTPY) of dedicated capacity. Expected market demand and production incentives suggest that volumes in these industrial markets could exceed 1.1 billion GPY (3.8 million MTPY) by 2007. Currently, 24 countries worldwide produce biodiesel, mostly in Europe, followed by the U.S. Other related oleochemical plant capacity and production data are confidential in nature; many existing oleochemical companies periodically divert methyl ester production to fuel markets. Current volumes consumed in Europe are approximately 345 million GPY (1.2 million MTPY) and the North American market reached only 20 million GPY (70,000 MTPY). These capacity and consumption numbers are generalized due to lack of formal reporting in some national markets, confidential plant capacity and production by companies, and the moving target nature of pinning these down over the last few years. (Austrian Biofuels Institute, 2002 and Bockey, 2002, U.S. Department of Energy, 2003).

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.doc   BIO-DIESEL.DOC (Size: 264 KB / Downloads: 157)

The Present world has been confronted with an energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems. Energy is consumed in different sectors like agriculture, commercial industry; transportation and domestic for the generation of power or mechanical energy. Current conventional resources are going to be exhausted in near future and hence alternative fuels like Biodiesel is to be used in place of diesel.Biodiesel is eco-friendly, renewable and hence sustainable. The Biodiesel production has not yet reached to the commercial level due to some technical and economical problems associated in its manufacture. Research is being conducted all over the world to make it a viable source of energy. This paper mainly focuses on its raw materials available, the process and the problems involved. The paper also explains about the various parameters that affect the process. Finally it concludes by highlighting its potential as a fuel of future providing energy security to India.
Biodiesel is a cleaner and environmental friendly fuel compared to diesel fuel which is obtained from petroleum processing. Biodiesel is a mono alkyl ester of long chain fatty acid derived from renewable lipid feed stock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is made from non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats. Fats and oils are chemically reacted with alcohols to produce chemical compounds called fatty acids(biodiesel).The by product glycerol is also commercially important product extensively used in pharmaceutical, soap and cosmetic industry. However the cost of biobiesel is yet to be made competent for its commercialization. The used vegetable oils can be the potential raw materials. Biodiesel can be used directly or mixed with petroleum based diesel.
India ranks high among the oil seed producing countries in the world with largest number of commercial varieties like rape seed, soyabean, cotton seed, pomgamia, palm, and jatropha etc.

Biodiesel is made from natural Resources. It is made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The raw materials that are used to extract oil in order to produce biodiesel are Jatropha, palm, soya bean, peanut, coconut. These crops can be grown for the production of biodiesel.
The below Graph shows the contribution of different vegetable oils towards biodiesel production
Methods of production
The other raw materials required are methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst.There are four methods to make biodiesel.
1. Blending with other fuels.
2. Micro emulsions
3. Thermal cracking or pyrolysis
4. Transesterification.
Of these transesterification is seems to promising,hence described in detail in this paper.
The transesterification reaction is affected by the molar ratio of raw materials used, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature , reaction time and free fatty acids, water content of oils or fats. The process of transesterification and down stream operation are also addressed.
Transesterification reaction
The transesterification process an alcohol (like methanol) reacts with the triglyceride oils contained in vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled greases, forming fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. The reaction requires heat and a strong base catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. The simplified transesterification reaction is shown below.
Triglycerides + Free Fatty Acids (<4%) + Alcohol ——> Alkyl esters + glycerin
Some feed stocks must be pretreated before they can go through the transesterification process. Feed stocks with less than 4% free fatty acids, which include vegetable oils and some food-grade animal fats, do not require pretreatment. Feed stocks with more than 4% free fatty acids, which include inedible animal fats and recycled greases, must be pretreated in an acid esterification process.
Triglycerides + Free Fatty Acids (>4%) + Alcohol ——> Alkyl esters + glycerin
Process Description.
• Acid Esterification. Oil feed stocks containing more than 4% free fatty acids go through an acid esterification process to increase the yield of biodiesel. These feed stocks are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants, and then fed to the acid esterification process. In this step, the feedstock is reacted with an alcohol (like methanol) in the presence of a strong acid catalyst (sulfuric acid), converting the free fatty acids into biodiesel. The remaining triglycerides are converted to biodiesel in the transesterification reaction.
• Transesterification. Oil feed stocks containing less than 4% free fatty acids are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants and then fed directly to the transesterification process along with any products of the acid esterification process. The catalyst, potassium hydroxide, is dissolved in methanol and then mixed with and the pretreated oil. If an acid esterification process is used, then extra base catalyst must be added to neutralize the acid added in that step. Once the reaction is complete, the major co-products, biodiesel and glycerin, are separated into two layers.
• Methanol recovery. The methanol is typically removed after the biodiesel and glycerin have been separated, to prevent the reaction from reversing itself and so the methanol is cleaned and recycled back.
• Biodiesel refining. Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel goes through a clean-up or purification process to remove excess alcohol, residual catalyst and soaps. This consists of one or more washings with clean water. It is then dried and sent to storage. Sometimes the biodiesel goes through an additional distillation step to produce a colorless, odorless, zero-sulfur biodiesel.
• Glycerin refining. The glycerin by-product contains unreacted catalyst and soaps that are neutralized with an acid. Water and alcohol are removed to produce 50%-80% crude glycerin. The remaining contaminants include unreacted fats and oils. In large biodiesel plants, the glycerin can be further purified, to 99% or higher purity, for sale to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries
The majority of the alkyl esters produced today are done with the base catalysed reaction because it is th most economic for several reasons:
Low temperature(150F) and pressure(20 psi)processing, high conversion(98%)with minimal side reactions and reaction time, direct conversion to methyl esters with no intermediate steps, exotic materials of construction are not necessary.
 Motor fuel
Biodiesel as self-contained renewable fuel has been applied in Diesel engines for decades.
 Fuel additive / biocomponent
Biodiesel is used as fuel additive for several reasons. some of them are:
 To increase and speed-up the deployment of vehicle. Biodiesel is used as an alternative fuel .
 underground mining
Diesel-powered equipment is used in underground mines because it is more powerful and mobile than electric-powered equipment. However, diesel emissions in the enclosed environments of underground mines pose a significant health hazard to mine workers.
 oil spillage remediation
Biodiesel has excellent biodegradability in soil and ground water. It is even used to help clean up mineral oil slicks.
 Other industries:
Biodiesel due to its unique properties has several uses in industries:
 food industry
 detergent industry
 pharmaceutical industry
 Chemical industry (paints, lubricants etc.)
 fine chemicals
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There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (non edible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) was investigated in this work. Conditions for transesterification process of rapeseed oil were 1.8 % H2SO4 as catalyst, MeOH/oil of molar ratio 2:0.1 and reaction temperature 65 °C, for a period of 3h. The yield of methyl ester was > 90 % in 1h.
Biodiesel is becoming widely available in most parts of the U.S. and can be substituted for petroleum-based diesel fuel ("petro diesel") in virtually any standard unmodified diesel engine. Biodiesel offers many advantages over petroleum-based diesel:
• It is made from domestically produced and renewable agricultural products, mainly vegetable oil or animal fat.
• It is essentially non-toxic and biodegradable.
• It has a high flash point (over 300ºF) and is difficult to light on fire with a match.
• It reduces emissions of many toxic air pollutants.
• It functions as an excellent fuel lubricant and performs similarly to low-sulfur diesel with regards to power, torque, and fuel consumption.
• It can greatly reduce carbon emissions.

Biodiesel can, in theory, be used in all diesel engines. However, due to the parts attached to the diesel engine, some manufacturers do not approve engines running on 100% biodiesel.
Biodiesel’s chemical name is "Fatty-Acid Methyl Ester". This fancy name means it is a simple molecule made from vegetable oil. This fuel has a high energy content and a proper viscosity “willingness to flow” to be used in all diesel vehicles and equipment. It’s made from a naturally grown crop making its energy from the sun.

Biodiesel in its pure (100 percent) form is known as neat biodiesel or B100. It can be readily blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. A B20 blend, for example, is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent petro diesel.
Different blends serve different purposes. Small amounts of biodiesel (B1-B2) add lubrication to low-sulfur fuels. Blends in the B20 to B50 range provide significant environmental benefits with a low increase in cost to consumers. Blending also reduces the likelihood of the solvency, material incompatibility, or cold weather problems discussed below.

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.doc   Biodiesel.doc (Size: 45.5 KB / Downloads: 33)

Biodiesel is a clean-burning diesel fuel additive produced from various vegetable sources instead of petroleum. It is used in compression ignition (diesel) engines to enhance engine combustion performance, improve engine lubrication, and reduce air pollution caused by the exhaust. Biodiesel blends operate efficiently in diesel engines. This investigation was carried out to study the effect of preheating of peanut oil blends on performance and emission characteristics in a single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine. The performance and emission characteristics of PHPO – diesel blend mixed in the proportion of 20:80 by volume (B20) were studied for 0hr, 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr pre-heating. The engine performance and emission studies were conducted with a prony brake-diesel engine set up. Various performance and emission parameters were measured at different loads for pure diesel and B20 blend. The test results indicate that the B20 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications.
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