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CAMPUS INFO SYSTEM
MINI PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by ARUN K.S. ROMERO A.P. RONY THAMPI VISHNUPRASAD R.
In a typical campus scenario, the access for a student to details such as his/her internal marks, monthly attendance reports etc. is available only through notice board. The main aim of our system is to make this information accessible through out the campus LAN.
Here we use a web based system so that the access can be from any system connected to the
network irrespective of the OS. There are different access privileges for students, tutors, HODs etc. The access to different data is based on the user's privilege. New user accounts can be created only by a higher privileged user. Detailed report of the students and teachers are available to users with enough access rights. There is also an option for students to write feedback on their teachers. Another feature of the system facilitates the students to keep track of their previous exam's details such as register number through the scratch pad provided by the system. An online library is provided for uploading and downloading ebooks. The overall system is designed in such a way that the students as well as teachers can keep track of their academic details easily and efficiently.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. MODULES 2
3. SYSTEM STUDY 9
3.1 STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM 9
3.2 STUDY OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 9
3.3 INTRODUCTION TO .NET 9
3.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF .NET 10
184.108.40.206 Consistent programming model 10
220.127.116.11 Direct support for security 11
18.104.22.168 Simplified development efforts 11
22.214.171.124 Easy application deployment and maintenance 12
3.3.2 NET FRAME WORK 12
3.4 INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER 2005 14
4 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 16
4.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY 16
4.1.1 Operation Feasibility 16
4.1.2 Technical Feasibility 16
4.1.3 Economic Feasibility 17
5 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 18
5.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT S 18
5.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT S 18
5.3 LANGUAGES USED 18
6 SYSTEM DESIGN 21
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN 21
6.2 INPUT DESIGN 22
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN 22
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN 23
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN 23
6.6 DATABASE DESIGN 24 6.6.1 Normalization 25
7 CODING 26
8 SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION 27
8.1 SYSTEM TESTING 28
8.1.1 Unit testing 28
8.1.2 Module level testing 29
8.1.3 Integration & system testing 29
8.1.4 Regression testing 29
8.2 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 29
8.2.1 Implementation methods 30
8.2.2 Implementation plan 30
9 FIGURES 31
9.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 31
9.2 SCREEN SHOTS 33 10 CONCLUSION 44
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE TABLE NAME PAGE
2.1 CISLOGIN 4
2.2 CISLOGIN 6
2.3 CISSNG 6
2.4 CISSETTINGS 7
2.5 CISSTAFF 7
2.6 CISSTUDENT 8
2.7 CISNOTICE 8
2.8 CISCOMPLAINT 9
2.9 CISFEEDBACK 9
2.10 CISSCRATCH 10
2.11 CISLIBRARY 10
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE FIGURE NAME PAGE
2.1 NAVIGATION USING TREEVIEW 5
3.1 SQL SERVER 2005 SECURITY 17
9.1 LEVEL 0 DFD 34
9.2 LEVEL 1 DFD 35
9.3 LOGIN FORM 36
9.4 STUDENT REGISTRATION FORM 37
9.5 STAFF REGISTRATION FORM 38
9.6 ADMINISTRATOR HOME PAGE 39
9.7 ADMINISTRATOR ADVANCED PAGE 40
9.8 GROUP TUTOR ADVANCED PAGE 41
9.9 STAFF BIODATA PAGE 42
9.10 NOTICE BOARD FORM 43
9.11 DEPARTMENT VIEW 44
9.12 SEMESTER VIEW 45
9.13 COMPLAINT BOX FORM 46
9.14 NOTICE BOARD 47
9.15 SCRATCH PAD 48
9.16 ONLINE LIBRARY 49
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT
In a typical campus scenario, the access for a student to details such as his/her internals, monthly attendance reports etc. is available only through notice board. The main aim of our system is to make this information accessible through out the campus LAN.
Here a web based system is used so that the access can be from any system connected to the network irrespective of the OS. There are different access privileges for students, tutors, HODs etc. The access to different data is based on the user's privilege. New user accounts can be created only by a higher privileged user. Detailed report of the students and teachers are available to users with enough access rights. There is also an option for students to write feedback on their teachers. The overall system is designed in such a way that the students as well as teachers can keep track of their academic details easily and efficiently
The system is divided into four modules as follows:
Page and form design
Access and control flow, based on privileges
Database Management tasks
CHAPTER 2 MODULES
Campus Info System is expected to maintain quality through out the project and implimentation lifecycle. The different modules are given below.
Page and form design
This module deals with the design of the pages and forms and the navigation of the entire site. Great care has been made to make the system as user friendly as possible so that even a novice user can make use of the system. The style design is based on Cascaded Style Sheets. Master-content page model is used in creating the pages, that is, all the pages used in this site inherits a common layout from a master page along with their own contents.
Page used in our web page can be grouped into three,
Â¢ Interactive pages
These are pages which interact with the user. Theses pages acts as an interface between the user and the system. Interactive pages used in the project and implimentation are,
Â¢ Non-interactive pages
These pages have no direct interaction with the user. These pages are mainly used for internal working of the site and for control flow.
1. Redirect page
2. Install page.
These pages are used to input data into the database. It accepts a record of data and passes it into the database.
Â¢ Login management
This module deals with the logging in , session setting and associated database connections. The user uses admission number(in case of students) or staff code(for staffs). As a user logs in, he is taken to the appropriate section of the system with resources specific to him. As a user logs, in appropriate session variables such as privilege is initialized to appropriate values so that they can be accessed from any parts of the system.
Based on the access privileges, users can be classified into five types, they are
Â¢ Head Of Department
Â¢ Group tutors
Administrator is having the highest privilege level. The account for administrator is automatically created at the time of installation of the web site. He is responsible for initializing the registration of other users except the guest. The administrator first creates the account for Head of departments. HOD in turn creates the group tutor account of the department in charge, and group tutor creates students account of the semester in charge. The users can later change the password.
To store the data required for the management of logging, cis_login table is used. The structure of the table is as follows
Access and control flow, based on privileges
This module deals with directing of control flow and access to various pages based on the values of session variables set. Accessing a page is done by evaluating the access and privilege levels. Each page has its own checking mechanism for checking access privileges.
The control is first given to the redirect page which decides the privilege and directs the control to the appropriate pages. Control flow redirection is an important task since the security of the entire web site is based on it. To control the access flow Query string passing method is used. The Query strings are passed along with the web page addresses. In the redirect page these query strings are evaluated and based on the access privilege levels, appropriate pages are loaded.
The navigation tool used in this website is Lists, MultiView and TreeView. Using TreeView navigation through the paged in the website can be done. The TreeView control is mainly used for the navigation through different department and semester details. Lists and multiviews are used to navigate among different services of a user.
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Fig 2.1 : Navigation using TreeView
Database Management tasks
This section deals with the database management routines such as granting access to different users with different privilege levels.
Database used is sql database and for establishing connection with the database, OLEDB connection is used. Data is read and written from/to the database through pages and forms. The CIS uses data readers and sqldatasources to perform this task.
Ten tables are used, of which three are used for the internal working of website, two are used for storing details about users and three are used for storing other data like notice board contents, feedback on tutors etc. Different types of tables used are as follows,
Tables for the internal working of website,
Table 2.2 : cis_login
Column Name Data Type Length Allow Nulls
f userid varchar 50
username varchar 50 V
password varchar 10 V
privilege int 4 V
Column Name Data Type Length Allow Nulls
semstatus int 4
feedback int 4
Table for storing data about users, Â¢ CISSTAFF
Column Name Data Type Length Allow Nulls
T stdid varchar 20
stdname varchar 50
batch varchar 30 V
admissionno varchar 20
dept varchar 50
sem char 6
rollno int 4 V
regno varchar 20
guard varchar 50 V
sex char 6
dob datetime 8 V
phone varchar 20 V
address varchar 100
aggrt Float 8
atnd int 4
imgpath varchar 100
Tables for storing other data,
Column Name Data Type Length Allow Nulls
slno int 4
[date] datetime 8 V
title varchar 100
content varchar 8000
Column Name Data Type Length Allow Nulls .
* id varchar 50
scratch varchar 8000
CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM STUDY
System study aims at establishing requests for the system to be acquired, developed and installed. It involves studying and analyzing the ways of an organization currently processing the data to produce information. Analyzing the problem thoroughly forms the vital part of the system study. In system analysis, prevailing situation of problem carefully examined by breaking them into sub problems. Problematic areas are identified and information is collected. Data gathering is essential to any analysis of requests. It is necessary that this analysis familiarizes the designer with objectives, activities and the function of the organization in which the system is to be implemented.
3.1 STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM
Today in colleges student details are entered manually. The student details in separate records are tedious task. Referring to all these records and updating is needed. There is a chance for more manual errors.
3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM
By developing the system following facilities can be attained.
Â¢ Easy to handle and feasible.
Â¢ Cost reduction.
Â¢ Fast and convenient.
3.3 INTRODUCTION TO NET
This proposed software is going to be developed using the latest technology from Microsoft called Microsoft. NET and it is the software that connects information, people, systems, and devices. It spans clients, servers, and developer tools, and consists of:
The .NET Framework 1.1, used for building and running all kinds of software, including Web-based applications, smart client applications, and XML Web servicesâ€components that facilitate integration by sharing data and functionality over a network through standard, platform-independent protocols such as XML (Extensible Markup Language), SOAP, and HTTP.
Developer tools, such as Microsoft Visual Studio.NET 2003, which provides an integrated development environment (IDE) for maximizing developer productivity with the .NET Framework.
A set of servers, including Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft SQL Server, and Microsoft BizTalk Server, that integrates, runs, operates, and manages Web services and Web-based applications.
Client software, such as Windows XP, Windows CE, and Microsoft Office XP, that helps developers deliver a deep and compelling user experience across a family of devices and existing products
3.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF .NET
The .NET Framework offers a number of advantages to developers. The following paragraphs describe them in detail.
126.96.36.199 Consistent programming model
Different programming languages have different approaches for doing a task. For example, accessing data with a VB 6.0 application and a VC++ application is totally different. When using different programming languages to do a task, a disparity exists among the approach developers use to perform the task. The difference in techniques comes from how different languages interact with the underlying system that applications rely on.
With .NET, for example, accessing data with a VB .NET and a C# .NET looks very similar apart from slight syntactical differences. Both the programs need to import the System. Data namespace, both the programs establish a connection with the database and both the programs run a query and display the data on a data grid. The VB 6.0 and VC++ example mentioned in the first paragraph explains that there is more than one way to do a particular task within the same language. The .NET example explains that there's a unified means of accomplishing the same task by using the .NET Class Library, a key component of the .NET Framework.
The functionality that the .NET Class Library provides is available to all .NET languages resulting in a consistent object model regardless of the programming language the developer uses.
188.8.131.52 Direct support for security
Developing an application that resides on a local machine and uses local resources is easy. In this scenario, security isn't an issue as all the resources are available and accessed locally. Consider an application that accesses data on a remote machine or has to perform a privileged task on behalf of a no privileged user. In this scenario security is much more important as the application is accessing data from a remote machine.
With .NET, the Framework enables the developer and the system administrator to specify method level security. It uses industry-standard protocols such as TCP/IP, XML, SOAP and HTTP to facilitate distributed application communications. This makes distributed computing more secure because .NET developers cooperate with network security devices instead of working around their security limitations.
184.108.40.206 Simplified development efforts
Let's take a look at this with Web applications. With classic ASP, when a developer needs to present data from a database in a Web page, he is required to write the application logic (code) and presentation logic (design) in the same file. He was required to mix the ASP code with the HTML code to get the desired result.
ASP.NET and the .NET Framework simplify development by separating the application logic and presentation logic making it easier to maintain the code. Design code (presentation logic) and the actual code (application logic) separated eliminating the need to mix HTML code with ASP code. ASP.NET can also handle the details of maintaining the state of the controls, such as contents in a textbox, between calls to the same ASP.NET page.
Another advantage of creating applications is debugging. Visual Studio .NET and other third party providers provide several debugging tools that simplify application development. The .NET Framework simplifies debugging with support for Runtime diagnostics. Runtime diagnostics helps to track down bugs and also helps to determine how well an application performs. The .NET Framework provides three types of Runtime diagnostics: Event Logging, Performance Counters and tracing.
220.127.116.11 Easy application deployment and maintenance
The .NET Framework makes it easy to deploy applications. In the most common form, to install an application, copy the application along with the components it requires into a directory on the target computer. The .NET Framework handles the details of locating and loading the components an application needs, even if several versions of the same application exist on the target computer. The .NET Framework ensures that all the components the application depends on are available on the computer before the application begins to execute.
3.3.2 .NET FRAMEWORK ARCHITECTURE
18.104.22.168 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)
The most important component of the .NET Framework lies within the Common Language Infrastructure, or CLI. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-agnostic platform for application development and execution, including, but not limited to, components for exception handling, garbage collection, security, and interoperability. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime, or CLR. The CLR is composed of four primary parts:
Â¢ Common Type System (CTS)
Â¢ Common Language Specification (CLS)
Â¢ Just-In-Time Compiler (JIT)
Â¢ Virtual Execution System (VES)
The intermediate CIL code is housed in .NET assemblies, which for the Windows implementation means a Portable Executable (PE) file (EXE or DLL). Assemblies are the .NET unit of deployment, versioning and security. The assembly consists of one or more files, but one of these must contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly. The complete name of an assembly contains its simple text name, version number, culture and public key token; it must contain the name, but the others are optional. The public key token is generated when the assembly is created, and is a value that uniquely represents the name and contents of all the assembly files, and a private key known only to the creator of the assembly. Two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical. If an assembly is tampered with (for example, by hackers), the public key can be used to detect the tampering.
All CIL is Self-Describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks on metadata to ensure that the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers can create their own metadata through custom attributes. Metadata also contain all the information about assembly.
22.214.171.124 Base Class Library (BCL)
The Base Class Library (BCL), sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL) (which is a superset including the Microsoft.* namespaces), is a library of classes available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation, and so forth. The BCL is much larger than other libraries, but has much more functionality in one package.
.NET has its own security mechanism, with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS), and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated with a specific assembly. Typically the evidence is the source of the assembly (whether it is installed on the local machine, or has been downloaded from the intranet or Internet). Code Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to perform a call stack walk: every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the required permission and if any assembly is not granted the permission then a security exception is thrown. When an assembly is loaded the CLR performs various tests. Two such tests are validation and verification. During validation the CLR checks that the assembly contains valid metadata and CIL, and it checks that the internal tables are correct. Verification is not so exact. The verification mechanism checks to see if the code does anything that is 'unsafe'. The algorithm used is quite conservative and hence sometimes code that is 'safe' is not verified. Unsafe code will only be executed if the assembly has the 'skip verification' permission, which generally means code that is installed on the local machine.
3.4 INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER 2005
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 is comprehensive, integrated data management and analysis software that enables organizations to reliably manage mission-critical information and confidently run today's increasingly complex business applications. SQL Server 2005 allows companies to gain greater insight from their business information and achieve faster results for a competitive advantage.
Â¢ SQL Server 2005 is the Data Platform leader
Â¢ Server is the fastest growing Database and Business Intelligence vendor
Â¢ SQL Server ships more units than Oracle and IBM combined
Â¢ SQL Server is the #1 OLAP Server on the market
Â¢ SQL Server is more secure than Oracle
Since July 2003 more than 100 critical Oracle database security vulnerabilities have been identified, compared to ZERO for SQL Server for that period.
SQL Server Manages the World's Largest Databases
Security, Privacy, Reliability, and Business Practices are the driving forces of the Microsoft Trustworthy Computing initiative. Security is a key feature of SQL Server 2005, which provides confidentiality, integrity, and availability of mission-critical data. As part of our focus on technology investments, Microsoft takes a "defense-in-depth" approach to protect and align three core elements: fundamentals, threat and vulnerability mitigation, and identity and access control. Microsoft commits significant resources toward enhancing privacy protection, from the software itself to the services and products it offer customers to help them manage the privacy of their information. Microsoft addresses reliability by providing dependable software and support. It also provide value by being a reliable business partner, maintaining an open dialogue with customers and industry partners, and actively seeking feedback about improving software and services.
CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM ANALYSIS
The primary goal of the system analyst is to improve the efficiency of the existing system. For that the study of specification of the requirements is very essential. For the development of the new system, a preliminary survey of the existing system will be conducted. Investigation is done whether the upgradation of the system into an application program could solve the problems and eradicate the inefficiency of the existing system.
4.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY
The initial investigation points to the question whether the project and implimentation is feasible. A feasibility is conducted to identify the best system that meets the all the requirements. This includes an identification description, an evaluation of the proposed systems and selection of the best system for the job. The requirements of the system are specified with a set of constraints such as system objectives and the description of the out puts. It is then duty of the analyst to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system to generate the above results. Three key factors are to be considered during the feasibility study.
4.1.1 Operation Feasibility
An estimate should be made to determine how much effort and care will go into the developing of the system including the training to be given to the user. Usually, people are reluctant to changes that come in their progression. The computer initialization will certainly affected the turn over, transfer and employee job status. Hence an additional effort is to be made to train and educate the users on the new way of the system.
4.1.2 Technical Feasibility
The main consideration is to be given to the study of available resources of the organization where the software is to be implemented. Here the system analyst evaluates the technical merits of the system giving emphasis on the performance, Reliability, maintainability and productivity.
By taking the consideration before developing the proposed system, the resources availability of the organization was studied. The organization was immense computer facilities equipped with sophisticated machines and the software hence this technically feasible.
4.1.3 Economic Feasibility
Economic feasibility is the most important and frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system. It is very essential because the main goal of the proposed system is to have economically better result along with increased efficiency. Cost benefit analysis is usually performed for this purpose. It is the comparative study of the cost verses the benefit and savings that are expected from the proposed system. Since the organization is well equipped with the required hard ware, the project and implimentation was found to be economically.
5.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
: Pentium IV or above
: 512 MB RAM(min)
: 80 GB Hard disk
Network Interface : 10/100 Mbps NIC plugged to LAN
5.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
: MS Windows XP/VISTA/2003 Server
: Visual Studio 2005
: Microsoft SQL Server 2005
Other Application Softwares : Microsoft Office 2007, Mozilla Firefox 2.0 5.3 SOFTWARE FEATURES
5.3.1 Languages Used: VB.NET
Visual Basic .NET provides the easiest, most productive language and tool for rapidly building Windows and Web applications. Visual Basic .NET comes with enhanced visual designers, increased application performance, and a powerful integrated development environment (IDE). It also supports creation of applications for wireless, Internet-enabled hand-held devices. The following are the features of Visual Basic .NET with .NET Framework 1.0 and Visual Basic .NET 2003 with .NET Framework 1.1. This also answers why should I use Visual Basic .NET, what can I do with it
Powerful Windows-based Applications
Visual Basic .NET comes with features such as a powerful new forms designer, an in-place menu editor, and automatic control anchoring and docking. Visual Basic .NET delivers new productivity features for building more robust applications easily and quickly. With an improved integrated development environment (IDE) and a significantly reduced startup time, Visual Basic .NET offers fast, automatic formatting of code as type, improved IntelliSense, an enhanced object browser and XML designer, and much more.
Building Web-based Applications
With Visual Basic .NET, Web applications using the shared Web Forms Designer and the familiar "drag and drop" feature can be created. Also can write code to respond to events. Visual Basic .NET 2003 comes with an enhanced HTML Editor for working with complex Web pages. IntelliSense technology and tag completion, or choose the WYSIWYG editor can be used for visual authoring of interactive Web applications.
With Visual Basic .NET applications can be made more rapidly and deploy and maintain them with efficiency. Visual Basic .NET 2003 and .NET Framework 1.1 makes "DLL Hell" a thing of the past. Side-by-side versioning enables multiple versions of the same component to live safely on the same machine so that applications can use a specific version of a component. XCOPY-deployment and Web auto-download of Windows-based applications combine the simplicity of Web page deployment and maintenance with the power of rich, responsive Windows-based applications.
Powerful, Flexible, Simplified Data Access
Any data access scenario can be tackled easily with ADO.NET and ADO data access. The flexibility of ADO.NET enables data binding to any database, as well as classes, collections, and arrays, and provides true XML representation of data. Seamless access to ADO enables simple data access for connected data binding scenarios. Using ADO.NET, Visual Basic .NET can gain highÃ‚Â¬speed access to MS SQL Server, Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access, and more.
Faster and more effective coding. A multitude of enhancements to the code editor, including enhanced IntelliSense, smart listing of code for greater readability and a background compiler for real-time notification of syntax errors transforms into a rapid application development (RAD) coding machine.
Direct Access to the Platform
Visual Basic developers can have full access to the capabilities available in .NET Framework 1.1. Developers can easily program system services including the event log, performance counters and file system. The new Windows Service project and implimentation template enables to build real Microsoft Windows NT Services. Programming against Windows Services and creating new Windows Services is not available in Visual Basic .NET Standard, it requires Visual Studio 2003 Professional, or higher.
Full Object-Oriented Constructs
Reusable, enterprise-class code using full object-oriented constructs can be created. Language features include full implementation inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism. Structured exception handling provides a global error handler and eliminates spaghetti code.
XML Web Services
XML Web services enable to call components running on any platform using open Internet protocols. Working with XML Web services is easier where enhancements simplify the discovery and consumption of XML Web services that are located within any firewall. XML Web services can be built as easily as that would build any class in Visual Basic 6.0. The XML Web service project and implimentation template builds all underlying Web service infrastructure.
Visual Basic .NET 2003 and the .NET Framework 1.1 offer integrated support for developing mobile Web applications for more than 200 Internet-enabled mobile devices. These new features give developers a single, mobile Web interface and programming model to support a broad range of Web devices, including WML 1.1 for WAPâ€enabled cellular phones, compact HTML (cHTML) for i-Mode phones, and HTML for Pocket PC, handheld devices, and pagers. Please note, Pocket PC programming is not available in Visual Basic .NET Standard, it requires Visual Studio 2003 Professional, or higher.
Can maintain existing code without the need to recode. COM interoperability enables to leverage existing code assets and offers seamless bi-directional communication between Visual Basic 6.0 and Visual Basic .NET applications.
Reuse Existing Investments
All ActiveX Controls can be reused. Windows Forms in Visual Basic .NET 2003 provide a robust container for existing ActiveX controls. In addition, full support for existing ADO code and data binding enable a smooth transition to Visual Basic .NET 2003.
CHAPTER 6 SYSTEM DESIGN
System design is the solution to the creation of a new system. This phase is composed of several systems. This phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the feasible system. It emphasis on translating design specifications to performance specification. System design has two phases of development logical and physical design.
During logical design phase the analyst describes inputs (sources), out puts (destinations), databases (data sores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meats the uses requirements. The analyst also specifies the user needs and at a level that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the data resources. Here the logical design is done through data flow diagrams and database design.
The physical design is followed by physical design or coding. Physical design produces the working system by defining the design specifications, which tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. The programmers write the necessary programs that accept input from the user, perform necessary processing on accepted data through call and produce the required report on a hard copy or display it on the screen.
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN
Logical design of an information system shows the major features and also how they are related to one another. The first step of the system design is to design logical design elements. This is the most creative and challenging phase and important too. Design of proposed system produces the details of the state how the system will meet the requirements identified during the system analysis that is, in the design phase it is to be find how to solve the difficulties faced by the existing system. The logical design of the proposed system should include the details that contain how the solutions can be implemented. It also specifies how the database is to be built for storing and retrieving data, what kind of reports are to be created and what are the inputs to be given to the system. The logical design includes input design, output design, and database design and physical design
6.2 INPUT DESIGN
The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data into a usable form for processing data entry. The activity of putting data into the computer for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required, controlling errors, avoiding delay, avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple.
The system needs the data regarding the asset items, depreciation rates, asset transfer, physical verification for various validation, checking, calculation and report generation.. The error raising method is also included in the software, which helps to raise error message while wrong entry of input is done. So in input design the following things are considered.
o What data should be given as input
o How the data should be arranged or coded
o The dialogue to guide the operating personnel in providing input.
o Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur
o The samples of screen layout are given in the appendix.
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN
Computer output is the most important and direct information source to the user. Output design is a process that involves designing necessary outputs in the form of reports that should be given to the users according to the requirements. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the system's relationship with the user and help in decision making. Since the reports are directing referred by the management for taking decisions and to draw conclusions they must be designed with almost care and the details in the reports must be simple, descriptive and clear to the user. So while designing output the following things are to be considered.
o Determine what information to present
o Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format o Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipts
Depending on the nature and future use of output required, they can be displayed on the monitor for immediate need and for obtaining the hardcopy. The options for the output reports are given in the appendix.
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN
The process of developing the program software is referred to as physical design. Process by identifying reports and the other outputs the system will produce should be designed. Coding the program for each module with its logic is performed in this step. Proper software specification is also done in this step.
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN
A software system is always divided into several sub systems that makes it easier for the development. A software system that is structured into several subsystems makes it easy for the development and testing. The different subsystems are known as the modules and the process of dividing an entire system into subsystems is known as modularization or decomposition.
A system cannot be decomposed into several subsystems in any way. There must some logical barrier, which facilitates the separation of each module. The separation must be simple but yet must be effective so that the development is not affected.
The system under consideration has been divided into several modules taking in consideration the above-mentioned criteria. The different modules are
Â¢ Page and form design
Â¢ Login management
Â¢ Access and control flow based on privileges
Â¢ Database Management tasks
6.6 DATABASE DESIGN
The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. DBMS allow data to be protected and organized separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of data. The most significant form of data as seen by the programmers is data as stored on the direct access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
Database files are the key source of information into the system. It is the process of designing database files, which are the key source of information to the system. The files should be properly designed and planned for collection, accumulation, editing and retrieving the required information.
The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: -
Â¢ Data integration.
Â¢ Data integrity.
Â¢ Data independence.
The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS SQL SERVER database. This database contains tables, where each table corresponds to one particular type of information. Each piece of information in table is called a field or column. A table also contains records, which is a set of fields. All records in a table have the same set of fields with different information. There are primary key fields that uniquely identify a record in a table. There are also fields that contain primary key from another table called foreign keys.
Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large table in to a smaller one. It is also used to avoid insertion, deletion and updating anomalies. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form. In short the rules for each of the three normal forms are as below.
Â¢ First normal form
A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain simple individual values.
Â¢ Second normal form
The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on candidate key of the table.
Â¢ Third normal form
The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency. A relation in 2NF is said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitively.
The goal of the coding phase is to translate the design. The aim in this phase is to implement the design in the best possible manner. Well known code can reduce the testing and maintenance effort. During coding, the focus should on developing programs that are easy to read and understand and not simply on developing the programs that are easy to write. Simplicity and clarity should be strived for during the code phase. An important concept that helps the understandability of the programs is structured programming. The program that should be organized as a sequence of statements and during execution of the statements is executed in the sequence given in the program. There are many different criteria for judging of the program, execution time and required memory.
CHAPTER 8 SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION
8.1 SYSTEM TESTING
System testing is a critical aspect of Software Quality Assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test is one that has a probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. The purpose of testing is to identify and correct bugs in the developed system. Nothing is complete without testing. Testing is the vital to the success of the system.
In the code testing the logic of the developed system is tested. For this every module of the program is executed to find an error. To perform specification test, the examination of the specifications stating what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions.
Unit testing focuses first on the modules in the proposed system to locate errors. This enables to detect errors in the coding and logic that are contained within that module alone. Those resulting from the interaction between modules are initially avoided. In unit testing step each module has to be checked separately.
System testing does not test the software as a whole, but rather than integration of each module in the system. The primary concern is the compatibility of individual modules. One has to find areas where modules have been designed with different specifications of data lengths, type and data element name.
Testing and validation are the most important steps after the implementation of the developed system. The system testing is performed to ensure that there are no errors in the implemented system. The software must be executed several times in order to find out the errors in the different modules of the system.
Validation refers to the process of using the new software for the developed system in a live environment i.e., new software inside the organization, in order to find out the errors. The validation phase reveals the failures and the bugs in the developed system. It will be come to know about the practical difficulties the system faces when operated in the true environment. By testing the code of the implemented software, the logic of the program can be examined. A specification test is conducted to check whether the specifications stating the program are performing under various conditions. Apart from these tests, there are some special tests conducted which are given below:
Peak Load Tests: This determines whether the new system will handle the volume of activities when the system is at the peak of its processing demand. The test has revealed that the new software for the agency is capable of handling the demands at the peak time.
Storage Testing: This determines the capacity of the new system to store transaction data on a disk or on other files. The proposed software has the required storage space available, because of the use of a number of hard disks.
Performance Time Testing: This test determines the length of the time used by the system to process transaction data.
In this phase the software developed Testing is exercising the software to uncover errors and ensure the system meets defined requirements. Testing may be done at 4 levels
Â¢ Unit Level
Â¢ Module Level
Â¢ Integration & System
8.1.1 Unit Testing
A Unit corresponds to a screen /form in the package. Unit testing focuses on verification of the corresponding class or Screen. This testing includes testing of control paths, interfaces, local data structures, logical decisions, boundary conditions, and error handling. Unit testing may use Test Drivers, which are control programs to co-ordinate test case inputs and outputs, and Test stubs, which replace low-level modules. A stub is a dummy subprogram.
8.1.2 Module Level Testing
Module Testing is done using the test cases prepared earlier. Module is defined during the time of design.
8.1.3 Integration And System Testing
Integration testing is used to verify the combining of the software modules. Integration testing addresses the issues associated with the dual problems of verification and program construction. System testing is used to verify, whether the developed system meets the requirements.
8.1.4 Regression Testing
Each modification in software impacts unmodified areas, which results serious injuries to that software. So the process of re-testing for rectification of errors due to modification is known as regression testing.
Installation and Delivery:
Installation and Delivery is the process of delivering the developed and tested software to the customer. Refer the support procedures.
Acceptance and Project Closure:
Acceptance is the part of the project and implimentation by which the customer accepts the product. This will be done as per the Project Closure, once the customer accepts the product, closure of the project and implimentation is started. This includes metrics collection, PCD, etc.
8.2 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. The old system consists of manual operations, which is operated in a very different manner from the proposed new system. A proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the requirements of the organizations. An improper installation may affect the success of the computerized system.
8.2.1 Implementation Methods:
There are several methods for handling the implementation and the consequent conversion from the old to the new computerized system.
The most secure method for conversion from the old system to the new system is to run the old and new system in parallel. In this approach, a person may operate in the manual older processing system as well as start operating the new computerized system. This method offers high security, because even if there is a flaw in the computerized system, manual system can also be used. However, the cost for maintaining two systems in parallel is very high. This outweighs its benefits.
Another commonly method is a direct cut over from the existing manual system to the computerized system. The change may be with in a week or with in a day. There are no parallel activities. However, there is no remedy in case of a problem. This strategy requires careful planning.
A working version of the system can also be implemented in one part of the organization and the personnel will be piloting the system and changes can be made as and when required. But this method is less preferable due to the loss of entirety of the system.
8.2.2 Implementation Plan:
The implementation plan includes a description of all the activities that must occur to implement the new system and to put it into operation. It identifies the personnel responsible for the activities and prepares a time chart for implementing the system. The implementation plan consists of the following steps.
Â¢ List all files required for implementation.
Â¢ Identify all data required to build new files during the implementation.
Â¢ List all new documents and procedures that go into the new system.
The implementation plan should anticipate possible problems and must be able to deal with them. The usual problems may be missing documents; mixed data formats between current and files, errors in data translation, missing data etc.
CHAPTER 9 FIGURES
The different modules, forms and tables in our system are displayed here. 9.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
The following dataflow diagrams show the control flow in our system.
Ã‚Â± . *
ACCESS BASED ACCESS TO
Fig 9.2 : LEVEL 2 DFD
ON PRIVILEGE DATABASE
9.2 SCREEN SHOTS
9.2.1 Login Page And Registration Forms
These forms are used to register users and for login purposes.
Fig 9.3 : Login page
Users are logged in to the system using this form. It is the first page shown while accessing the system. Registered as well as guest users can access the system from here.
This form is used to register new students by the higher privileged users
This form is used for registering staff by higher privileged users.
This is the administrator homepage. Users with administrator privileges are redirected to this page upon logon.
This page is for managing administrative tasks such as department creation, assigning HOD
This page is for managing semester for Group tutors, such as, viewing student in the semester in charge, link to register new students etc.
This is staff biodata page which can be viewed only by higher privilege users.
This is the notice board form used by the administrator to publish notices.
9.2.3 General Pages
Fig 9.11 : Department View
The page is shown when administrator chooses a department from tree view
The page is shown when administrator chooses a semester from tree view
This form is used to post complaints by any users. The system is anonymous in nature.
This is the notice board page. Here the latest events posted by the administrator are displayed.
Each registered users have their own scratchpads. Users can store small notes here.
This is Online library can be utilized by any user. Users can upload and download E-books.
The system has been developed with much care that it is free of errors and at the same time it is efficient and less time consuming. The important thing is that the system is robust. Avoid malfunction from outsiders .It goes through all phases of software development cycle. So product is accurate. Also provision is provided for future developments in the system.
The current application developed is in accordance with the request that has been provided by the organization. On regarding the future enhancement, the application can further expanded in accordance with changing scenario. Since the change in testing and user needs arises frequently in certain short intervals of time, the application can be further upgraded to meet the requirements that may arise in the far or near future. With regarding to the needs that arises, more and more features can be included by adding it as separate modules and integrate it with the existing system.
The .NET today is based on OOPs concept, whose main advantage is modularity, which helps us in adding the future needs as add-on modules to work with the main system which can be done effortlessly instead of rewriting or modifying the entire application. So the scope of future enhancement is absolutely clear with the concept that is incorporated in the today that was made used to build the application.
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