Active In SP
Joined: Mar 2010
10-03-2010, 03:16 AM
can anyone help me to gather information about capsule endoscopy,i would like to give seminar and presentation
please send me as soon as possible
Active In SP
Joined: Sep 2010
27-09-2010, 02:17 PM
please go through the following thread for more details
summer project pal|
Active In SP
Joined: Jan 2011
03-02-2011, 09:40 PM
The future of wireless capsule endoscopy
The capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. a higher take up rate is expected for this technlogy because it is painless and the major share is to be ised for the cancer and varices detection. The Barrett’s and esophageal varices have been imaged using this technology but the image quality of the technology still needs improvement as the image quality is not as par with the conventional upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. The parameters such as the angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, frame rate, etc needs to be subjected to improvements. The Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will come to the improvement of the image quality and it is expected that slowly the supremacy of the flexible endoscopy is eroded. Teh features such as brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities are the added attractive features that may coem with the capsukle endoscopy. These devices will brign about a combination of physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy.
Active In SP
Joined: Feb 2011
12-03-2011, 10:19 AM
capsule camera.pptx (Size: 1.29 MB / Downloads: 68)
Embedded system: -- It is a combination of computer hardware and software.
Capsule camera: -- It is one of the embedded system with the size of a pill as the name suggests
Main use: -- examining digestive tract.
NEED FOR THE CAPSULE CAMERA
Visualize the small intestine.
Detect typical digestive diseases.
MOVEMENT OF CAPSULE IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Diameter of 10 mm and a Length of 20 mm.
Bullet shape - This shape and its diameter are critical for mapping to small intestine.
Uses Silver oxide button batteries - high energy density & disposable.
Made up of biocompat ible material.
PARTS OF CAPSULE CAMERA
CMOS IMAGE SENSOR
CAPSULE PASSING THROUGH THE INTESINES
REAL TIME APPLICATION
Convenience and satisfaction.
Does not require sedation.
Speedy recovery and diagnosis.
Comfort during procedure.
Simple and safe.
A physician cannot stop the camera’s progress to change the angle or take a prolonged look when it nears suspicious areas.
There is no air insufflation pumping in air to open up intestinal folds for examination.
Painless, no side affects or complications.
Miniature size, so can move easily through the digestive system.
Accurate, precise & low power consumption.
Images taken are of very high quality which are sent almost instantaneously to the data recorder for storage.
Made of bio compatible material, doesn’t cause any harm to the body.
Gastrointestinal obstructions and swallowing disorders prevent free flow of capsule through the digestive system.
Patients with pacemakers, pregnant women and all pediatrics have to be monitored continuously while taking the capsule.
The M2A procedure is not a replacement for Colonoscopy.
It is not reusuable.
Equipping the capsule with aLASER.
Adding additional features likeZooming & Auto Focus.
Can be used in Restorative Surgery & Pharmacological Interve.
Further reduction insize using Nano Technology.
Making it cost effective
The Given Endoscopy capsule is a pioneering concept for Medical Technology of the 21st century. The endoscopy system is the first of its kind to be able to provide non-invasive imaging of the entire small intestine. It has revolutionized the field of diagnostic imaging to a
great extent and has proved to be of great help to
physicians all over the world.
Joined: Nov 2012
27-11-2012, 05:50 PM
capsule endoscopy.docx (Size: 316.89 KB / Downloads: 17)
Modern endoscopic techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) and the colon. The last remaining frontier has been the small intestine.
The small intestine has been a difficult organ in which to make diagnoses and treat without performing surgery. Radiologicalprocedures, specifically the upper GI series with small bowel follow-through, which involves following swallowed barium as it passes through the intestine with x-ray films, have been available for diagnosis, but these radiological procedures are time-consuming and are not accurate in identifying small tumors and other subtle abnormalities of the small intestine. The demand for improved capabilities in the small intestine has been less because a minority of intestinal diseases involve the small intestine beyond the reach of the upper gastrointestinal endoscope and the colonoscope. Nevertheless, improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the small intestine would be very useful, particularly in uncovering the causes of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia due to intestinal loss of blood and diagnosing diseases that may involve only the small intestine, for example, Crohn's disease. One of the newer technologies that expands the diagnostic capabilities in the small intestine is capsule endoscopy also known as wireless capsule endoscopy.
What is capsule endoscopy?
Capsule endoscopy is a technology that uses a swallowed video capsule to take photographs of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. For capsule endoscopy, the intestines are first cleared of residual food and bacterial debris with the use of laxatives and/or purges very similar to the laxatives and purges used before colonoscopy. A large capsule-larger than the largest pill-is swallowed by the patient. The capsule contains one or two video chips (cameras), a light bulb, a battery, and a radio transmitter. As the capsule travels through the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine, it takes photographs rapidly. The photographs are transmitted by the radio transmitter to a small receiver that is wornon the waist ofthe patient who is undergoing the capsule endoscopy. At the end of the procedure, approximately 24 hours later, the photographs are downloaded from the receiver into a computer, and the images are reviewed by a physician. The capsule is passed by the patient into the toilet and flushed away.
What are the limitations of capsule endoscopy?
While the capsule provides the best means of viewing the inside of the small intestine, there are many inherent limitations and problems with its use, the most important of which is thatthe capsuledoes not allow for therapy. Other problems include:
1. Abnormalities in some areas of the intestine are missed because of rapid transit of the capsule and blurred, uninterpretable photographs.
2. At times, transit is so slow that the capsule examines only part of the small intestine before the battery fails.
3. If abnormalities are discovered that require surgical resection or further investigation, it may be difficult to determine where in the small intestine the abnormality is and thereby help direct therapy.
4. If there are narrow areas due to scarring (strictures) or tumors in the small intestine, the capsule can get stuck in the narrow area and cause an obstruction of the intestine that requires surgical removal of the capsule. (For this reason, in patients who are suspected of having a stricture, a self-dissolving, dummy capsule is swallowed first. If the dummy capsule sticks, it can be seen on an x-ray of the abdomen and the location of the stricture determined. Because it dissolves with time, however, the obstruction will resolve without surgery, and the real capsule will not be swallowed.)
5. Finally, reviewing the tens of thousands of photographs is very time consuming for the conscientious physician.
What type of diseases can be diagnosed with capsule endoscopy?
Capsule endoscopy continues to improve technically. It has revolutionized diagnosis by providing a sensitive (able to identify subtle abnormalities) and simple (non-invasive) means of examining the inside of the small intestine. Some common examples of small intestine diseases diagnosed by capsule endoscopy include:
1. Angiodysplasias (collections of small blood vessels located just beneath the inner intestinal lining that can bleed intermittently and cause anemia)
2. Small intestinal tumors such as lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, and small intestinal cancer
3. Crohn's disease of the small intestine
Understanding Capsule Endoscopy
What is Capsule Endoscopy?
Capsule Endoscopy lets your doctor examine the lining of the middle part of your gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum). Your doctor will give you a pill sized video camera for you to swallow. This camera has its own light source and takes pictures of your small intestine as it passes through. These pictures are sent to a small recording device you have to wear on your body.
Your doctor will be able to view these pictures at a later time and might be able to provide you with useful information regarding your small intestine.
Why is Capsule Endoscopy Done?
Capsule endoscopy helps your doctor evaluate the small intestine. This part of the bowel cannot be reached by traditional upper endoscopy or by colonoscopy. The most common reason for doing capsule endoscopy is to search for a cause of bleeding from the small intestine. It may also be useful for detecting polyps, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease), ulcers, and tumors of the small intestine.
How Should I Prepare for the Procedure?
An empty stomach allows for the best and safest examination, so you should have nothing to eat or drink, including water, for approximately twelve hours before the examination. Your doctor will tell you when to start fasting.
Tell your doctor in advance about any medications you take including iron, aspirin, bismuth subsalicylate products and other over-the-counter medications. You might need to adjust your usual dose prior to the examination.
Discuss any allergies to medications as well as medical conditions, such as swallowing disorders and heart or lung disease.
Tell your doctor of the presence of a pacemaker or defibrillator, previous abdominal surgery, or previous history of bowel obstructions in the bowel, inflammatory bowel disease, or adhesions.
Your doctor may ask you to do a bowel prep/cleansing prior to the examination.
What Can I Expect During Capsule Endoscopy?
Your doctor will prepare you for the examination by applying a sensor device to your abdomen with adhesive sleeves (similar to tape). The pill-sized capsule endoscope is swallowed and passes naturally through your digestive tract while transmitting video images to a data recorder worn on your belt for approximately eight hours. At the end of the procedure you will return to the office and the data recorder is removed so that images of your small bowel can be put on a computer screen for physician review.
Most patients consider the test comfortable. The capsule endoscope is about the size of a large pill. After ingesting the capsule and until it is excreted you should not be near an MRI device or schedule an MRI examination.
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