cryogenic rocket engine
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chaudhari sanjay v
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i want seminar and presentation ppt on cryogenic rocket engine in details
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Cryogenic Rocket Engine

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Meaning of Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature(below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures .

Cryogenic technology

Cryogenic technology involves the use of rocket propellants at extremely low temperatures.
The combination of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen offers the highest energy efficiency for rocket engines that need to produce large amounts of thrust.
Oxygen remains a liquid only at temperatures below minus 183 ° Celsius and hydrogen at below minus 253 ° Celsius.

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Cryogenics originated from two Greek words “kyros” which means cold or freezing and “genes” which means born or produced. Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same. Liquefied gases like liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen are used in many cryogenic applications. Liquid nitrogen is the most commonly used element in cryogenics and is legally purchasable around the world. Liquid helium is also commonly used and allows for the lowest temperatures to be reached. These gases can be stored on large tanks called Dewar tanks, named after James Dewar, who first liquefied hydrogen, or in giant tanks used for commercial applications.
The field of cryogenics advanced when during world war two, when metals were frozen to low temperatures showed more wear resistance. In 1966, a company was formed, called Cyro-Tech, which experimented with the possibility of using cryogenic tempering instead of Heat Treating, for increasing the life of metal tools. The theory was based on the existing theory of heat treating, which was lowering the temperatures to room temperatures from high temperatures and supposing that further descent would allow more strength for further strength increase. Unfortunately for the newly-born industry the results were unstable as the components sometimes experienced thermal shock when cooled too fast. Luckily with the use of applied research and the with the arrival of the modern computer this field has improved significantly, creating more stable results.
Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fuels. Cryogenic fuels, mainly oxygen and nitrogen have been used as rocket fuels. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is set to flight-test the indigenously developed cryogenic engine by early 2006, after the engine passed a 1000 second endurance test in 2003. It will form the final stage of the GSLV for putting it into orbit 36,000 km from earth.
Cryogenic Engines are rocket motors designed for liquid fuels that have to be held at very low "cryogenic" temperatures to be liquid - they would otherwise be gas at normal temperatures.

The engine components are also cooled so the fuel doesn't boil to a gas in the lines that feed the engine. The thrust comes from the rapid expansion from liquid to gas with the gas emerging from the motor at very high speed. The energy needed to heat the fuels comes from burning them, once they are gasses. Cryogenic engines are the highest performing rocket motors. One disadvantage is that the fuel tanks tend to be bulky and require heavy insulation to store the propellant. Their high fuel efficiency, however, outweighs this disadvantage. The Space Shuttle's main engines used for liftoff are cryogenic engines. The Shuttle's smaller thrusters for orbital maneuvering use non-cryogenic hypergolic fuels, which are compact and are stored at warm temperatures. Currently, only the United States, Russia, China, France, Japan and India have mastered cryogenic rocket technology.
All the current Rockets run on Liquid-propellant rockets. The first operational cryogenic rocket engine was the 1961 NASA design the RL-10 LOX LH2 rocket engine, which was used in the Saturn 1 rocket employed in the early stages of the Apollo moon landing program.
The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine are:
 the thrust chamber or combustion chamber
 pyrotechnic igniter
 fuel injector
 fuel turbo-pumps
 gas turbine
 cryo valves
 Regulators
 The fuel tanks
 rocket engine
 nozzle
Among them, the combustion chamber & the nozzle are the main components of the rocket engine.

The only known claim to liquid propellant rocket engine experiments in the nineteenth century was made by a Peruvian scientist named Pedro Paulet. However, he did not immediately publish his work. In 1927 he wrote a letter to a newspaper in Lima, claiming he had experimented with a liquid rocket engine while he was a student in Paris three decades earlier.
Historians of early rocketry experiments, among them Max Valier and Willy Ley, have given differing amounts of credence to Paulet's report. Paulet described laboratory tests of liquid rocket engines, but did not claim to have flown a liquid rocket.
The first flight of a vehicle powered by a liquid-rocket took place on March 16, 1926 at Auburn, Massachusetts, when American professor Robert H. Goddard launched a rocket which used liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants. The rocket, which was dubbed "Nell", rose just 41 feet during a 2.5-second flight that ended in a cabbage field, but it was an important demonstration that liquid rockets were possible.

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
All current spacecraft use chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some have used air-breathing engines on their first stage. Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south station keeping. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters to great success.

Presentation by
Roshan. S

.pdf   Cryogenic Rocket Engines.pdf (Size: 2.2 MB / Downloads: 755)

Introduction of Propulsion.
Classification of Propulsion System.
Cryogenic Propulsion System.
Classifications of Cryogenic Engines.


•Initiating or changing the motion of a body
–Translational(linear, moving faster or slower)
–Rotational(turning about an axis)
•Space propulsion
–Rocket launches
–Controlling satellite motion
–Maneuvering spacecraft
•Jet propulsion
–Using the momentum of ejected mass (propellant) to create a reaction force, inducing motion

The engine has high performance.
High specific impulse.
Most important is reusability.

The propulsion system for Cryogenic Stage consists of two major subsystems:
The rocket engine.
The propellant feed system.

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Presented by
K. Pandu Ranga Vara Prasad
M.D.V.S. Nageswara Rao

.doc   CRYOGENICS.doc (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 250)
Cryogenics is a branch of Thermal Engineering that deals with production and maintenance of very low temperatures for specific purposes. We discuss about the Definition, Application of Cryogenics, Cryogenic Propellants, Production of Cryogenic Propellants, Storage, Utilization, Safety and Cryo Engine specifications used in Rockets. In brief, we are introducing the concept of cryogenics and its technology considering Propellants as the basic application. Cryogenics is a new branch of engineering under Refrigeration, which has a vast area of application as we come to know about each under the discussion. It is basically about the liquifaction of the gases (permanent gases such as Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen etc.), which have boiling points well below the logical dividing line of –1800C (93.15K). Hence, all substances that deal with maintenance of very low temperatures, below the dividing line are termed as cryogenics.
Cryogenics by definition is that branch of Physics or Engineering that deal with the substances that need to be maintained at temperatures below that of the logical dividing line of –1800C (93.15K). It is the recent technological advancement in the field of Medicine, Aerospace, Metallurgy and Preservation of biological objects.
Classification of cryogenic substances:
Each cryogenic liquid has its own specific properties but most cryogenic liquids can be placed into one of three groups: Inert Gases, Flammable Gases, Oxygen.
• Under Inert cryogenic liquids we have Liquid Nitrogen (LN2), Liquid Helium (LHe).
• For flammable cryogenic liquids we have Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), Liquid Methane and Liquid Carbon-monoxide.
• We have supporters of combustion in cryogenic liquids too, we have Liquid Oxygen (LOX) under this category.
Cooling requirement of Cryogenics:
It can be achieved by mainly three methods,
• By Transfer of Heat
• By External Work
• By Isenthalpic Expansion
By transfer of heat:
Substances can be cooled to cryogenic temperatures by transferring heat from a cold gas stream by using flat plate heat exchangers. A matrix of flat plate and corrugated fins can be used for the construction of the Heat exchanger.
By External Work:
Adiabatic expansion of a gas in a turbine or reverse engineering as in case of a reciprocating engine can be applied to produce the required low temperature. Thus as it explains itself, we need a refrigerant which has a boiling point lesser than the required temperature as a working fluid to accomplish the same.
Isenthalpic Expansion:
We are familiar with the Joule-Thompson effect. The working temperature and pressure must be well within the Inversion curve of the specified gas. However, this process is highly ideal, and its practicably too far from reality
Expansion system can be applied by the use of a Brayton cycle engine working under the reverse. A Turbo-Expander can also be used to accomplish the above same. A Linde's valve can be used for higher efficiency in cooling. It employs a Heat Exchanger, a Joule-Thompson valve and a compressor to achieve the cooling effect. Also a Claude cycle can be applied for the above same.
It has a vide area of application as mentioned above in various fields
1. In the field of medicine, it is used for cooling drugs and production of active ingredients for satin drugs at around –1000C.
2. In surgical instruments it is used to freeze knives, which help in freezing and clotting blood during surgery
3. It is used in mechanical manufacturing for changing the microstructure of components; by tempering, hardening, etc. this increases the strength of the components.
4. Metals treated with cryogenic products are used in Racing cars, Musical instruments, knives razor blades, brake rotors, etc. due to their high strength.
5. Soft and elastic metals become brittle on excessive cooling, thus cryogenics helps in machining of soft metals. (Milling, Grinding, etc.,)
6. Used to liquify hydrogen and oxygen that are used as propellants for rockets and aviation industries.
7. In preservation of biological cells and tissues used under microbiology, biotechnology and tissue culture.
8. Used for production of liquid nitrogen that is used to cool micro controllers of super computers.
Cryogenic Propellants:
The propellants used in the present day rockets are divided into three categories, the solid propellants (HTPB), the liquid propellants (Hypergolic), and the cryogenic propellants (LH2 & LOX). Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen are the two main cryogenic propellants, where the LH2 is the fuel and the LOX is the oxidizer. These cryogenic propelled engines are also used in aviation industries, more common in the Lockheed Martin fleet. It is a clean fuel and produces only water as the byproduct liberating large quantities of heat.
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cryogenic rocket engine

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Meaning of Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature(below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures .

Cryogenic technology

Cryogenic technology involves the use of rocket propellants at extremely low temperatures.
The combination of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen offers the highest energy efficiency for rocket engines that need to produce large amounts of thrust.
Oxygen remains a liquid only at temperatures below minus 183 ° Celsius and hydrogen at below minus 253 ° Celsius.

History of Cryogenic Technology

The United States was the first country to develop cryogenic rocket engines.
with RL-10 engines, registered its first successful flight in 1963 and is still used on the Atlas V rocket.
Then The Japanese LE-5 engine flew in 1977 ,French HM-7 in 1979 , Chinese YF-73 in 1984 .

The Soviet Union, first country to put a satellite and later a human in space, successfully launched a rocket with a cryogenic engine only in 1987.


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