four wheel steering
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imran ahmed
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04-04-2010, 11:35 AM

sir would you please give the detail of four wheel steering in ppt and doc
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04-04-2010, 03:29 PM

please read and and and presentation-report for getting detailed information of four wheel steering in ppt and doc
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26-06-2013, 04:35 PM

four wheel steering

.docx   wheel steering.docx (Size: 57.01 KB / Downloads: 12)


This paper deals with the details of four wheel steering (4WS) system. With the help of this system all the four wheels can be turned to any direction using the steering. Thus the vehicle can be controlled more effectively especially during cornering and parking. Also the speed of the vehicle can be increased or decreased.
`There are three types of production of four-wheel ¬steering systems:
1. Mechanical 4WS
2. Hydraulic 4WS
3. Electro/hydraulic 4WS
The mechanical 4WS uses two separate steering gears to control the front and rear wheels. The hydraulic 4WS uses a two-way hydraulic cylinder to turn both the wheels in the same direction. It is not possible to turn them in the opposite direction. The electro/hydraulic 4WS combine computer electronic controls with hydraulics to make the system sensitive to both steering angle and road speeds.
This system finds application in off-highway vehicles such as fork lifts, agricultural and construction equipment and mining machinery. It is also useful in passenger cars, mainly SUVs. Four-wheel steering, 4WS, also called rear-wheel steering or all-wheel steering, provides a means to actively steer the rear wheels during turning maneuvers. It should not be confused with four-wheel drive in which all four wheels of a vehicle are powered. It improves handling and help the vehicle make tighter turns.
Production-built cars tend to understeer or, in few instances, oversteer. If a car could automatically compensate for an understeer/oversteer problem, the driver would enjoy nearly neutral steering under varying conditions. 4WS is a serious effort on the part of automotive design engineers to provide near-neutral steering.The front wheels do most of the steering. Rear wheel turning is generally limited to 50-60 during an opposite direction turn. During a same direction turn, rear wheel steering is limited to about 10-1.50.
When both the front and rear wheels steer toward the same direction, they are said to be in-phase and this produces a kind of sideways movement of the car at low speeds. When the front and rear wheels are steered in opposite direction, this is called anti-phase, counter-phase or opposite-phase and it produces a sharper, tighter turn

Why Four-Wheel Steering System?:

To understand the advantages of four-wheel steering, it is wise to review the dynamics of typical steering maneuvers with a conventional front -steered vehicle. The tires are subject to the forces of grip, momentum, and steering input when making a movement other than straight-ahead driving. These forces compete with each other during steering maneuvers. With a front-steered vehicle, the rear end is always trying to catch up to the di¬rectional changes of the front wheels. This causes the vehicle to sway. As a normal part of operating a vehicle, the driver learns to adjust to these forces without think¬ing about them.

Mechanical 4WS

In a straight-mechanical type of 4WS, two steering gears are used-one for the front and the other for the rear wheels. A steel shaft connects the two steering gearbox¬es and terminates at an eccentric shaft that is fitted with an offset pin. This pin engages a second offset pin that fits into a planetary gear.

Hydraulic 4WS

The hydraulically operated four-wheel-steering system is a simple design, both in com¬ponents and operation. The rear wheels turn only in the same direction as the front wheels. They also turn no more than 11/2 degrees. The system only activates at speeds above 30 mph (50 km/h) and does not operate when the vehicle moves in reverse.

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