linux from scratch full report
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26-02-2010, 03:56 PM

.doc   LINUX FROM SCRATCH.doc (Size: 247.5 KB / Downloads: 100)

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One important reason for LFS's existence is to help people learn how a Linux system works from the inside out. One of the best things that this learning experience provides is the ability to customize Linux to your own tastes and needs.
A key benefit of LFS is that it allows users to have more control over the system without relying on someone else's Linux implementation.
Another benefit of LFS is the ability to create a very compact Linux system. When installing a regular distribution, one is often forced to include several programs which are probably never used. These programs waste disk space, or worse, CPU cycles.
An additional advantage of a custom built Linux system is security. By compiling the entire system from source code, you are empowered to audit everything and apply all the security patches desired. The goal of Linux From Scratch is to build a complete and usable foundation-level system.
The LFS system will be built by using a previously installed Linux distribution (such as Debian, Mandriva, Red Hat. or SUSE). This existing Linux system (the host) will be used as a starting point to provide necessary programs, including a compiler, linker, and shell, to build the new system. Our LFS system has five modules. They are
> Create a new Linux native partition and file system.
y Download the packages and patches.
> Constructing a temporary system.
> Constructing a LFS system.
> Making LFS system bootable.
In this step, the partition which will host the LFS system is prepared. We will create the partition itself, create a file system on it, and mount it.
2.1.1. Creating a New Partition
Like most other operating systems, LFS is usually installed on a dedicated partition. The recommended approach to building an LFS system is to use an available empty partition. A minimal system requires a partition of around 1.3 gigabytes (GB). This is enough to store all the source tarballs and compile the packages. However, if the LFS system is intended to be the primary Linux system, additional software will probably be installed which will require additional space (2-3 GB). it is a good idea to use a small disk partition as swap space. This is used by the kernel to store seldom-used data and leave more memory available for active processes.
2.1.2. Creating a File System on the Partition
Now that a blank partition has been set up, the file system can be created. The most widely-used system in the Linux world is the second extended file system (ext2), but with newer high-capacity hard disks, journaling file systems are becoming increasingly popular.
2.1.3. Mounting the New Partition
Now that a file system has been created, the partition needs to be made accessible. In order to do this, the partition needs to be mounted at a chosen mount point.
Choose a mount point and assign it to the LFS environment variable by running:
export LFS=/mnt/lfs
Next, create the mount point and mount the LFS file system by running: mkdir -pv $LFS
mount -v -t ext3 /dev/<xxr> $LFS
Replace <xxx> with the designation of the LFS partition.
Downloaded packages and patches will need to be stored somewhere that is conveniently available throughout the entire build. A working directory is also required to unpack the sources and build them. $LFS/sources can be used both as the place to store the tarballs and patches and as a working directory. By using this directory, the required elements will be located on the LFS partition and will be available during all stages of the building process.
To create this directory, execute the following command, as user root, before starting the download session: mkdir -v $LFS/sources
2.2.1 Creating the $LFS/tools Directory
All programs compiled in this step will be installed under $LFS/tools to keep them separate from the programs compiled in next step.Programs compiled here are temporary tools and will not be a part of the final LFS system. By keeping these programs in a separate directory, they can easily be discarded later after their use.
Create the required directory by running the following as root:
mkdir -v $LFS/tools
The next step is to create a /tools symlink on the host system. This will point to the newly-created directory on the LFS partition. Run this command as root as well:
In -sv $LFS/tools /
2.2.2 Adding the LFS User
When logged in as user root, making a single mistake can damage or destroy a system. Therefore, we recommend building the packages in this chapter as an unprivileged user.
Grant lfs full access to $LFS/tools by making lfs the directory owner:.If a separate working directory was created as suggested, give user lfs ownership of this directory:
2.2.3 Toolchain
The overall goal of this step is to provide a temporary environment that can be chrooted into and from which can be produced a clean, trouble-free build of the target LFS system.Various packages to be installed are:
2.2.4 Binutils-2.17 - Pass 1
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
2.2.5 GCC-4.1.2- Pass 1
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
2.2.6 Linux- API Headers
The Linux API Headers expose the kernel's API for use by Glibc.
2.2.7 Glibc-2.5.1
The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
2.2.8 Tcl-8.4.15
The Tel package contains the Tool Command Language.
2.2.9 Expect-5.43.0
The Expect package contains a program for carrying out scripted dialogues with other interactive programs.
2.2.10 DejaGNU-1.4.4
The DejaGNU package contains a framework for testing other programs.
2.2.11 GCC-4.1.2-Pass 2
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
2.2.12 Binutils-2.17 - Pass 2
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
2.2.13 Ncurses-5.6
The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of ¦character screens.
2.2.14 Bash-3.2
The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
2.2.15 Bzip2-1.0.4
The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Compressing text files with bzip2 yields a much better compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
2.2.16 Coreutils-6.9
The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.
2.2.17 Diffutils-2.8.1
The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.
,2.2.18 Findutils-4.2.31
The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been Recently updated).
The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.
2.2.20 Gettext-0.16.1
The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS (Native Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.
2.2.21 Grep-2.5.1a
The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
2.2.22 Gzip-1.3.12
The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files.
2.2.23 Make-3.81
The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
2.2.24 Patch-2.5.4
The Patch package contains a program for modifying or creating files by applying a "patch" file typically created by the diff program.
2.2.25 Perl-5.8.8
The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language.
The Sed package contains a stream editor.
2.2.27 Tar-1.18
The Tar package contains an archiving program.
2.2.28 Texinfo-4.9
The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting info
2.2.29 Util-linux-2.12r
The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles, partitions, and messages.
2.3.1 Preparing Virtual Kernel File Systems
Various file systems exported by the kernel are used to communicate to and from the kernel itself. These file systems are virtual in that no disk space is used for them. The content of the file systems resides in memory.
2.3.2. Creating Initial Device Nodes
When the kernel boots the system, it requires the presence of a few device nodes, in particular the console and null devices. The device nodes will be created on the hard disk so that they are available before udevd has been started, and additionally when Linux is started with init-/bin/bash.
2.3.3 Mounting and Populating /dev
The recommended method of populating the /dev directory with devices is to mount a virtual filesystem (such as tmpfs) on the /dev directory, and allow the devices to mt created dynamically on that virtual filesystem as they are detected or accessed. This is generally done during the boot process by Udev.
2.3.4. Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems
Now mount the remaining virtual kernel filesystems:
2.3.5 Entering the Chroot Environment
Enter the chroot environment to begin building and installing the final LFS
2.3.6 Creating Directories
It is time to create some structure in the LFS file system. Create a standard directory tree.
2.3.7 Creating Essential Files and Symlinks
Some programs use hard-wired paths to programs which do not exist yet. In order to satisfy these programs, create a number of symbolic links which will be replaced by real files after the software has been installed:
A proper Linux system maintains a list of the mounted file systems in the file /etc/mtab. Normally, this file would be created when we mount a new file system. Since we will not be mounting any file systems inside our chroot environment, create an empty file for utilities that expect the presence of /etc/mtab:
In order for user root to be able to login and for the name "root" to be recognized, there must be relevant entries in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files.
.In this module we are installing various packages needed for constructing an actual LFS system , using the previously created temporary system. Various packages to be installed are:
2.4.1 Linux- API Headers
The Linux API Headers expose the kernel's API for use by Glibc.
Contents of Linux API Headers
Installed headers: /usr/include/{asm{,-generic},linux,mtd,rdma,sound}/*.h
Short Descriptions
/usr/include/{asm{,-generic},linux,mtd,rdma,sound}/*.h The Linux API headers
2.4.2 Man-pages-2.63
The Man-pages package contains over 3,000 man pages.
Contents of Man-pages Installed files: various man pages
Short Descriptions
man Describe C programming language functions, important device files, and pages significant configuration files
2.4.3 Glibc-2.5.1
The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
Contents of Glibc
Installed programs: catchsegv, genc-at, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig, ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, mtrace, used, pcprofiledump, pt_chovvn, rpegen, rpcinfo, sin, sprof, tzselect, xtrace, zdump, and zic
Installed libraries:, HbBrokenLocale.{a,so},, libanl.{a,so}, libbsd-compat.a, libc.{a,so},, libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libieee.a, libm.{a,so}, libmcheck.a,, libnsl.{a,so},,,,,,,, libpthread.{a,so}, libresolv.{a,so}, librpcsvc.a, librt.{a,so},, and libutil.{a,so}
Short Descriptions
iconvconfig ldconfig
lddlibc4 iocale
mtrace nscd
Can be used to create a stack trace when a program terminates with a segmentation fault
Generates message catalogues
Displays the system configuration values for file system specific variables
Gets entries from an administrative database
Performs character set conversion
Creates fastloading iconv module configuration files
Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings
Reports which shared libraries are required by each given program or shared library
Assists ldd with object files
Prints various information about the current locale
Compiles locale specifications
Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary in human-readable format
A daemon that provides a cache for the most common
ipcprofiledump Pt_chown
zdump zic
libSegFault libanl
libc libcidn
name service requests
Dumps information generated by PC profiling
A helper program for grantpt to set the owner, group and access permissions of a slave pseudo terminal
Generates C code to implement the Remote Procecure Call (RPC) protocol
Makes an RPC call to an RPC server
A statically linked In program
Reads and displays shared object profiling data
Asks the user about the location of the system and reports the corresponding time zone description
Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently executed function
The time zone dumper
The time zone compiler
The helper program for shared library executables
Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs (e.g., some Motif applications) running. See comments in glibc-2.5.1/locale/broken_cur_max.c for more information
The segmentation fault signal handler, used by catchsegv
An asynchronous name lookup library
Provides the portability needed in order to run certain Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) programs under Linux
The main C library
Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain names in the getaddrinfoQ function
The cryptography library
The dynamic linking interface library
Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime library for g++
Linking in this module forces error handling rules for math functions as defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). The default is POSIX.l error handling
The mathematical library
Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to
Used by memusage to help collect information about the memory usage of a program
The network services library
The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services, protocols, etc.
Contains profiling functions used to track the amount of CPU time spent in specific source code lines
The POSIX threads library
Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting packets to the Internet domain name servers
Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services
Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified by the POSIX. 1 b Realtime Extension
Contains functions useful for building debuggers for multi-threaded programs
Contains code for "standard" functions used in many
different Unix utilities
2.4.4 Re-adjusting the Toolchain
Now that the final C libraries have been installed, it is time to adjust the toolchain again. The toolchain will be adjusted so that it will link any newly compiled program against these new libraries.
2.4.5 Binutils-2.17
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
Contents of Binutils
Installed programs: addr21ine, ar, as, c++filt, gprof, Id, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip
Installed libraries: libiberty.a, libbfd.{a,so}, and libopcodes.{a,so} Short Descriptions
Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers; given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging information in
the executable to determine which source file and line number are associated
with the address
Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives
An assembler that assembles the output of gcc into object files
Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep overloaded functions from clashing
Displays call graph profile data
A linker that combines a number of object and archive files into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol references
Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file
objcopy Translates one type of object file into another
Displays information about the given object file, with options controlling the objdump particular information to display; the information shown is useful to
programmers who are working on the compilation tools
readelf size
libiberty Ibbfd
Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive members that are relocatable object files
Displays information about ELF type binaries
Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given object files
Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it scans the entire file
Discards symbols from object files
Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including getopt, obstack, strerror, strtol, and strtoul
The Binary File Descriptor library
A library for dealing with opcodes”the "readable text" versions of instructions for the processor; it is used for building utilities like objdump.
2.4.6 GCC-4.1.2
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
Contents of GCC
Installed programs: C++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc, gccbug, and gcov Installed libraries: libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a,, libmudflap.{a,so}, libssp.{a,so}libstdc++.{a,so}, and libsupc++.a
.Short Descriptions
,c++ The C++ compiler
cc The C compiler
The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the #inc,lude,
#define, and similar statements in the source files
g++ The C++ compiler
gcc The C compiler
gccbug A shell script used to help create useful bug reports
A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to determine where
optimizations will have the most effect jlibgcc Contains run-time support for gcc
libmudflap Contains routines that support GCC's bounds checking functionality
¦libssp Contains routines supporting GCC's stack-smashing protection functionality
libstdc++ The standard C++ library
libsupc++ Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming language G.4.7 Berkeley DB-4.5.20
The Berkeley DB package contains programs and utilities used by many other applications for database related functions.
Contents of Berkeley DB
Installed programs: db_archive, db_checkpoint, db_dead!ock, db_dump, db_hotbackup, dbjoad, db_printlog, db_recover, db_stat, db_upgrade, and db_verify Installed libraries: libdb.{so,ar}and libdb_cxx.r{o,ar}
:Short Descriptions
db_archive Prints the pathnames of log files that are no longer in use db_checkpoint A daemon used to monitor and checkpoint database logs
db^deadlock db_dump
libdb_cxx.{ so,a
A daemon used to abort lock requests when deadlocks are detected
Converts database files to a plain-text file format readable by db_Joad
Creates "hot backup" or "hot failover" snapshots of Berkeley DB databases
Is used to create database files from plain-text files Converts database log files to human readable text Is used to restore a database to a consistent state after a failure Displays statistics for Berkeley databases
Is used to upgrade database files to a newer version of Berkeley DB Is used to run consistency checks on database files Contains functions to manipulate database files from C programs Contains functions to manipulate database files from C++ programs
2.4.8 Sed-4.1.5
The Sed package contains a stream editor.
Contents of Sed
Installed program: sed
Short Descriptions
sed Filters and transforms text files in a single pass
1.4.9 E2fsprogs-1.40.2
The E2fsprogs package contains the utilities for handling the ext2 file system. It also supports the ext3 journaling file system.
Contents of E2fsprogs
Installed programs: badblocks, blkid, chattr, compile_et, debugfs, dumpe2fs, e2fsck, e2image, e21abel, filefrag, findfs, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, logsave, lsattr, mk_cmds, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mklost+found, resize2fs, tune2fs, and uuidgen. Installed libraries: libblkid.{a,so}, libcom_err.{a,so}, libe2p.{a,so}, libext2fs.{a,so}, ;libss.{a,so}, and libuuid.{a,so}
blkid chattr
,fsck.ext2 fsck.ext3 logsave
Short Descriptions
feadblocks Searches a device (usually a disk partition) for bad blocks
A command line utility to locate and print block device attributes
Changes the attributes of files on an ext2 file system; it also changes ext3 file systems, the journaling version of ext2 file systems
An error table compiler; it converts a table of error-code names and messages into a C source file suitable for use with the com_err library
A file system debugger; it can be used to examine and change the state of an ext2 file system
Prints the super block and blocks group information for the file system present on a given device
Is used to check, and optionally repair ext2 file systems and ext3 file systems
Is used to save critical ext2 file system data to a file
Displays or changes the file system label on the ext2 file system present on a given device
Reports on how badly fragmented a particular file might be Finds a file system by label or Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) Is used to check, and optionally repair, file systems By default checks ext2 file systems By default checks ext3 file systems Saves the output of a command in a log file
Lists the attributes of files on a second extended file system
mke2fs mkfs.ext2 ¦mkfs.ext3
resize2fs tune2fs
Converts a table of command names and help messages into a C source file suitable for use with the libss subsystem library
Creates an ext2 or ext3 file system on the given device
By default creates ext2 file systems
By default creates ext3 file systems
Used to create a lost+found directory on an ext2 file system; it pre-allocates disk blocks to this directory to lighten the task of e2fsck
Can be used to enlarge or shrink an ext2 file system
Adjusts tunable file system parameters on an ext2 file system
Creates new UUIDs. Each new UUID can reasonably be considered unique among all UUIDs created, on the local system and on other systems, in the past and in the future
Contains routines for device identification and token extraction
libcom_err The common error display routine
libext2fs libss
kbe2p Used by dumpe2fs, chattr, and lsattr
Contains routines to enable user-level programs to manipulate an ext2 file system
Used by debugfs
Contains routines for generating unique identifiers for objects that may be accessible beyond the local system
2.4.10 Coreutils-6.9
The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.
Contents of Coreutils
Installed programs: base64, basename, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr,
factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head, hostid, hostname, id, install, join, link, In, logname.. Is, md5sum, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, nice, nl, nohup, od, paste, pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, seq, shalsum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum, sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test, touch, tr, true, tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes
iShort Descriptions
base64 Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 (RFC 3548) specification
basename Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name
cat Concatenates files to standard output
chgrp Changes the group ownership of files and directories
Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode can be chmod either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an octal number representing the new permissions
chown Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and directories
chroot Runs a command with the specified directory as the / directory
Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte counts of each specified file
Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines that are unique and the lines that are common
Copies files
Splits a given file into several new files, separating them according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte count of each new file
Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the system date
Copies a file using the given block size and count, while optionally performing conversions on it
Df dir
join link Ln
Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all mounted tile systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected files
Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as the Is command)
Outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable to change the color scheme used by Is
Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name
Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory, by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by each of the given files
Displays the given strings
Runs a command in a modified environment
Converts tabs to spaces
Evaluates expressions
Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers
Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code indicating failure
Reformats the paragraphs in the given files Wraps the lines in the given files Reports a user's group memberships
Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host Reports or sets the name of the host
Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships of the current user or specified user
Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group
Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two separate files Creates a hard link with the given name to a file Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files
md5sum mkdir
kohup od
paste pathchk [pinky Pr
printenv jprintf
Reports the current user's login name
Lists the contents of each given directory
Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums
Creates directories with the given names
Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names
Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO
Moves or renames files or directories
Runs a program with modified scheduling priority
Numbers the lines from the given files
Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to a log file Dumps files in octal and other formats
Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines side by side, separated by tab characters
Checks if file names are valid or portable
Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information about the given users
Paginates and columnates files for printing Prints the environment
Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much like the C printf function
Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files, with each keyword in its context
Reports the name of the current working directory Reports the value of the given symbolic link Removes files or directories Removes directories if they are empty
Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a given
shalsum Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1) checksums sha224sum Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums sha256sum Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums ;sha384sum Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums sha512sum Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums
Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns, making it
difficult to recover the data
shuf Shuffles lines of text
sleep Pauses for the given amount of time
sort Sorts the lines from the given files
split Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of lines
stat Displays file or filesystem status
stty Sets or reports terminal line settings
sum Prints checksum and block counts for each given file
Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk and updates the
super block
tac Concatenates the given files in reverse
tail Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file
Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output and to the
given files
test Compares values and checks file types
Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification times of the touch given files to the current time; files that do not exist are created with zero length
Tr Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from standard input
true Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code indicating
Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list according to
the partial ordering in a given file
tty Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
uname Reports system information unexpand Converts spaces to tabs
uniq Discards all but one of successive identical lines
unlink Removes the given file
users Reports the names of the users currently logged on
vdir Is the same as Is -1
Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given file, as well as
total line when more than one file is given
who Reports who is logged on
whoami Reports the user name associated with the current effective user ID
Yes Repeatedly outputs "y" or a given string until killed
2.4.11 Iana-Etc-2.20
The Iana-Etc package provides data for network services and protocols.
Contents of Iana-Etc
Installed files: /etc/protocols and /etc/services
phort Descriptions
Describes the various DARPA Internet protocols that are available from
the TCP/IP subsystem
Provides a mapping between friendly textual names for internet services,
and their underlying assigned port numbers and protocol types
2.4.12 M4-1.4.10
The M4 package contains a macro processor.
Contents of M4
Installed program: m4
Short Descriptions
copies the given files while expanding the macros that they contain. These macros are either built-in or user-defined and can take any number of arguments. Besides performing macro expansion, m4 has built-in functions for including named files,
running Unix commands, performing integer arithmetic, manipulating text, recursion, etc. The m4 program can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its own right.
2.4.13 Bison-2.3
The Bison package contains a parser generator.
(Contents of Bison
Installed programs: bison and yacc installed library: liby.a
iShort Descriptions
Generates, from a series of rules, a program for analyzing the structure of text files;
Bison is a replacement for Yacc (Yet Another Compiler Compiler)
A wrapper for bison, meant for programs that still call yacc instead of bison; it calls
bison with the -y option
The Yacc library containing implementations of Yacc-compatible yyerror and main
functions; this library is normally not very useful, but POSIX requires it 14.14 Ncurses-5.6
The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens.
Contents of Ncurses
nstalled programs: captoinfo (link to tic), clear, infocmp, infotocap (link to tic), reset (link to tset), tack, tic, toe, tput, and tset
Installed libraries: libcursesw.{a,so} (symlink and linker script to libncursesw.{a,so}), libformw.{a,so}, libmenuw.{a,so}, libncurses-H-w.a, libncursesw.{a,so}, libpanelw.{a,so} and their non-wide-character counterparts without "w" in the library names.
(Short Descriptions
captoinfo Converts a termcap description into a terminfo description
clear Clears the screen, if possible
Infocmp Compares or prints out terminfo descriptions
infotocap Converts a terminfo description into a termcap description
reset Reinitializes a terminal to its default values
The terminfo action checker; it is mainly used to test the accuracy of an entry
in the terminfo database
The terminfo entry-description compiler that translates a terminfo file from
tic source format into the binary format needed for the ncurses library routines. A
terminfo file contains information on the capabilities of a certain terminal
Lists all available terminal types, giving the primary name and description for
Makes the values of terminal-dependent capabilities available to the shell; it
can also be used to reset or initialize a terminal or report its long name
tset Can be used to initialize terminals
libcurses A link to libncurses
libncurses Contains functions to display text in many complex ways on a terminal screen;
a good example of the use of these functions is the menu displayed during the kernel's make menuconfig
libform Contains functions to implement forms
libmenu Contains functions to implement menus
libpanel Contains functions to implement panels
2.4.15 Procps-3.2.7
The Procps package contains programs for monitoring processes. Contents of Procps
Installed programs: free, kill, pgrep, pkill, pmap, ps, pwdx, skill, slabtop, snice, iysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w, and watch Installed library:
fehort Descriptions
Reports the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap memory)
in the system
Sends signals to processes jjgrep Looks up processes based on their name and other attributes pkill Signals processes based on their name and other attributes pmap Reports the memory map of the given process ps Lists the current running processes pwdx Reports the current working directory of a process skill Sends signals to processes matching the given criteria slabtop Displays detailed kernel slap cache information in real time "snice Changes the scheduling priority of processes matching the given criteria ^ysctl Modifies kernel parameters at run time tload Prints a graph of the current system load average
Displays a list of the most CPU intensive processes; it provides an ongoing look
at processor activity in real time
Reports how long the system has been running, how many users are logged on,
and the system load averages
Reports virtual memory statistics, giving information about processes, memory,
paging, block Input/Output (IO), traps, and CPU activity w Shows which users are currently logged on, where, and since when
Runs a given command repeatedly, displaying the first screen-full of its output;
this allows a user to watch the output change over time libproc Contains the functions used by most programs in this package
2.4.16 Libtool-1.5.24
The Libtool package contains the GNU generic library support script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a consistent, portable interface.
Contents of Libtool
Installed programs: libtool and libtoolize Installed libraries: libltdl.{a,so}
¦Short Descriptions
tibtool Provides generalized library-building support services libtoolize Provides a standard way to add libtool support to a package libltdl Hides the various difficulties of dlopening libraries
2.4.17 Perl-5.8.8
The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language. Contents of Perl
Installed programs: a2p, c2ph, cpan, dprofpp, enc2xs, find2perl, h2ph, h2xs, instmodsh, libnetcfg, perl, perl5.8.8 (link to perl), perlbug, perlcc, perldoc, perlivp, piconv, pl2pm, pod2html, pod21atex, pod2man, pod2text, pod2usage, podchecker, podselect, prove, psed (link to s2p), pstruct (link to c2ph), s2p, splain, and xsubpp Installed libraries: Several hundred which cannot all be listed here
Short Descriptions
a2p Translates awk to Perl
c2ph Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S
Interact with the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) from the
command line dprofpp Displays Perl profile data
Builds a Perl extension for the Encode module from either Unicode Character
Mappings or Tel Encoding Files
find2perl Translates find commands to Perl
h2ph Converts .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
h2xs Converts .h C header files to Perl extensions
Shell script for examining installed Perl modules, and can even create a
tarball from an installed module ;libnetcfg Can be used to configure the libnet
Combines some of the best features of C, sed, awk and sh into a single swiss-
army language perl5.8.8 A hard link to perl
Used to generate bug reports about Perl, or the modules that come with it,
perl bug
and mail them ^>erlcc Generates executables from Perl programs
Displays a piece of documentation in pod format that is embedded in the Perl
installation tree or in a Perl script
The Perl Installation Verification Procedure; it can be used to verify that Perl
and its libraries have been installed correctly piconv A Perl version of the character encoding converter iconv
pl2pm A rough tool for converting Perl4 .pi files to PerI5 .pm modules
pod2html Converts files from pod format to HTML format
pod2latex Converts files from pod format to LaTeX format
,pod2man Converts pod data to formatted *roff input
jpod2text Converts pod data to formatted ASCII text
1pod2usage Prints usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
podchecker Checks the syntax of pod format documentation files
podselect Displays selected sections of pod documentation
prove Command line tool for running tests against the Test::Harness module.
psed A Perl version of the stream editor sed
pstruct Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs
s2p Translates sed scripts to Perl
[splain Is used to force verbose warning diagnostics in Perl
Exsubpp Converts Perl XS code into C code
2.4.18 Readline-5.2
The Readline package is a set of libraries that offers command-line editing and history capabilities.
Contents of Readline
Installed libraries: libhistory.{a,so}, and libreadline.{a,so}
:Short Descriptions
libhistory Provides a consistent user interface for recalling lines of history
Aids in the consistency of user interface across discrete programs that need to
provide a command line interface
2.4.19 Zlib-1.2.3
The Zlib package contains compression and decompression routines used by some programs.
¦Contents of Zlib
Installed libraries: libz.{a,so}
Short Descriptions
pibz Contains compression and decompression functions used by some programs
2.4.20 Autoconf-2.61
The Autoconf package contains programs for producing shell scripts that can automatically configure source code.
"Contents of Autoconf
Installed programs: autoconf, autoheader, autom4te, autoreconf, autoscan, autoupdate, and ifnames
Bhort Descriptions
Produces shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of Unix4ike systems. The configuration
scripts it produces are independent”running them does not require the autoconf program.
autoheader A tool for creating template files of C #define statements for configure to use
autom4te A wrapper for the M4 macro processor
Automatically runs autoconf, autoheader, aclocal, automake, gettextize, and putoreconf libtoolize in the correct order to save time when changes are made to autoconf and automake template files
Helps to create a file for a software package; it examines the source files in a directory tree, searching them for common portability issues,
and creates a configure.scan file that serves as as a preliminary file for the package
Modifies a file that still calls autoconf macros by their old names
to use the current macro names
Helps when writing files for a software package; it prints the identifiers that the package uses in C preprocessor conditionals. If a package ifnames has already been set up to have some portability, this program can help determine what configure needs to check for. It can also fill in gaps in a file generated by autoscan
2.4.21 Automake-1.10
The Automake package contains programs for generating Makefiles for use with Autoconf.
Contents of Automake
Installed programs: acinstall, aclocal, aclocal-1.10, automake, automake-1.10, compile, config.guess, config.sub, depcomp, elisp-comp, install-sh, mdate-sh, missing, mkinstalldirs, py-compile, symlink-tree, and ylwrap
Short Descriptions
acinstall A script that installs aclocal-style M4 files
aclocal Generates aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of files
aclocal-1.10 A hard link to aclocal
A tool for automatically generating files from files. To create all the files for a package, run this program in automake the top-level directory. By scanning the file, it automatically finds each appropriate file and generates the corresponding
compile A wrapper for compilers
config.guess A script that attempts to guess the canonical triplet for the given build, host,
or target architecture config.sub A configuration validation subroutine script
A script for compiling a program so that dependency information is
generated in addition to the desired output : elisp-comp Byte-compiles Emacs Lisp code rinstall-sh A script that installs a program, script, or data file ^.mdate-sh A script that prints the modification time of a file or directory
A script acting as a common stub for missing GNU programs during an
mkinstalldirs A script that creates a directory tree
!py-compile Compiles a Python program
symlink-tree A script to create a symlink tree of a directory tree
ylwrap A wrapper for lex and yacc
2.4.22 Bash-3.2
The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
Contents of Bash
Installed programs: bash, bashbug, and sh (link to bash)
[Short Descriptions
A widely-used command interpreter; it performs many types of expansions and bash substitutions on a given command line before executing it, thus making this interpreter a powerful tool
A shell script to help the user compose and mail standard formatted bug reports
concerning bash
A symlink to the bash program; when invoked as sh, bash tries to mimic the Sh startup behavior of historical versions of sh as closely as possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well
fc.4.23 Bzip2-1.0.4
The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. 'Compressing text files with bzip2 yields a much better compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
[Contents of Bzip2
Installed programs: bunzip2 (link to bzip2), bzcat (link to bzip2), bzcmp (link to ftzdiff), bzdiff, bzegrep (link to bzgrep), bzfgrep (link to bzgrep), bzgrep, bzip2, bzip2recover, bzless (link to bzmore), and bzmore Installed libraries: libbz2.{a,so}
Short Descriptions
bunzip2 Decompresses bzipped files
lozcat Decompresses to standard output
bzcmp Runs cmp on bzipped files
£>zdiff Runs diff on bzipped files
bzgrep Runs grep on bzipped files
bzegrep Runs egrep on bzipped files
bzfgrep Runs fgrep on bzipped files
Compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm with Huffman coding; the compression rate is better than that achieved by more conventional compressors using "Lempel-Ziv" algorithms, like gzip
bzip2recover Tries to recover data from damaged bzipped files
Runs less on bzipped files
Runs more on bzipped files
The library implementing lossless, block-sorting data compression, using the Burrows-Wheeler algorithm
2.4.24. Diffutils-2.8.1
The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.
Contents of Diffutils
Installed programs: cmp, diff, diff3, and sdiff
Short Descriptions
cmp Compares two files and reports whether or in which bytes they differ diff Compares two files or directories and reports which lines in the files differ diff3 Compares three files line by line sdiff Merges two files and interactively outputs the results
2.4.25. File-4.21
The File package contains a utility for determining the type of a given file or files.
Contents of File
Installed programs: file Installed library: libmagic.{a,so}
Bihort Descriptions
Tries to classify each given file; it does this by performing several tests”file
system tests, magic number tests, and language tests libmagic Contains routines for magic number recognition, used by the file program
2.4.26 Findutils-4.2.31
The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been recently updated).
Contents of Findutils
Installed programs: Digram, code, find, frcode, locate, updatedb, and xargs
Short Descriptions
bigram Was formerly used to produce locate databases
code Was formerly used to produce locate databases; it is the ancestor of frcode. find Searches given directory trees for files matching the specified criteria Is called by updatedb to compress the list of file names; it uses front-
compression, reducing the database size by a factor of four to five.
Searches through a database of file names and reports the names that contain a
given string or match a given pattern
Updates the locate database; it scans the entire file system (including other file updatedb systems that are currently mounted, unless told not to) and puts every file name it finds into the database
xargs Can be used to apply a given command to a list of files 2.4.27. Flex-2.5.33
The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text.
Contents of Flex
Installed programs: flex and lex Installed library: libfl.a
Short Descriptions
A tool for generating programs that recognize patterns in text; it allows for the flex versatility to specify the rules for pattern-finding, eradicating the need to develop a specialized program
fex A script that runs flex in lex emulation mode libfl.a The flex library 2.4.28 GRUB-0.97
The GRUB package contains the GRand Unified Bootloader. Contents of GRUB
Installed programs: grub, grub-install, grub-md5-crypt, grub-set-default, grub-terminfo, and mbchk
Short Descriptions
grub The Grand Unified Bootloader's command shell
grub-install Installs GRUB on the given device
Encrypts a password in MD5 format
Sets the default boot entry for GRUB
grub- Generates a terminfo command from a terminfo name; it can be employed
terminfo if an unknown terminal is being used
mbchk Checks the format of a multi-boot kernel 2.4.29. Gawk-3.1.5
The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files. Contents of Gawk
Installed programs: awk (link to gawk), gawk, gawk-3.1.5, great, igawk, pgawk, pgawk-3.1.5, and pwcat
Short Descriptions
awk A link to gawk
A program for manipulating text files; it is the GNU implementation of awk
gawk-3.1.5 A hard link to gawk
Dumps the group database /etc/group
Gives gawk the ability to include files
The profiling version of gawk
pgawk-3.1.5 Hard link to pgawk
Dumps the password database /etc/passwd
2.4.30. Gettext-0.16.1
The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS (Native Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.
Contents of Gettext
Installed programs: autopoint, config.charset, config.rpath, envsubst, gettext,, gettextize, hostname, msgattrib, msgcat, msgemp, msgcomm, msgconv, msgen, msgexec, msgfilter, msgfmt, msggrep, msginit, msgmerge, msgunfmt, msguniq, ngettext, recode-sr-latin, and xgettext
Installed libraries: libasprintf.{a,so},, libgettextpo.{a,so}, and
Short Descriptions
¦autopoint Copies standard Gettext infrastructure files into a source package config.charset Outputs a system-dependent table of character encoding aliases
Outputs a system-dependent set of variables, describing how to set the
runtime search path of shared libraries in an executable envsubst Substitutes environment variables in shell format strings
Translates a natural language message into the user's language by looking up the translation in a message catalog
; msgcmp
} msgcomm ! msgconv msgen \ msgexec tmsgfilter ¦ msgfmt
msgmerge msgunfmt msguniq
Primarily serves as a shell function library for gettext
Copies all standard Gettext files into the given top-level directory of a package to begin internationalizing it
Displays a network hostname in various forms
Filters the messages of a translation catalog according to their attributes and manipulates the attributes
Concatenates and merges the given .po files
Compares two .po files to check that both contain the same set of msgid strings
Finds the messages that are common to to the given .po files Converts a translation catalog to a different character encoding Creates an English translation catalog
Applies a command to all translations of a translation catalog
Applies a filter to all translations of a translation catalog
Generates a binary message catalog from a translation catalog
Extracts all messages of a translation catalog that match a given pattern or belong to some given source files
Creates a new .po file, initializing the meta information with values from the user's environment
Combines two raw translations into a single file
Decompiles a binary message catalog into raw translation text
Unifies duplicate translations in a translation catalog
Displays native language translations of a textual message whose grammatical form depends on a number
Recodes Serbian text from Cyrillic to Latin script
Extracts the translatable message lines from the given source files to make the first translation template
defines the autosprintf class, which makes C formatted output routines :libaspr.intf usable in C++ programs, for use with the <string> strings and the <iostream> streams
a private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext
programs; these are not intended for general use
Used to write specialized programs that process .po files; this library is libgettextpo used when the standard applications shipped with Gettext (such as msgcomm, msgcmp, msgattrib, and msgen) will not suffice
A private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext
programs; these are not intended for general use
The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
Contents of Grep
Installed programs: egrep, fgrep, and grep
Short Descriptions
egrep Prints lines matching an extended regular expression fgrep Prints lines matching a list of fixed strings grep Prints lines matching a basic regular expression
.2.4.32 Groff-
The Groff package contains programs for processing and formatting text. Contents of Groff
Installed programs: addftinfo, afmtodit, eqn, eqn2graph, geqn (link to eqn), grn, grodvi, groff, groffer, grog, grolbp, grolj4, grops, grotty, gtbl (link to tbl), hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, mmroff, neqn, nroff, pfbtops, pic, pic2graph, post-grohtml, pre-grohtml, refer, soelim, tbl, tfrntodit, and troff
Short Descriptions
Reads a troff font file and adds some additional font-metric information that
is used by the groff system afmtodit Creates a font file for use with groff and grops
Compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files into
commands that are understood by troff eqn2graph Converts a troff EQN (equation) into a cropped image geqn A link to eqn
grn A groff preprocessor for gremlin files
grodvi A driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format
A front-end to the groff document formatting system; normally, it runs the
troff program and a post-processor appropriate for the selected device
groffer Displays groff files and man pages on X and tty terminals
Reads files and guesses which of the groff options -e, -man, -me, -mm, -ms, -grog p, -s, and -t are required for printing files, and reports the groff command including those options
Is a groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser
Is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for an HP
LaserJet 4 printer grops Translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript
Translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for typewriter-like
gtbl A link to tbl
hpftodit Creates a font file for use with groff -Tlj4 from an HP-tagged font metric file indxbib Creates an inverted index for the bibliographic databases with a specified file
( nroff pfbtops
' pic
: pic2graph
\ post-grohtml
grohtml refer
soelim tbl
for use with refer, lookbib, and lkbib
Searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified keys and reports any references found
Prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is not a terminal), reads a line containing a set of keywords from the standard input, searches the bibliographic databases in a specified file for references containing those keywords, prints any references found on the standard output, and repeats this process until the end of input
A simple preprocessor for groff
Formats equations for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output
A script that emulates the nroff command using groff Translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII
Compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input files into commands understood by TeX or troff
Converts a PIC diagram into a cropped image Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
Copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines between .Rl and .R2 are interpreted as commands for how citations are to be processed
Reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of the mentioned file
Compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff
Creates a font file for use with groff-Tdvi
Is highly compatible with Unix troff; it should usually be invoked using the troff groff command, which will also run preprocessors and post-processors in th appropriate order and with the appropriate options
2.4.33. Gzip-1.3.12
The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Contents of Gzip
Installed programs: gunzip, gzexe, gzip, uncompress, zcat, zcmp, zdiff, zegrep, zfgrep, zforce, zgrep, zless, zmore, and znew
Short Descriptions
gunzip Decompresses gzipped files
gzexe Creates self-decompressing executable files
gzip Compresses the given files using Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) coding
uncompress Decompresses compressed files
zcat Decompresses the given gzipped files to standard output
zcmp Runs cmp on gzipped files
zdiff Runs diff on gzipped files
zegrep Runs egrep on gzipped files zfgrep Runs fgrep on gzipped files
Forces a .gz extension on all given files that are gzipped files, so that gzip zforce will not compress them again; this can be useful when file names were
truncated during a file transfer
zgrep Runs grep on gzipped files
zless Runs less on gzipped files
zmore Runs more on gzipped files
znew Re-compresses files from compress format to gzip format”.Z to .gz
: The Inetutils package contains programs for basic networking.
Contents of Inetutils
Installed programs: ftp, ping, ping6, rep, rlogin, rsh, talk, telnet, and tftp
Short Descriptions
¦ftp Is the file transfer protocol program
ping Sends echo-request packets and reports how long the replies take
ping6 A version of ping for IPv6 networks
rep Performs remote file copy
rlogin Performs remote login
rsh Runs a remote shell
talk Is used to chat with another user
telnet An interface to the TELNET protocol
tftp A trivial file transfer program
2.4.35. IPRoute2-2.6.20-070313
The IPRoute2 package contains programs for basic and advanced IPV4-based networking.
Contents of IPRoute2 ¦
Installed programs: arpd, ctstat (link to lnstat), genl, ifcfg, ifstat, ip, lnstat, nstat, routef, routel, rtacct, rtmon, rtpr, rtstat (link to lnstat), ss, and tc.
Short Descriptions
Userspace ARP daemon, useful in really large networks, where the kernelspace
ARP implementation is insufficient, or when setting up a honeypot ctstat Connection status utility
ifcfg A shell script wrapper for the ip command
Shows the interface statistics, including the amount of transmitted and received
packets by interface
The main executable. It has several different functions:
ip link <device> allows users to look at the state of devices and to make changes
ip addr allows users to look at addresses and their properties, add new addresses, and delete old ones
ip neighbor allows users to look at neighbor bindings and their properties, add new neighbor entries, and delete old ones
ip rule allows users to look at the routing policies and change them
ip route allows users to look at the routing table and change routing table rules
ip tunnel allows users to look at the IP tunnels and their properties, and change them
ip maddr allows users to look at the multicast addresses and their properties, and change them
ip mroute allows users to set, change, or delete the multicast routing
ip monitor allows users to continously monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes
Provides Linux network statistics. It is a generalized and more feature-complete
replacement for the old rtstat program nstat Shows network statistics
routef A component of ip route. This is for flushing the routing tables routel A component of ip route. This is for listing the routing tables rtacct Displays the contents of/proc/net/rt_acct rtmon Route monitoring utility
rtpr Converts the output of ip -o back into a readable form rtstat Route status utility
ss Similar to the netstat command; shows active connections
Traffic Controlling Executable; this is for Quality Of Service (QOS) and Class Of Service (COS) implementations
tc qdisc allows users to setup the queueing discipline
| tc class allows users to setup classes based on the queuing discipline scheduling
tc estimator allows users to estimate the network flow into a network
tc filter allows users to setup the QOS/COS packet filtering
tc policy allows users to setup the QOS/COS policies
2.4.36. Kbd-1.12
The Kbd package contains key-table files and keyboard utilities. Contents of Kbd
Installed programs: chvt, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, getkeycodes, kbdjmode, kbdrate, loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, openvt, psfaddtable (link to psfxtable), psfgettable (link to psfxtable), psfstriptable (link to psfxtable), psfxtable, resizecons, setfont, setkeycodes, setleds, setmetamode, showconsolefont, showkey, unicode_start, and unicode_stop
Short Descriptions
chvt Changes the foreground virtual terminal
deallocvt Deallocates unused virtual terminals
dumpkeys Dumps the keyboard translation tables
unicode_start unicode_stop
Prints the number of the active virtual terminal
Prints the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table
Reports or sets the keyboard mode
Sets the keyboard repeat and delay rates
Loads the keyboard translation tables
Loads the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table
An obsolete program that used to load a user-defined output character mapping table into the console driver; this is now done by setfont
Starts a program on a new virtual terminal (VT)
A link to psfxtable
A link to psfxtable
A link to psfxtable
Handle Unicode character tables for console fonts Changes the kernel idea of the console size
Changes the Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) fonts on the console
Loads kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries; this is useful if there are unusual keys on the keyboard
Sets the keyboard flags and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
Defines the keyboard meta-key handling
Shows the current EGA/VGA console screen font
Reports the scancodes, keycodes, and ASCII codes of the keys pressed on the keyboard
Puts the keyboard and console in UNICODE mode. Don't use this program unless your keymap file is in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. For other encodings, this utility produces incorrect results.
Reverts keyboard and console from UNICODE mode
The Less package contains a text file viewer.
Contents of Less
Installed programs: less, lessecho, and lesskey
Short Descriptions
A file viewer or pager; it displays the contents of the given file, letting the user
scroll, find strings, and jump to marks
Needed to expand meta-characters, such as * and , in filenames on Unix
lesskey Used to specify the key bindings for less
2.4.38 Make-3.81
The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
Contents of Make
Installed program: make
Short Descriptions
Automatically determines which pieces of a package need to be (re)compiled and
then issues the relevant commands 2.4.39. Man-DB-2.4.4
The Man-DB package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
Contents of Man-DB
Installed programs: accessdb, apropos, catman, convert-mans,lexgrog, man, mandb, manpath, whatis, and zsoelim
accessdb Dumps the whatis database contents in human-readable form
Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system
commands that contain a given string
catman Creates or updates the pre-formatted manual pages
convert-Reformat man pages so that Man-DB can display them
lexgrog Displays one-line summary information about a given manual page
man Formats and displays the requested manual page
mandb Creates or updates the whatis database
Displays the contents of $MANPATH or (if $MANPATH is not set) a manpath suitable search path based on the settings in man.conf and the user's environment
Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system
commands that contain the given keyword as a separate word
Reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of the
mentioned file 2 A AO. Mktemp-1.5
The Mktemp package contains programs used to create secure temporary files in shell scripts.
Contents of Mktemp
Installed programs: mktemp and tempfile
Short Descriptions
mktemp Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts
Creates temporary files in a less secure manner than mktemp; it is installed for
2.4.41. Module-Init-Tools-3.2.2
' The Module-Init-Tools package contains programs for handling kernel modules in Linux kernels greater than or equal to version 2.5.47.
Contents of Module-Init-Tools
Installed programs: depmod, generate-modprobe.conf, insmod, insmod.static, lsmod, modinfo, modprobe, and rmmod
Short Descriptions depmod
modprobe rmmod
Creates a dependency file based on the

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