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gokuldas borker
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17-02-2010, 07:44 PM

Dear Sir,
I request you to send "Magnetic refrigeration's synopsis and its full report with ppt file". Because the file which you are provided in link "" is not opening in ms-powerpoint.
Thanking you,
Gokuldas Borker
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18-02-2010, 03:40 PM

we will try to upload it again.
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01-04-2010, 12:26 PM

please read for more about magnetic refrigeration information
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05-06-2013, 12:25 PM

Magnetic refrigeration

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Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect. This technique can be used to attain extremely low temperatures, as well as the ranges used in common refrigerators, depending on the design of the system.
The effect was first observed by the German physicist Emil Warburg (1880) and the fundamental principle was suggested by Debye (1926) and Giauque (1927).[1] The first working magnetic refrigerators were constructed by several groups beginning in 1933. Magnetic refrigeration was the first method developed for cooling below about 0.3 K (a temperature attainable by 3He refrigeration, that is pumping on the 3He vapors).

The magnetocaloric effect

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE, from magnet and calorie) is a magneto-thermodynamic phenomenon in which a change in temperature of a suitable material is caused by exposing the material to a changing magnetic field. This is also known by low temperature physicists as adiabatic demagnetization, due to the application of the process specifically to create a temperature drop. In that part of the overall refrigeration process, a decrease in the strength of an externally applied magnetic field allows the magnetic domains of a chosen (magnetocaloric) material to become disoriented from the magnetic field by the agitating action of the thermal energy (phonons) present in the material. If the material is isolated so that no energy is allowed to (re)migrate into the material during this time, i.e., an adiabatic process, the temperature drops as the domains absorb the thermal energy to perform their reorientation. The randomization of the domains occurs in a similar fashion to the randomization at the curie temperature of a ferromagnetic material, except that magnetic dipoles overcome a decreasing external magnetic field while energy remains constant, instead of magnetic domains being disrupted from internal ferromagnetism as energy is added.
One of the most notable examples of the magnetocaloric effect is in the chemical element gadolinium and some of its alloys. Gadolinium's temperature is observed to increase when it enters certain magnetic fields. When it leaves the magnetic field, the temperature drops. The effect is considerably stronger for the gadolinium alloy Gd5(Si2Ge2).[2] Praseodymium alloyed with nickel(PrNi5) has such a strong magnetocaloric effect that it has allowed scientists to approach within one thousandth of a degree of absolute zero.[3]

Applied technique

The basic operating principle of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is the use of a strong magnetic field to control the entropy of a sample of material, often called the "refrigerant". Magnetic field constrains the orientation of magnetic dipoles in the refrigerant. The stronger the magnetic field, the more aligned the dipoles are, and this corresponds to lower entropy and heat capacity because the material has (effectively) lost some of its internal degrees of freedom. If the refrigerant is kept at a constant temperature through thermal contact with a heat sink (usually liquidhelium) while the magnetic field is switched on, the refrigerant must lose some energy because it is equilibrated with the heat sink. When the magnetic field is subsequently switched off, the heat capacity of the refrigerant rises again because the degrees of freedom associated with orientation of the dipoles are once again liberated, pulling their share of equipartitioned energy from themotion of the molecules, thereby lowering the overall temperature of a system with decreased energy. Since the system is now insulated when the magnetic field is switched off, the process isadiabatic, i.e., the system can no longer exchange energy with its surroundings (the heat sink), and its temperature decreases below its initial value, that of the heat sink.
The operation of a standard ADR proceeds roughly as follows. First, a strong magnetic field is applied to the refrigerant, forcing its various magnetic dipoles to align and putting these degrees of freedom of the refrigerant into a state of lowered entropy. The heat sink then absorbs the heat released by the refrigerant due to its loss of entropy. Thermal contact with the heat sink is then broken so that the system is insulated, and the magnetic field is switched off, increasing the heat capacity of the refrigerant, thus decreasing its temperature below the temperature of the helium heat sink. In practice, the magnetic field is decreased slowly in order to provide continuous cooling and keep the sample at an approximately constant low temperature. Once the field falls to zero or to some low limiting value determined by the properties of the refrigerant, the cooling power of the ADR vanishes, and heat leaks will cause the refrigerant to warm up.

Working materials

The magnetocaloric effect is an intrinsic property of a magnetic solid. This thermal response of a solid to the application or removal of magnetic fields is maximized when the solid is near its magnetic ordering temperature.
The magnitudes of the magnetic entropy and the adiabatic temperature changes are strongly dependent upon the magnetic order process: the magnitude is generally small in antiferromagnets, ferrimagnets and spin glass systems; it can be substantial for normal ferromagnets which undergo a second order magnetic transition; and it is generally the largest for a ferromagnet which undergoes a first order magnetic transition.
Also, crystalline electric fields and pressure can have a substantial influence on magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes.

Nuclear demagnetization

One variant of adiabatic demagnetization that continues to find substantial research application is nuclear demagnetization refrigeration (NDR). NDR follows the same principle described above, but in this case the cooling power arises from the magnetic dipoles of the nuclei of the refrigerant atoms, rather than their electron configurations. Since these dipoles are of much smaller magnitude, they are less prone to self-alignment and have lower intrinsic minimum fields. This allows NDR to cool the nuclear spin system to very low temperatures, often 1 µK or below. Unfortunately, the small magnitudes of nuclear magnetic dipoles also makes them less inclined to align to external fields. Magnetic fields of 3 teslas or greater are often needed for the initial magnetization step of NDR.
In NDR systems, the initial heat sink must sit at very low temperatures (10–100 mK). This precooling is often provided by the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator or a paramagnetic salt.

Commercial development

This refrigeration, once proven viable, could be used in any possible application where cooling, heating or power generation is used today. Since it is only at an early stage of development, there are several technical and efficiency issues that should be analyzed. The magnetocaloric refrigeration system is composed of pumps, electric motors, secondary fluids, heat exchangers of different types, magnets and magnetic materials. These processes are greatly affected by irreversibilities and should be adequately considered.

Current and future uses

There are still some thermal and magnetic hysteresis problems to be solved for these first-order phase transition materials that exhibit the GMCE to become really useful; this is a subject of current research. A useful review on magnetocaloric materials published in 2005 is entitled "Recent developments in magnetocaloric materials" by Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, et al.[6] This effect is currently being explored to produce better refrigeration techniques, especially for use in spacecraft. This technique is already used to achieve cryogenic temperatures in the laboratory setting (below 10K). As an object displaying MCE is moved into a magnetic field, the magnetic spins align, lowering the entropy. Moving that object out of the field allows the object to increase its entropy by absorbing heat from the environment and disordering the spins. In this way, heat can be taken from one area to another. Should materials be found to display this effect near room temperature, refrigeration without the need for compression may be possible, increasing energy efficiency.
The use of this technology to replace larger vapor-compression refrigeration units, which typically achieve performance coefficients of 60% of that of a theoretical ideal Carnot cycle is unlikely in the near term. Small domestic refrigerators are however much less efficient. [7]
This technology could eventually compete with other cryogenic heat pumps for gas liquefaction purposes.
Gschneidner stated in 1999 that: "large-scale applications using magnetic refrigeration, such as commercial air conditioning and supermarket refrigeration systems, could be available within 5–10 years. Within 10–15 years, the technology could be available in home refrigerators and air conditioners."[8]


Major advances first appeared in the late 1920s when cooling via adiabatic demagnetization was independently proposed by two scientists, Peter Debye in 1926 and William Giauque in 1927.
This cooling technology was first demonstrated experimentally by chemist Nobel Laureate William F. Giauque and his colleague D. P. MacDougall in 1933 for cryogenic purposes when they reached 0.25 K.[9] Between 1933 and 1997, a number of advances in utilization of the MCE for cooling occurred.[10][11][12][13]
In 1997, the first near room temperature proof of concept magnetic refrigerator was demonstrated by Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. by the Iowa State University at Ames Laboratory. This event attracted interest from scientists and companies worldwide who started developing new kinds of room temperature materials and magnetic refrigerator designs.[2] A major breakthrough came 2002 when a group at the University of Amsterdam demonstrated the giant magnetocaloric effect in MnFe(P,As) alloys that are based on earth abundant materials.[14]
Refrigerators based on the magnetocaloric effect have been demonstrated in laboratories, using magnetic fields starting at 0.6 T up to 10 T. Magnetic fields above 2 T are difficult to produce with permanent magnets and are produced by a superconducting magnet (1 T is about 20,000 times the Earth's magnetic field).

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