more information on nuclear batteries-the daintiest dynamos
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26-01-2010, 06:26 AM

im doin seminar and presentation on nuclear batteries-the daintiest dynamos so can u please provide more information on this topic
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Posts: 247
Joined: Jan 2010
26-01-2010, 06:26 PM

Nuclear batteries-the daintiest dynamos
The batteries that are used in today's circuits are still little cans
of chemicals. they
donâ„¢t provide nearly enough energy, draining out at the worst possible moment.The first cell by

alessandro volta used zinc and silver disks to create the first chemical battery. MEMS are finding
applications in everything from the sensors in cars that trigger
air bags to injectable drug delivery systems to environmental monitoring
devices. They need to have reliable power sources which last for longer times.
In the nuclear batteries, All energy comes from high-energy particles
spontaneously emitted by radioactive elements.
These devices, which we call nuclear microbatteries,
use thin radioactive films that pack in
energy at densities thousands of times greater
than those of lithium-ion batteries. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel-63 or
tritium, for example, contains enough energy to
power a MEMS device for decades, and to do
it safely. The particles these isotopes emit,
unlike more energetic particles released by other
radioactive materials, are blocked by the layer
of dead skin that covers our bodies. They penetrate
no more than 25 micrometers in most
solids or liquids, so in a battery they could safely
be contained by a simple plastic package. This is the answer to the safety concerns. The present

batteries are small
nuclear batteries and may not be able to provide enough electric current
for a cellphone or a PDA, but the experiments so far suggest
that several of these nuclear units could be used to trickle
charges into the conventional chemical rechargeable batteries used
in handheld devices. The nuclear microbatteries we are developing wonâ„¢t require
refueling or recharging and will last as long as the half-life of the
radioactive source, at which point the power output will decrease
by a factor of two. Though the efficiency is only about about 4 percent, prototypes”the extremely high

energy density of the
radioactive materials compensates for it. NASA has been using radioisotope thermoelectric
generators, or RTGs, since the 1960s in its various space missions.
A comparison of energy contents of various present technologies with their energy density compared:
Lithium-ion in a chemical battery 0.3
Methanol in a fuel cell* 3
Tritium in a nuclear battery** 850
Polonium-210 in a nuclear battery** 57 000
one of the microbatter we developed early last year
directly converted the high-energy particles emitted by a
radioactive source into an electric current. The device consisted
of a small quantity of nickel-63 placed near an ordinary silicon
p-n junction”a diode, basically. As the nickel-63 decayed,
it emitted beta particles. The emitted beta particles ionized the diodeâ„¢s atoms, creating
paired electrons and holes that are separated at the vicinity of
the p-n interface producing the current.
They may power the device in a completely different way. for eg, give each component”
sensor, actuator, microprocessor”its own nuclear
microbattery. In such a scheme, even if a main battery is still necessary
for more power-hungry components, it could be considerably
smaller, and the multiple nuclear microbatteries could
run a device for months or years, rather than days or hours.
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