skylights full report
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19-01-2010, 08:22 PM

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Skylights are horizontal windows or domes placed at the roof of buildings, often used for daylighting.. skylights provide better light system and reduces electricity bill on lights, White translucent acrylic is a 'Lambertian Diffuser' meaning transmitted light is perfectly diffused and distributed evenly over affected areas. White acrylic domes provide even light distribution throughout the day. Skylights admit more light per unit area than windows, and distribute it more evenly over a space,The amount of light inefficient transparent glazing skylights deliver peaks around midday, when the additional light and heat it provides is least needed. Some skylight designs use domed or pyramidal shapes along with prismatic or other light-redirecting glazings to attempt to validate 'daylighting expert' value. Like automated controls, attempts to achieve more value through expensive additional systems rarely, if ever, validate 'daylighting expert' worth

Skylights Offer a Great Option
for Light and Ventilation
Adding a skylight is one of
the quickest and easiest ways to
make any room of your home
lighter and brighter, adding an
open and airy feeling. There are
two basic types of skylights for
residential use “ flat glass and
domed acrylic “ and each have
some advantages.

Domed acrylic skylights are less expensive
than glass, and their convex shape tends to let the rain
wash accumulated dust and dirt off a little easier. The
acrylic dome is mounted in an aluminum frame, which
is in turn mounted on a 2x6 box called a "curb." Once
the hole is cut in the roof to the manufacturerâ„¢s
specifications, the curb is constructed on-site to raise
the skylight above the level of the roof sheathing. Site-
built or factory-supplied flashings are used to seal the
roofing around the curb.
Domed skylights are available in clear,
smoked, bronze or other tints. Most are double- or
triple-glazed in order to achieve the level of energy
efficiency required by the building codes. Several sizes
are available, with the most common being 2x2, 2x4
and 4x4 feet.

Flat glass skylights come mounted in a wood or
integrated rubber and metal framework, and require no
additional curb construction. After the hole is cut, the skylight
frame is simply attached to the roof sheathing with L-
brackets, then the installation is completed using the factory-
supplied flashing kit. Easy installation, superior insulating
qualities, less tendency to scratch and a cleaner finished
appearance all add to the popularity and somewhat higher
cost of glass skylights.
Glass skylights also have a greater number of optional
accessories. These include tempered, laminated or wire glass;
shades and blinds for light control; glass tints for heat
retention or to block sunlight; and the ability to open fully or
partially for ventilation. At least one company, Velux “ a
leading manufacturer of quality glass skylights that are
available at most local home centers and lumber yards “ even
offers an electric motor coupled to a rain sensor that
automatically shuts the skylight if it detects rain.

Light Shafts
If the room you intend to illuminate with the skylight has
an open ceiling with no attic space above, you can install
the skylight without needing to construct a light shaft.
This is by far the simplest installation, and it offers the
maximum amount of light and a view of the sky. Operable
units are usually recommended, especially for a second-
floor room, since these direct skylights can add a
considerable amount of heat to the room on a summer

For ceilings with an attic space above, a light shaft must
be constructed that connects the skylight to the room. Skylight shafts
take one of three forms:
1. Straight, in which the shaft drops vertically from the roof to the
ceiling and is the same dimension as the skylight itself. This type is
the easiest to construct, but because of its offset angle relative to the
skylight, offers the least amount of light.
2. Angled, where the shaft is parallel to the pitch of the skylight. It,
too, is the same dimension as the skylight, but its straight-in angle
offers more light than a straight shaft. Angled shafts also are used to
connect two locations that cannot otherwise be aligned. This occurs
when the skylight must be installed in a particular spot - between two
trusses, for example - and the shaft opening is likewise limited to a
particular location on the ceiling that is not directly under the

3. Splayed, or pyramid, in which the ceiling opening is larger than the
skylight opening in width, length or both. This type, although a little
harder to construct, is the most popular, simply because it allows a
smaller skylight to illuminate a larger area.
After the skylight is installed, youâ„¢ll need to position and mark
the opening on the ceiling. Take into consideration the size of the
room and the amount of light you wish to bring in, and select the size
and position of the hole accordingly.
Once the skylight is installed and the ceiling hole is cut, itâ„¢s then a
matter of connecting the two with the shaft, which is constructed
from 2x4 or 2x6 lumber. The angles involved typically require some
tricky framing, and is probably best left to an experienced carpenter.
After the framing is completed, the inside of the shaft is covered with
wood or drywall, and the attic side is insulated to at least R-21 to
minimize heat loss. To reflect an even greater amount of light into
the room, consider painting the inside of the shaft with gloss or semi-
gloss white paint.

Skylights or Windows
Skylights and windows are often mentioned in the same breath as
a fix for dark rooms, as if poking a big hole someplace is all that really
Yet these aren't interchangeable solutions for the same problem.
Skylights and windows have very different daylighting characteristics, as
well as a radically different aesthetic both inside and outside. A closer
look may help you make the right choice for your home.
First, a rundown of basic differences: A
window is placed vertically in a wall, while a
skylight is mounted parallel to the roof plane or
else raised above it on an extension known as a

While windows are almost invariably fitted with
glass, the majority of modern skylights are glazed with
acrylic or polycarbonate plastic in tints ranging from
clear to translucent white to a dark smoked color. One
exception is the so-called roof window, which is a type
of flat skylight glazed with glass and usually arranged
to open.
In terms of solar efficiency, a well-oriented window will
generally be better attuned to seasonal changes than a skylight. Since
window openings are vertical, they admit more of the low-angled sun
in winter when it's most welcome, while blocking much of the high-
angled summer sun to prevent excessive heat gain. In fact, with the
proper external shading, a window can be "fine-tuned" to admit full
sun on the shortest days of winter, yet be completely shaded on long
summer days.

Your typical low-pitched skylight, alas, has just the opposite trait:
In winter, when the sun is low, it cuts off a great deal of desirable
sunlight, while in summer, it lets the high-angled sun come blasting in,
potentially overheating rooms. Using tinted glazing and deep, light-
diffusing wells can help to compensate for this shortcoming, though
neither is really a remedy.
Despite these shortcomings, skylights produce a kind of top-lit
architectural drama that windows often can't match. Moreover, dollar-
for-dollar, they'll usually bring in more light than windows. So which is
right for your home
If the object is simply to brighten a room for the least expense, or
to provide some dramatic toplighting, a skylight will do the trick. On the
other hand, if you'd like to fine-tune a room to be brighter and warmer in
winter while keeping it cooler in the summer, a new or enlarged window
or glass door may be a better choice.

Aesthetically, deciding between windows and skylights is more
clear-cut. Today's ubiquitous plastic bubble skylights weren't in general
use until the early 1960s; hence, they invariably look "wrong" on earlier
homes, and should be a last resort. If you have a home predating the 60s
and still have your heart set on using some form of skylight, consider
using roof windows, which have a lower profile, and place them where
they won't be visible from the street. Better yet, challenge yourself by
adding light the way the era's architects would have”with a generous,
well-placed window or set of glass doors.
If your home postdates the 1950s, a carefully-placed skylight will
probably blend in reasonably well with the overall style. Still, for the
sake of a clean front elevation, you should avoid installing skylights on
roof surfaces that face the street. Note that a few generous skylights are
better than a lot of small ones, both in ease of construction and in the
daylight you gain per dollar. And of course, consider the orientation of
the units before you install them, so you'll have some idea of their
daylighting value”or lack of it.

Adding a skylight is one of the quickest and easiest ways to
make any room of your home lighter and brighter, adding an open and
airy feeling. Skylights produce a kind of top-lit architectural drama
that windows often can't match. Moreover, dollar-for-dollar, they'll
usually bring in more light than windows. Installing a skylight in a
room that has a finished ceiling with an attic or crawl space above it
involves planning both a ceiling opening and a roof opening.My
skylight section takes you step-by-step through how to install a
skylight. Plus some useful information on the efficency of skylights.

¢How to Install a Skylight “ Introduction
¢How to Install a Skylight - Safety on the Roof
¢How to Install a Skylight - Preparing the Openings
¢How to Install a Skylight - Opening the Roof
¢How to Install a Skylight - Building a Curb
¢How to Install a Skylight - Determining Framing Requirements
¢How to Install a Skylight - Installing and Flashing the Skylight
¢How to Install a Skylight - Opening the Ceiling
¢How to Install a Skylight - Building the Light Shaft
¢How to Install a Skylight - Tools and Materials Checklist

If you're considering installing a skylight, be sure to read the
following pages very carefully to learn what's involved. Penetrating
roofing materials and framing the opening below can be difficult and
demanding, even for experts. Once you understand the processes and
the pitfalls of installing a skylight, you'll be able to decide whether this
is work for you or a professional.

Safety on the Roof:
General Consideration and Tips
Keep these tips in mind every time approach the roof.
1. Wear loose, comfortable clothing, rubber-soled shoes with good
ankle support, and a hat for sun protection.
2. Work on the roof only in dry, calm, mild weather A ladder or roof
that's wet from rain, frost, or dew can be treacherously slick, and a
sudden wind can knock you off balance. Keep grass cuttings and
mud off your shoes, as well. Never get on the roof when lightning
3. Once on the roof, be alert for slippery, brittle, or old roofing
materials, and rotten decking you could put a foot through.
4. Avoid contact with power lines connected to the house and with
television antennas.

5. To avoid straining your back, lift only lightweight loads and let your leg
muscles do the work.
6. Pace yourself and take frequent rests.
7. Keep children and pets off the roof and away from the work area; they can
be hurt by falling materials.
8. Metal ladder brackets allow you to hook a ladder over the ridge of a house.
9. Toe board jacks nailed to the roof support you and your materials with a 2
by 6 plank. (Use strong, straight-grained lumber no longer than 10 feet
unless you support the middle with another jack.) The jacks have notches in
them so they can be slipped off the nails. Secure jacks with nails long
enough to penetrate sheathing and rafters.
10. An angled seat board allows you to sit on a level surface while working.
Angles on the sides of the board must match the slope of your roof.
11. Scaffolding, useful if you're installing a large skylight, can be rented from
tool supply companies

Safety Procedures
The standard safety devices illustrated are available from tool rental
Inspect your ladder for cracks or weaknesses in the rungs before you lean
it against the house. The ladder should be long enough so that at least
two rungs extend above the eaves. Place the base of the ladder on firm,
level ground at a measured distance from the side of the house-that
distance should equal a quarter of the vertical distance from the ground
to the top rung.
Get on and off by stepping onto the center of the rung; use both hands.
If the ladder is to stand on a slick surface, install rubber safety shoes
(they're available at home improvement centers).

Preparing the Openings:
Installing a skylight in a room that has a finished ceiling with an attic or
crawl space above it involves planning both a ceiling opening and a roof
opening. On the other hand, we'll need to lay out only one opening if the area
we're working in has an open beam ceiling.
Regardless of the type of construction, the size of the roof opening will
be determined by the size of the skylight we're installing. Generally, the
dimensions of the roof opening in a house with finished ceilings are the same as
the inside dimensions of the skylight or of the curb if it's a curb-mounted unit.
Most manufacturers provide the necessary dimensions along with
installation instructions. If a manufacturer gives the curb's outside dimensions,
deduct twice the curb's thickness from the length and width to determine the
size of the opening.
Contractors differ on the methods they use to determine the location of roof and
ceiling openings in homes with attics or crawl spaces. Some contractors cut the
opening in the ceiling before cutting the roof opening. Others cut the roof
opening first, and this is the method described below; it allows to adjust to the
conditions in home.

Planning and Marking the Ceiling Opening
Whether our desire is for moon-beams on our bed, diffused light
for our art project and implimentations, or sunlight splashing across our dining room table,
the location of our ceiling opening depends on where we want the light
and what kind of light we need.
Even after we've identified the ideal location, we may want to
make some adjustments if we discover some structural impediment when
we explore our attic.
The size of the ceiling opening depends not only on the skylight's
size, but also on the amount of light we want to bring in. The light enters
the room through a light shaft, which can be straight, angled, or splayed.

An angled or splayed light shaft allows to
offset the roof opening from the ceiling
opening. If we want to maximize the amount of
light coming into the room, make the ceiling
opening larger than the roof opening and
connect them with a splayed light shaft; we can
splay any or all shaft walls.
After we've decided on the location and size of the ceiling opening,
mark the four corners and the center of the proposed opening. Drive
nails deeply enough through these five points so you can find them
in the attic. If any of the nails hits solid wood, you may want to
move the proposed opening or adjust its size to avoid the

Planning and Marking the Roof-opening
Much of the work of installing the skylight is done from the attic or
crawl space. If we don't have convenient access to our attic or our attic is
not roomy enough to work in, we'll need to cut a hole big enough to
climb through or work through (from a ladder or platform) within the
proposed opening, at one side of the center. Then, after we've marked the
center of the roof opening, we can cut the ceiling opening for access.
If your attic is insulated, wear clothing that will protect you against
insulation material: gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, a painter's
mask, and goggles.

Checking for Obstructions
Clear away any insulation material covering the area of proposed
ceiling opening. Locate the nails that were driven through from the
ceiling below. Look for obstructions-wires, pipes, or heating or cooling
ducts-within the area of the proposed opening. If we find any and don't
want to move or adjust the size of the opening, we'll have to move the
To save our self work when framing the ceiling opening, try to
arrange the opening so two opposite sides butt up against the facing sides
of two joists.

To locate the center of the roof opening, hang a plumb bob from the
underside of the roof with the point of the bob over the center nail in the
ceiling opening. Mark this point clearly on the underside of the roof.
With tape, square, and straightedge, mark the manufacturer's
recommended dimensions for the roof opening on the underside of the
we can simplify the framing of the opening by locating at least one edge
(preferably two) against a rafter.
Check the area of the roof opening for obstructions. If find wires, pipes,
or heating or cooling ducts, we can either move the opening or move the
obstruction. If the roof ridge or a purlin (a structural member positioned
at right angles to the rafters) crosses the opening, we'll have to relocate
the opening and use an angled or splayed light shaft between the roof and
the ceiling.
Measuring the Opening

Marking the Corners
we'll want to be able to find the
corners of the opening when we go
up on the roof. Drill a hole at each
corner and drive a 16-penny nail
(20-penny for a shake roof) through
each hole.

Opening the Roof
The thought of cutting a hole in our roof needn't conjure up images of
dripping water destroying your living room carpet, as long as we know
how to seal that opening against the vagaries of nature. And speaking of
nature, do the roof work on a day with zero rain probability, and plan on
having the skylight installed by the end of the day. Even then, we'd be
wise to have a tarp handy, just in case.
Walk very carefully on the roof-the fewer shakes or shingles you disturb,
the better. But put safety first. If roof is moderately sloping, secure a foot
plank or ladder.

Building a Curb
Before begin cutting through the roof, we'll have to build a curb, or
box frame, for our skylight if it's the curb-mounted type. we may find
it convenient to assemble the curb on the roof. If our skylight boasts
an integral curb, or is self-flashing and sits directly on the sheathing,
we can avoid this step.
The curb should raise the skylight at least 4 inches above the roofing
material. Usually 2 by 6 lumber works well for shingle, shake, and
built-up roofs.

The inside dimensions of the curb should equal the
dimensions specified by the manufacturer for the roof
opening. Mark the lumber for cuts, taking care to keep
knots away from the ends. Cut the pieces. As a further
precaution against split ends, drill pilot holes for nails; then
nail the pieces together.
Check the curb for squareness by measuring diagonally from corner to
corner; the distances should be identical. Also use a framing square.
It's a good idea to brace two opposite corners of the curb to keep it
square until ready to nail it in place. Make the braces from lengths of
wood or cut triangles from 1/2-inch plywood. Nail in the braces with 6 or
8-penny common nails; drive the nails halfway down to remove them
easily later on.

Marking the Roof
In a home with finished ceilings, mark the roof opening and the roofing
material that needs to be removed in exactly the same manner for either a
sloped or a flat roof. The amount of roofing material remove to allow for
the flashing and water runoff varies, depending on the type of roofing
and the kind of skylight to use.
For a Curb-mounted Skylight
Set the curb over the four nails protruding through the roof. If the curb is
the right size, there'll be a nail in each inside corner.
For a wood or asphalt shingle roof, use chalk, pencil, or a utility knife to
mark lines on the roof along the outside edges of the sides of the curb.
Extend the lines you just outlined 3 inches beyond the top and bottom
corners of the curb. Mark a line between these points and parallel to the
top and bottom of the curb. This is the area from which remove the
roofing material.

If have a heavy shake roof, mark lines on the roof 1/2 inch away from
the outside edges of the sides of the curb; extend those lines 3 inches to
the top and bottom, and connect them in the manner described above.
After marked the lines, set the curb aside.
For a Self-flashing Skylight
Make measurements from the sides of the proposed roof opening marked
by the four nails. Mark lines approximately 10 inches beyond the nails
on the top and the two side, and 2 inches below the nails on the bottom.
On a flat roof (hot-mopped asphalt or foam), mark lines 10 inches
beyond the nails on all four sides. Remove the gravel first.

Cutting through Roofing Materials
Though use hand tools to cut through a roof, a circular saw or a
reciprocating saw is easier and faster. A combination blade is best for
cutting through wood shingles or shakes. It find that a utility knife works
better than a circular saw to cut through asphalt shingles.
Use safety precautions when working with any power tool: make sure the
equipment is properly grounded, wear goggles or safety glasses, avoid
awkward positions, and keep out of the line of the blade. Be alert while
sawing-a blade that binds can throw you off the roof.
To cut through shingles or shakes for a curb mounted skylight or through
built-up roofing for a self-flashing skylight, adjust the depth of cut on
saw so the blade cuts through the roofing material, but not through the
wood sheathing underneath. Resting the front of the saw's sole plate on
the roof, align the saw blade with the chalk or pencil mark or the knife

Turn on the power and lower the saw until the sole is
resting on the roof. Saw slowly and steadily along the
marked line until reach a corner. Repeat for the other
After cut around the opening, pry the roofing materials
loose with a crowbar and hammer; save asphalt
shingles to use for patching around the skylight. Peel
off the roofing felt to expose the sheathing.

Determining Framing Requirements
To determine the framing needed for the opening, carefully examine the
structure of the roof around skylight opening. If skylight fits exactly
between two rafters, need single headers, framing members running
perpendicular to the rafters that support the sheathing. If it fits exactly
between the rafters on either side of an opening spanning one or more
rafters, need double headers to support the sheathing and the cut rafters.
Skylights smaller than the space between the rafters require an opening
framed with both headers and jack rafters, framing members running
parallel to the rafters between the headers: one jack rafter if the opening
abuts one rafter, two if it does not. Lumber used for headers and jack
rafters should be the same size as the rafters. Be sure framing will meet
all local codes.

Cutting the Sheathing
Stretch the chalk line around the nails that were pushed through the roof,
and snap the line between each pair of nails to mark the finished roof
Mark another set of lines in the sheathing around these and parallel to
them, depending on your framing requirements: mark a line at right
angles to the rafters at both ends of the finished opening-1-1/2 inches
away for a single header, and 3 inches away for a double one if using 1-
1/2 inch-thick lumber. If installing jack rafters, mark lines parallel to the
rafters 1-1/2 inches away from both sides of the finished opening.
Pull out any nails within 4 inches of the edges of the proposed opening.
This avoids damaging the blades of saw.
With a combination blade in saw, set the depth of cut just to cut through
the sheathing. Cut along the larger outline on the sheathing as described

Cutting the Rafters
Though rafters crossing the roof opening can be left in place, may want
to remove them for an unobstructed view of the sky. It then have to
install double headers.
To remove a rafter, use a combination square to mark lines on the rafter
to be cut and the rafters on both sides of the opening at a right angle to
the cut edge of the roof sheathing; if the light shaft will be splayed or
angled, mark the lines at the desired angle. The lines on the rafters on the
sides of the opening indicate the placement of the headers.
The angle at which secure the headers to the rafters depends on the angle
of the light shaft of building.
Whether or not cut through any rafters, It need to frame the roof opening
with headers and possibly jack rafters so the sheathing is supported on all
four sides.

Installing Double Headers
After marked the angles of the headers, measure the distance between the
rafters, cut four pieces to the length measured.
To secure the headers to the rafters, nail double joist hangers to the
rafters using special hanger nails; make sure that the bottom of each
hanger is aligned with the bottom of the rafter, and the outer side of the
unshaped support is aligned with the line marking the header position.
If the header is not perpendicular to the top of the rafter, it may have to
cut away any part of the hanger that protrudes above the header. Or use
framing anchors instead of joist hangers.
Place a header into each facing pair of hangers and nail it to the cut end
of the rafter with 16-penny common nails. Put a second header into each
pair of hangers and nail it to the first header with 8-penny nails; space
the nails 6 inches apart and stagger them along the length of the piece.
Nail the joist hanger flanges to the headers. Repeat on the opposite side
of the opening.

Installing a Single Header
Follow the same procedure for measuring as described for double
headers; cut two, rather than four, pieces.
Installation is similar to that for a double header; use only one header for
each pair of single-size hangers.
Finishing the Framing
If roof opening doesn't fit exactly between rafters it need to install jack
rafters between the headers parallel to the rafters. Cut lumber the same
size as the rafters to fit between the two headers. Install and nail these
pieces in joist hangers nailed to the headers. Cut some plywood the same
thickness as the sheathing are removed so it fits on top of the headers and
jack rafters, if used. Nail it to the headers with 8-penny common nails.

Installing and Flashing the Skylight
If installing a self-flashing skylight, now ready to position the skylight.
But if skylight is a curb-mounted unit, need to flash the curb. The
skylight might come with a flashing system, as shown in the video. Be
sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully. This is the most
critical part of the skylight installations bad flashing job can result in a
leaky roof.
If decide to make own flashings, use lead, it's easier to work with than
copper or aluminum. With little effort, bend and solder lead and solder
the joints between flashings for a long lasting, watertight seal. Make
paper patterns of the flashings to fit the curb; form the pieces, and then
solder the joints in the saddle and apron flashings.
Unless worked with sheet metal and have
a propane torch or large soldering iron,
want to have a sheet metal shop to make
the flashing pieces.

Flashing a curb so it forms a watertight seal between
the outside and inside of our home requires special
care and thoroughness. If follow the instructions
below, and any guidelines from the manufacturer of
the skylight, we should be able to enjoy the
raindrops dancing on your skylight, instead of
dripping into your house.
Apron Flashing
Slide the saddle, or top flashing, underneath both shingles or shakes and
the roofing felt. Remove any nails that keep us from sliding the saddle all
the way up under the shingles. As we position the saddle, take care not to
puncture the roofing felt, as this can cause leaks.
Set the curb over the roof opening, sliding it up from the bottom until it's
perfectly aligned with the opening. Check the curb for squareness. Then,
using 16-penny nails, toenail the curb through the sheathing to the frame
(rafters and headers). Remove the corner braces from the curb.

Step Flashing
At the top of the sloping of the curb, place step flashing underneath
each end of the flange on the roof. Remove the skylight and liberally
cover the area within the lines with roofing cement.
Next, position the skylight over the opening, making sure all four
corners are aligned with the corners of the roof opening. Press the
flange firmly into the roofing cement and nail the flange to the roof
with the roofing nails. Cover the nail heads and the flange with a
generous amount of roofing cement.
If roof is surfaced with hot-mopped asphalt or with polyurethane foam,
you may want a roofing contractor to restore roof. It can replace
shingles or shakes; trim them as necessary to fit against the edge of the

Opening the Ceiling
After secured the skylight, cut, frame and finish the ceiling opening
any day, rain or shine. And can begin enjoying the light streaming in
through skylight even before completed framing and finishing the hole
in the ceiling.
Since planned and marked the ceiling as the first step in
installing skylight. cutting the opening is fairly
Cutting the Ceiling

Check Markings
Even though marking the corners and center of the ceiling opening
before cutting through the roof, it's a good idea to double-check
marking against both the framed roof opening and the angle of the light
Check the corner nails and replace any that are missing. Stretch chalk
line around the four nails and snap the line between each pair of nails
to mark the opening. Then remove the nails.

Marking the Cut
Before cut the opening, cover the floor and the furniture below with a
large tarp and drop cloths. Wear a painter's mask and goggles to protect
against the dust while cutting. Cut through wallboard (gypsum board)
with either a keyhole or reciprocating saw. Cut lath and plaster with a
reciprocating saw fitted with a coarse, wood-cutting blade.
When come to a joist, cut through only the wall board to prevent tearing
when the ceiling cutout is removed. Ceiling material is quite heavy, so
want to cut it out in small pieces if the area of the opening is larger than
conveniently handle it.
After the opening is cut, break off the wallboard and remove the
wallboard nails.

Cutting Ceiling Joists
Before cut the ceiling joists, it need to reroute any pipes, wiring or air-
conditioning ducts that cross the ceiling opening, if weren't able to plan
around them.
If have to cut one or more joists that are more than 30 inches from a wall
it need to support them before cut. Using 2 by 4 lumber, cut two pieces
long enough to span both the opening and two joists on each side of the
opening. Position the pieces at least 12 inches from the edges of the
opening, and fasten them with woodscrews to the joists. This will keep
the joists from shaking and jiggling when cut through them, and will
prevent nails in the wallboard from popping loose.
To cut joist, follow the instructions for cutting a roof rafter, with these
additional guidelines: if it planning a straight light shaft, cut the joist at a
right angle to the ceiling; mark the angle of cut for an angled or splayed
shaft with a straightedge or a length of string positioned between the
bottom of the joist and the roof opening. Be sure to allow for the headers
by measuring out from the opening.

Framing the Ceiling Opening
Using joist-hanger nails, nail the hangers
to the joists. Set one header into each facing
pair of hangers and nail it to the cut end of
the joist with 8-penny common nails. Fit
the second header into each set of hangers
and attach it to the first header with 16-
penny common nails driven in a staggered
pattern. Nail the joist hanger flanges to the
headers. Repeat on the opposite side of the
If ceiling opening doesn't fit exactly
between two joists, need to install
additional framing members parallel to the
joists, along the edge of the opening.

Building the Light Shaft
The light shaft directs light from the skylight on the roof to the
interior of home. The following pages describe how to frame,
insulate, and finish a light shaft.
Framing the Light Shaft
The frame for the light shaft not only provides a nailing surface for the walls, but also
joins the ceiling to the roof, giving support to both.
Measure the distance between the ceiling headers and the roof headers at every corner,
and at least every 16 inches in between. Cut the vertical studs to the measured lengths.
Unless your roof is flat and your light shaft straight, you'll need to cut one or both ends
of the studs at an angle.
If want lights in the shaft, position the studs to clear any electrical outlet or recessed
light fixtures plan to install.
Toenail the studs to the ceiling and roof headers with 8-penny nails. Make sure to install
two studs at each corner to provide nailing for the wallboard or other material used to
finish the shaft

Insulating the Light Shaft
For better energy efficiency plan on insulating the light shaft. If attic is
not insulated, may want to insulate it at the same time. Be sure to install
any electrical wiring before you insulate.
Caution: Remember to wear gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, a
painter's mask, and goggles when working with insulation.
Rolled insulation works best for the short, uneven lengths needed in a
light shaft.
Buy 6-inch-thick insulation in the width that will best fit between the
Measure a length of insulation to fit in each stud opening, and cut the
insulation with a utility knife guided by a straightedge. Place the
insulation between the studs with the vapor-barrier side toward the shaft
opening; staple the edge flaps to the studs.

Finishing the Light Shaft
How finish the light shaft is limited only by imagination. Here are
some ideas to get you started. Wallboard that is painted white or a
light color is one of the best finishes for reflecting light. Finishing
with wallboard and paint is economical, but takes time and skill for
good results.
If walls are paneled, they may want to finish the light shaft to match.
Taking Care of Skylight
Once they're installed, skylights require only a minimum of
maintenance and cleaning. Because of their shape, slope and location,
heavy rains wash away most of the dirt. Occasionally, need to clean
the inside - and the outside, too, if the rain doesn't do the job.

Caring for the Frame
Most skylight frames are made of aluminum (colored ones are anodized)
and require no care other than washing when clean the skylight glazing.
If we live by the ocean where the sail from the spray can eat into
aluminum, it 'll have to protect the frame with paint. If skylight frame has
a painted metal finish, check it annually, touching up any bare spots with
a paint recommended by the manufacturer.
Protecting and Preserving Plastic
Acrylic and polycarbonate are the two types of plastic generally used in
skylights. The cleaning and repair suggestions below apply to acrylic
and, for the most part, to polycarbonate.
If skylight is made from fiberglass, follow the manufacturers'
instructions for proper care of the glazing.

Cleaning Plastics
Plastic glazing is susceptible to scratches and abrasions, as well as to
damage by certain solvents. we'll want to observe some general
precautions when cleaning a plastic skylight:
Never use abrasive cleansers, abrasive pads, or gritty cloths.
Do not remove dirty by scraping with a sharp tool, such as a razor blade
or putty knife.
Do not clean with window cleaning fluids or strong solvents such as
gasoline, denatured alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, or acetone. They will
cause the plastic to craze with minute cracks.
To clean a plastic skylight, use either a solution of mild soap or detergent
and water or a weak solution of household ammonia and water (do not
use ammonia for polycarbonates.) Apply a soft cloth or cellulose sponge
and rinse well with clear water. To prevent water spots, blot dry with a
chamois or a damp cellulose sponge.

Protecting Plastic
To maintain the luster of plastic, protect it with a thin, even coat of
automobile polish (not cleaner polish) or floor or automobile wax
applied with a clean, soft cloth. Buff lightly and wipe with a clean, damp
cloth to remove static electricity, which attracts dirt.
To remove foreign material (protective paper,
glazing compound, caulking, roofing tar,
grease, or fresh oil paint) from acrylic, use
hexane, a good grade of naphtha, kerosene, or
methanol applied with a soft cloth. Use a good
grade of naphtha, isopropyl alcohol, or butyl
cellosolve on polycarbonate domes. Then
clean the skylight as described above

Plastic Repair
we can minimize or remove minor scratches and abrasions from plastic,
and often control cracks.
Minor scratches and abrasions can sometimes be obscured with
automobile wax applied as described above. If this method doesn't work,
try polishing the scratched area of the plastic with a good grade of
automobile cleaner polish on a soft cloth. The fine abrasive in the cleaner
polish will smooth the scratches, and the wax in the polish fills them,
reducing their visibility.
Major scratches should be repaired by a knowledgeable professional.
Cracks can be kept from lengthening - drill a 1/8 inch diameter hole at
each end of the crack and fill the holes with silicone sealant.

Looking after Glass
We can clean clear or coated glass either with commercial glass
cleaning solutions or with a weak solution of household ammonia,
mild soap, or detergent (if rinsed thoroughly) and water. Apply
with a sponge and dry with paper towels, a chamois, or, if the
glass is flat, a squeegee.
To prevent scratches, abrasions, and deterioration, never clean
coated, sun-control glass with abrasive cleansers, gritty sponges,
or metal objects such as razor blades or putty knives.

Tools and Materials Checklist
1. Level
2. Square
3. Crowbar
4. Tin Snips
5. Drill Bits
6. Caulking Gun
7. Hammer
8. Nail set
9. Chisel
10. Utility Knife
11. Extension Cord
12. Goggles
13. Painter's Mask
14. Combination Square
15. Chalk line
16. Sliding T-bevel
17. Tape
18. Circular Saw
19. Reciprocating Saw
20. Keyhole Saw
21. Plumb Bob

1. Skylight
2. Framing Lumber
3. Metal Flashing
4. Nails
5. Caulking
6. Wall Board
7. Framing Hangers
8. Sheathing Material
9. Roofing Material

¢ Does not fade carpet or furniture
¢ Evenly disperses light
¢ Improves attitudes of the winter blues
¢ Fits where traditional skylights don't
¢ Improve air quality by reducing molds and mildew
¢ Full spectrum lighting-the healthy choice
¢ Requires about 1/3 as much light as fluorescent lights
¢ Best light source for color rendering
¢ "No Mess" Installation in just a few hours
¢ No structural changes
¢ Pollution Free

"TUBULAR SKYLIGHT", Inc. is a forerunner in Passive Daylighting
Systems. Daylight has always been the preferred form of light: it is
abundant, high in quality, and free! But collecting and conveying it to
the right places at the right time - without also creating problems like
glare, cooling load, and UV - has been a challenge for architects and
lighting engineers. Now with TUBULAR SKYLIGHT those problems
are solved. We can literally turn off the electric lights throughout most
of the day and use free natural daylight for illumination. Thus saving
money as well as precious energy. Energy efficiency is the cornerstone
of our design philosophy. TUBULAR SKYLIGHT'S innovative design
is a breakthrough in natural lighting. It delivers as much light, more
economically, than a traditional skylight 10 times its size. Our back to
basic design technology is honored to be utilized by one of the U.S.
governments high technology facility, KENNEDY SPACE CENTER,
Florida. Here this perform a very important task in the simplest way

It is simplicity refined. At your roof, daylight enters a high impact
resistant clear UV stable acrylic dome. A unique adjustable galvalume
(up to 1O times more corrosive resistant than galvanized) flashing works
on a flat through an 8/12 pitched roof (other flashing available). Next, a
reflective tube (more reflective then a mirror) is installed from the roof
through the attic for up to 20 feet to the ceiling of the room where light is
needed. A patented thermoset adhesive process stops the separation of
the 95% reflective surface from the aluminum tubing. Because of three
unique sizes the tubing easily fits between rafters so no structural
changes are necessary. Then the insulator disk seals to the ceiling
creating a dead air space. A slightly curved double insulated translucent
white acrylic dome creates a diffuser lens. This diffuser lens then spreads
daylight evenly throughout the room where it is needed. Creating bright,
cheerful places quickly, easily and economically.

Skylight Installation Instructions
¢First decide approximately where you would like
your skylight located in your home.
¢Check that the attic space is clear of obstructions
above where you wish to locate the skylight.
¢Measure to the center (between joists) and tap a
small nail through the ceiling from the top. Then
check that you have the correct position for your
skylight from the inside of the room
¢Using the up-stand of the ceiling frame as a
template, mark the ceiling with a pencil, ensuring
that the small nail hole is at the center. (See figure

On the ceiling, cut along the pencil line with a key hole saw (see
figure 2). Remove and save cutout for step #9.
Insert the ceiling frame and attach it with the 1 1/2" screw and plastic
lugs provided. The plastic lugs are placed on the top side of the
ceiling, fasten the screws through the holes in the ceiling frame,
through the ceiling and into the plastic lugs and tighten. Finish off
with the plastic caps into the screw heads. (See figure 3)

From the attic, choose
the most direct route for the tubing to reach the roof, keeping in mind
that tube must fit between the best rafters. (Note: Also consider that
the skylights work best with southern exposure and that the shorter,
straighter, and tighter the tube is, the better the performance.
Skylights with tube lengths in excess of ten feet are not
Measure the center between the appropriate rafters and tap a nail
through the roof from underneath. Note: Make sure there is a clear
area of roof above your desired location.
Using the ceiling cutout (from step #5) as a template, mark a circle
on the roof surface around the base of the cutout. Be sure that the that
the nail hole is at the center of the desired area.
Using a reciprocating or jig saw, cut around the circle and remove the
section of unwanted roof material and sheathing. (See figure 4)

Attach the tubing to the skylight top frame by pulling the tube over the
stainless steel ring on the underside of the sky light frame. The four
stainless steel tabs should be bent out ward through the flexible tubing,
and bent into a hook shape to hold the wire. Be sure that two or three
strands of the wire skeleton of the tubing are above the tabs. Wrap
around the junction of the skylight and the flexi-tube three times with the
P.V.C. tape provided. Be sure to cover the tabs completely.
Measure down from the top of the roof surface to the top of the ceiling to
establish the length of the flexi-tube required. Remember to allow extra
for bends and angles in the tube.
Stretch the flexi-tube out and cut to the required length using a Stanley
knife and wire cutters.
Pull the loose end of the flexi-tube over the stainless steel lower ring and
attach it with the P.V.C. tape wrapped two or three times around the

¢ With the tubing and lower ring attached to the underside of the
skylight, slide the base into position of the roof. Ensure that the upper
portion of the sheet metal flashing is underneath both the existing roof
material and the underlying (felt). The lower portion of the sheet metal
flashing should be on top of the existing roof surface and fastened in a
similar manner to normal flashing requirements for the appropriate roof
type. Note: Re-install any pieces of the roofing material to cover the side
flashing removed during installation. (See figure 5)
Install vent and/or blank tabs into the top frame and secure the dome
with the four brass screws provided.
From inside the room, reach through the ceiling hole and pull the
stainless steel lower ring down into the ceiling frame. Attach it with the
four sheet metal screws provided. (See figure 6)

Install the prismatic diffuser.
Diffuser may be flexed slightly to
pass through ceiling opening and
rest on top side of ceiling frame.
Note: Prismatic side face down.
Note: Be sure to remove the plastic
protective film from the inside
surface of both the upper and lower
stainless rings.

Mechanical Specifications
Component and Description for Mechanical Evaluations
¢Transparent U.V. stabilized grade 1 acrylic dome; I.C.B.O. #1084.
¢Dome fixed with 4 non-corrosive screws.
¢Vent tabs, (vented or solid) interchangeable.
¢Luran S KR2854 black skylight base, ASTM tested; D638, D256, D792,
¢Base attachment (500-9 screws and 400-6 screws). Two continuous
caulking beads seal frame to roof flashing base.
¢26 G.A. pre-painted colorbond flat metal flashing. Available in pre-bent
form to take lead strip for tile roofs.
¢Mirror-finish stainless steel ring, 28-gauge with four bendable tabs for
tubing attachment.
¢Three continuous wraps of PVC duct tape.

¢Highly reflective, ultraviolet-proof quadruple laminate. It consists of
a double outer- layer of metallized polyester film with a double inner
layer of reinforced glass fiber filament. A yarn mesh aluminum foil
with coiled-spring wire skeleton is imbedded between the two layers.
UL 181 rated.
¢28-gauge mirror-finish stainless steel ring.
¢Four sheet metal screws attach stainless steel ring to ceiling frame.
¢White ABS injection molded ceiling frame.
¢K-12 prismatic acrylic diffusion panel.
¢Screws attach ring to ceiling with retainer blocks. Screw cover also
attaches (500-6 and 400-4).


The Use of Flexible Tubing in Sun Tunnel Skylights
One of the key components in The Sun
Tunnel Skylight system is fully flexible,
reflective tubing. This tubing is similar
in structural design to the tubing used
for many decades in the heating and air
conditioning industry and can be found
in commercial businesses, high-rise
buildings, hospitals, schools, and
residential homes throughout North
America and many other parts of the

Sun Tunnel has taken this time-proven technology for channeling
heat and cold, and added a space-age U.V.-proof liner to the inside
in order to channel sunlight efficiently through attics to dark rooms
all over the world. The clear dome on the roof is made from almost
totally U.V. resistant materials, eliminating harmful U.V. rays before
they can even reach the tubing, guaranteeing that the flexible tube
will perform for many years to come.
This flexible tubing makes The Sun Tunnel by far the most "user
friendly" and easy-to-install tubular skylight on the market today. The
ability to flex around almost any attic obstruction without the need for
expensive elbows or extensions means that Sun Tunnel Skylights can
be efficiently and economically installed in places no other skylight
can reach. Naturally, the shorter, tighter and straighter you install the
tubing, the better the performance, but Sun Tunnel Skylights are
installed every week in hard-to-reach areas, sometimes with 90-degree
bends in the tubing, and are still performing adequately.

Sun Tunnel has had a strong U.S. patent on its flexible tubing since the
beginning of our operations here in 1993, and is therefore the only
company offering this beneficial feature with its skylights. A rigid tube
skylight competitor, known as Sola-Tube, offers a 10" diameter skylight
in the U.S., and openly derides The Sun Tunnel's use of flexible tubing.
This same company, however, uses flexible tubing with the skylights it
markets in Australia, where it has proven to be a big seller for them, and
is found proudly displayed in their Australian showrooms (see the upper
right section of the photo.)
The new 22" diameter Sun Tunnel is the largest tubular skylight on the
market today and will brighten the largest rooms in your home. Just like
the tubing used in our other models, our 22" flexible tube passes all
ignition, flammability and smoke density testing requirements necessary
to meet National Building Codes standards across the United States. It
invite us to compare our Sun Tunnels for brightness, ease-of-installation,
and flexibility against any tubular skylight on the market. We think you'll
like our quality, customer service and honesty.

Fan-Attic Installation
¢Locate the area where you wish to install the Fan-Attic.
¢The southern side of your roof is the best place, since the Fan-Attic
works best in full sunlight.
¢Using a reciprocating or jig saw, cut a 13-inch diameter hole through
the roof material and sheathing, then remove the circular plug.
¢Try to center the hole between the roof rafters to ensure clearance on
the underneath side.

¢Slide the unit into position from the lower side of the roof.
¢Make sure that the upper portion of the flashing is underneath both the
existing roofing material and the underlayment (felt).
¢The lower portion of the flashing should be on top of the existing roof
¢Fasten in a similar manner to normal flashing requirements for the
appropriate roof type.
¢Reinstall any pieces of the roofing material to cover the sides of the
flashing that may have been removed during installation.

Installation Tips
Fan-Attic will work best in full sunlight. Southern exposure on the roof
is ideal.
Avoid installing under overhanging trees or other structures creating
Fan-Attic will also be most effective if installed as close as possible to
the top ridge as natural convection causes hot attic air to rise upwards.
The Fan-Attic should be used in conjunction with existing soffit/gable
vents to create a complete attic ventilation system. Your existing home
should already have some form of soffit or gable ventilation. If your attic
presently has no ventilation and The Fan-Attic will be the only form of
ventilation to our attic space, it's possible that negative pressure could be
created by removing the existing air while no outside air is coming in to
replace it. It's unusual for a home to be this airtight, but if so, this
problem can and should be overcome by the addition of soffit vents.

¢To ensure optimum performance, it recommend that
from time-to-time you clean the top of the solar panel
with warm soapy water and rinse off.
¢The fan motor is a brush type motor. Brushes may
need replacement after several years of operation.
This can be done from the underneath side with a
screwdriver in about five minutes. Replacement
brushes are available from your Sun Tunnel/Fan Attic

Tubular Skylights will add light to any room of home

John F. Kennedy Space Center
A Printing Organization
Webster Elementary School - Webster Florida

Skylight Problems:
Common problems : Skylights occasionally have problems:
Ceiling is damp around the opening (leaking): Leakage is the number
one problem. 90 percent of all leaks are caused by a "flashing" problem.
Flashing is a piece of metal that sits flush against a skylight opening and
sweeps away any water. Many leaks are slow, and you may not see them
for several years until the drywall next to the skylight starts to buckle.
Newer skylights are built in accordance with rugged construction
requirements. Still they can crack with impact, especially if they are
glass. If your skylight is in an area where it can be easily broken,
consider replacing it with a plastic, shatter-resistant version. These have
the added advantage of being lightweight and economical.

Some skylights can open a few inches to allow air circulation. They're usually
operated with a pole. Occasionally the gears that raise and lower the skylight
can get jammed.
Motor-controlled skylight isn't functioning properly: Some skylights can be
opened automatically with motors. And like all mechanical things, these motors
need occasional maintenance and repair. Your problem may also be electrical.
Manually operated shade isn't functioning properly: Many manufacturers have
designed shades to fit within the frame of their skylights. Most are opaque, and
can be opened and closed fully to give you maximum control over the amount
of light you let in. Sometimes the gears that operate the shades can get jammed.
Motor controlled shade isn't functioning properly: Motor-controlled shades are
a great option for skylights that are very high and out of reach. However, these
motors need maintenance and repair from time to time. The problem may also
be electrical.
Modern, top-of-the-line skylights that are carefully installed or repaired by a
Service Professional can be expected to remain watertight for a long time.
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