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THORIUM REACTORS.ppt (Size: 1.34 MB / Downloads: 167)
Â¢ A Nuclear power station uses nuclear energy for generating electrical energy.
Â¢ This power station is generally located far from populated areas.
Â¢ This kind of power station can be used to produce large amounts of electrical
Â¢ Now a days fuel used in nuclear power plant is Uranium, but it has lots and
lots of disadvantages.
What can be a remedy to all these concerns?
Â¢ During the early years of nuclear energy, from 1950s to mid
1970s, there was considerable interest worldwide to develop
Thorium fuels and cycles in order to supplement Uranium
Â¢ In mid 1960s and 80s, several experimental and prototype
power reactors were successfully operated using Thorium fuels.
PROPERTIES OF THORIUM
Â¢ More abundant in nature
Â¢ It can be used as a nuclear fuel through breeding to uranium-233.
Â¢ Slightly radioactive metal.
Â¢ Th-232 decays very slower than uranium isotopes.
Â¢ Powered thorium metal will often ignite spontaneously in air & should be
THORIUM AS A NUCLEAR FUEL
Â¢ longer fuel cycles.
Â¢ Increased proliferation resistance.
Â¢ Less waste.
Â¢ Slightly radioactive
Â¢ High burnup and improved waste form characteristics.
Â¢ They have many physical & chemical properties which improve reactor
Â¢ Available resources.
GENERATION IV TECHNOLOGY
The Generation IV technologies have set demanding sustainability goals,
including more efficient use of fuel, less waste and better economic performance, as
well as improved safety and reliability, and enhanced proliferation resistance and
Â¢ No pressure vessel required
Â¢ Liquid fuel requires no expensive fuel fabrication and qualification
Â¢ Smaller power conversion system
Â¢ Factory built-modular construction
Â¢ Smaller containment building needed
Â¢ Simpler operation
- No re-fueling shut down
- Significantly lower maintenance
- Significantly smaller staff
Â¢ Significantly lower capital costs
Â¢ Lower regulatory burden
Â¢ No grid interfacing costs:
Â¢ Minimum line losses
Â¢ Production of long lived nuclear waste.
Â¢ Safety issues and possibilities of nuclear accidents.
Â¢ Unavoidable production of fissile material (239 Pu), which can be diverted to
Â¢ Some aspects of thorium cycle require specific design and operation features
for the reactor and fuel cycle facilities (reactor operation, fuel processing.
CHALLENGES & STRATEGIES
Â¢ A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan its economy on the basis
of large scale import of energy resources or energy technology
Â¢ Indigenous development of energy technologies based
on domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us.
Â¢ Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of the total electric power
required 50 years from now, in order to limit energy import dependence in percentage
terms at about the current level.
Future generations will want to depend more on this type of electricity
generating powerstation due to fast increasing depletion of fuels such as coal. There
are a number of construction project and implimentations currently underway for this kind of
powerstation arround the world.
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